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By Vikram Thakur ECE 7th Sem 803043

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BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED” is abbreviated as BSNL It is the oldest and one of the lagest cellular service provider in India. It is fourth largest departement of TeleCommunication Company in Asia and seventh in world today. Above more than 3 laces employees, officer and engineers working in BSNL at present.

BSNL Provides the Services as: .

•It was established in August 1984 •To design and develop state of the art technologies.COMPANY PROFILE •BSNL •C. particularly of national importance in strategic sectors and rural areas .DOT •The Center for Development of Telematics (C-DOT) is the telecom technology development center of the government. products and solutions •To meet the telecom needs of India.

. • These manual telephone exchanges suffered from some disadvantages. Introduced “ C-DOT ” exchange in India. These exchanges replaced by electro mechanical exchange. • In 1984 PITHROTHA LTD. To overcome these an automatic exchange was introduced in this system.BSNL + C.DOT • Previously BSNL electro mechanically exchanges for use in India namely Strowger type exchange. cross bar exchange were there.

Making a telephone call .

the telephone number of called party. the caller exchange set up the connection over the telephone network to the called party’s exchange. the caller uses a rotary or a push button dial mounted either on the handset or on the base to enter a sequence of digits.Make a telephone call A telephone call starts when the caller lifts the handsets of the base. determines the called party is in the same exchange or a different ones. . If the called party is in different exchange from the caller. The switching equipment from the exchange removes the dial tone from the line after the first digit is received and after receiving the last digit. It’s the general process a Telephone Exchange do During call. If party is in the same exchange or a different ones. burst of ringing current is applied to the called party’s line. If the called is in the same exchange. Once the dial tone is heard.

Architecture of Exchange    A Main Distribution Frame (MDF) Modules (Computer Room) Power Plant .

• The MDF is a termination point within the local Telephone Exchange where exchange equipment and terminations of Local Loops are connected by jumper wires. • The MDF usually holds Central Office protective devices including heat coils and functions as a test point between a line and the office.• It is a signal Distribution Frame for connecting equipment (Inside Plant) to cables and Subscriber Carrier equipment (Outside Plant). . • Jumper used in MDF is a twisted wired pair.

Fig: A Practical Main Distribution Frame .

Architecture of Exchange    A Main Distribution Frame (MDF) Modules (Computer Room) Power Plant .

C.DOT exchange has Four Modules • Base Module Central Module Administrative Module Input Output Module • • • .

Provision for local switching Unit(RSU) as well as in case of Single Base Module Exchange It is of two types: 1. Single Base Modules(SBM) 2. Digital Tones. Provision of special circuits for call processing support e. Communication with the AM via the CM for administrative(i.Base Module The Basic functions of a base modules are:• • Analog to digital conversion of all signals on analog lines and trunks. MF/DTMF Senders/receivers. Call processing ) functions.e. Interface to digital trunks and digital subscriber. • • • • Switching the calls between terminals connected to the same Base Module.g. announcement. Multi Base Module(MBM) .

Fig General frames Diagram of Base module .

• communication between Base Module and Administrative Modules.Central module Central module is responsible for • space switching of inter-Base Module calls. • clock distribution and network synchronization. CM Hardware is distributed in following frames : Bus Terminal Unit (BTU) Frame Space Switch Unit (SSU) Frame Space Switch Controller Unit (SCU) Administrative Processor Unit (APU) .


Administration and maintenance function are supervised by the AP. All the global resource like trunks. Time slots etc are managed by the A.Administrative Module Status of all module of the exchange is maintained by the AP and whenever a problem is reported required action is initiated to clear the problem. . In a multimodule exchange all the call processing. Directory to equipment number translation for the establishment of a call is performed by AP All global data is managed by the AP.P.

) Perform directory to equipment no. Administrative Processor (AP) somewhat similar to BP. Manage all the global resource (like trunks. translation for the established of a call. Initiate whenever a problem is reported required action to clear the problem. diagnostic of faulty units and put in service units which are out of service etc. Communication to ADP. are initiated and supervised by the AP.Function of APU :             All administrative function in the system Interaction with SSC through central message switches CMS(A. Switch over of copies.ts etc. Connects of exchange to the operator through IOP.B) (SSC/BM to IOP via AP). collects code and data from IOP and send it to corresponding BM’s. . During initialization of the multimode exchange AP gather initialization request from different BMs. Handle the man-machine communication. Maintain status of all modules of the exchange.

Architecture of Exchange    A Main Distribution Frame (MDF) Modules (Computer Room) Power Plant .

POWERPLANT As we know that. the power is the main source or any organization.these are the instant sources of the power as soon as power is gone off. . The main parts of the power room are: Batteries: . However. Even if the power supply gone off. as soon as the power supply is gone off. even a microsecond delay will cause the loss of data. then what is source? No one think on this that the telephone is always plays its role in the human life. but there are also some instruments which cannot withstand with this type of power supply. That is the first requirement of any organization is the input.the UPS must give supply to the computer. It is the case of E-10B exchange. UPS (Uninterrupted Power Supply):. As we know there is some equipment which can withstand any type of power supply. Thus there must be adjustment source of power. The main source of this exchange is AC supply.

we have an engine to generate the power supply.the main use of this system is to change AC mains to DC and vice versa as required by the parts of exchange. They are of 885 KVA. this room controls the supply of the engine. Engine Room:-we know that the batteries are the instant source of supply but we cannot use it for much larger time. thus for this. .Inverter and Converter Unit: . Thus.

Conclusion I would like to conclude this training as a very great and enriching experience to interact with the interesting field in the name of “ C.Routing uses the destination information from digit analysis and screening information origination to select the terminating trunk group or line. .It uses the charging information from routing to expand the charging data into a formate usable by call accounting process. · Charging : . · Routing/Screening:. and passes the dialed digits to a destination for each call.Dot BSNL Exchange”. Thus the all things which occurs in telephone Exchange is Origination : .It interprets the digits it receives from origination . selects the digit analysis tables. Termination Processor is different for calls destined for lines and call destined for trunks.Origination begins when the subscriber line goes off hookor incoming trunks seized. · Termination : . · Digit Analysis: . It receives the incoming digits. and determines the screening information for this call.The last step in call processing is termination.

Thanks .