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An Orientational Presentation by

F. Saruchera (Mr.)

Chinhoyi University of Technology
Department of Business Management & Entrepreneurship October 18, 2012

Ground Rules of the Workshop:
Maximum cooperation  Notes-taking  Cell phones on “silent” OR “switched off”  Minimum movements  Meaningful contributions/questions

Aims and objectives of the Presentation.

To provide the prospective researcher with the requisite skills needed in conducting both academic and scientific researches.  To inculcate the spirit of engaging in problemsolving researches which are vital in both academic and commercial spheres.  To provide a firm foundation upon which students can confidently conduct their current and future research projects and /or assignments.  To create a complete astute graduate armed with both theoretical as well practical knowledge in research and its application in business and everyday life.

diligent and systematic process of enquiry to discover.  . 2006). research refers to the collection of information on particular subject matter.  An active.Flashback: What is Research? According to Sanders et al (2003). interpret and revive facts (Trochim.

Research is… Active – need for an active researcher who must be in touch with all the relevant stakeholders affecting or being affected by the research  Diligent – the research must give out the best possible results  An enquiry and a discovery  A SYSTEMATIC PROCESS  .

Research as a systematic process 1 2 • Define Research problem or question • Decide on information sources and collection strategy • Locate your resources • Gather your data 3 4 5 6 • Organize your data. write up • Analyze & evaluate your write-up .

# Identification of gaps for further research. # Discovering new knowledge frontiers.Why research? # Solving society‟s or organization's problems.** # Identification of new opportunities. . #Enable management to make informed decisions.

 It is the responsibility of the researcher to select the topic and to then discuss the merits of the chosen topic with a subject specialist or project supervisor before writing the research proposal. it is imperative to select a topic that is suitable and relevant to the subject field or discipline in which the researcher is registered. SELECTING A RESEARCH TOPIC HAVING IDENTIFIED THE RESEARCH PROBLEM.  The selection of a topic should depend on a student‟s short. and it should provide lasting intellectual stimulation  .  The student should find the topic interesting and worthwhile.and medium-term career plans.

Do I possess the necessary skills and do I have interest in the research area? Are these sustainable? What‟s the risk(s) involved? – consider sensitivity of information required.g. organisations etc    . supervisors / mentors. there must be text books and journal literature available on the topic..e.the topic must fall into a broad scholarly field. i.   Assessing the feasibility of a proposed Research Topic: Considerations ASK YOURSELF: Does my topic have enough scope and depth? Is sufficient information available? . nature of support you anticipate from influential parties. Time availability? – avoid too wide & unmanageable topics e. Focusing on the international market.

Cont.. # Fifteen words or less are normally sufficient. #The title should be concise while unambiguously reflecting the exact topic of the research project / dissertation. . # Do not use single word titles for formal research writing.

 Current. In summary.# The more restricted the area of the investigation. the more the researcher needs to describe it adequately in the title. the title must be:  Relevant. .  Appropriate. and  Sensibly demarcated. #The title must be linguistically correct.

Subject availability Be sure that the type of subject (research unit) required is available. . Relevance/Topicality Research must be relevant. ask the questions: So what? Who will benefit? Relevance and topicality are often indicated by the abundance of recent literature. although this does not necessarily mean there is practical/economic/social value. Project difficulty Pick a simple but sound experiment to develop research skills.Important considerations     Time limitations Time required for the completion of the project must be taken into account. To test the topicality of the research.

but it must increase and/or consolidate existing knowledge... Funds for running costs must be available. Cost Feasibility : Assess feasibility within respect to cost considerations. Motivation.      Originality The topic must be original within reason.unless you can fully justify the gap . AVOID OVER-RESEARCHED AREAS – e.. service quality. Technical Expertise.g.. Internet business. The research need not necessarily generate radically new knowledge. Testability Must be able to turn the problem into operationally definable or measurable terms.Cont. CRM.. Staff turnover.Expertise in the field must be available (supervisor/promoter).

WRITING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL (RP)… .

how (research methodology) etc  Acts as a guide to the research project  Demonstrates competences of the researcher  Helps in obtaining financial support  .RP:-What it is – why? RP – a written plan / outline for an intended research project  Helps in planning of the overall project – puts some discipline for the researcher through ensuring that all stages are considered & an allowance is made for everything  Gives a brief insight into what the researcher intends to do. why (rationale).

COMPONENTS/STEPS Identify / establish the research problem  Develop a Research Topic (as per guidelines given)  Title page   See Sample Research Title Page.doc .

1991: 96).  lay the broad foundation for the problem that leads to the study. and  reach out to a specific audience (Creswell. so that readers can understand how it is related to other research” (Wilkinson. Its purpose is to establish a framework for the research. the writer should  create reader interest in the topic.  A description of the proposal structure may also be outlined .  place the study within the larger context of the scholarly literature.1. 1994:42).0 Introduction  Provides readers with the background information for the research reported in the paper.  In an introduction.

market or industry leading to the research problem This is the section that contextualizes the question and supplies the history and terminology so that the reader will be better able to follow the pages to come.1. It is often more engaging to use a topic-specific title for a section (subtitles) on background information. market changes etc  Paradigm shift or changes in the economy. e.g. “A General Overview of the…” “Pre-advent of…” “the Paradigm Shift…” etc . consumer education. economic recession.g.1 Background to the Research Problem    It is necessary to provide the reader with some measure of background information relevant to the topic including:  Broad environmental factors contributing to the research problem  E.

that the reader can easily recognize it.  It is important in a proposal that the problem stands out .1. 1994: 50). or practice that leads to a need for the study” (Creswell.  . theory.  Clearly and briefly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry.2 Problem Statement “A problem might be defined as the issue that exists in the literature. including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. based on the background given.  A problem statement should be presented within a context. and that context should be provided and briefly explained.

Cont…. State the problem in terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who is relatively uninformed in the area of your investigation.  . and without resorting to hyper speaking.  Effective problem statements answer the question “Why does this research need to be conducted?”  If a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly and concisely. then the statement of the problem will come off as ambiguous and diffuse.

# Must closely relate to the research topic and should naturally flow from the problem statement. # One should guard against listing too many objectives and # an appropriate choice of words should be made.3 Research Objectives # Objectives must be SMART. # They highlight what the research seeks to achieve. # These are broadly-stated statements of intent. .1.

For example…
To find out…  To design…  To establish…  To compare…  To evaluate…  To establish…  To determine…  To suggest / recommend…**

1.4. Research questions/Hypotheses


• • •

Must be closely linked to the objectives Research questions are better formulated around respective objectives*** Questions must be relevant. Always ask the question, “ What do I seek to achieve with this question?” The wording of the questions must be clear and unambiguous. Remember that there is a direct relationship between your research objectives, research questions and literature review.

• Problem statement • Research Objectives • Research Questions • Literature Review • Data Collection

Hypotheses (Optional) A proposition formulated for empirical testing to determine if it is true or false  An overriding question or main objective of the research – which may be put in form of a statement or question  Hypotheses are tentative answers or “intelligent guesses”  Can be written in “null” or “alternate” form  If you are interested in using hypotheses. kindly liaise with Statistics specialists  .

It relates a study to the larger. 1995). Literature review shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported (Fraenkel & Wallen. . ongoing dialogue in the literature about a topic.5 Literature Review      “The review of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem. filling in gaps and extending prior studies (Marshall & Rossman. It “frames” the problem earlier identified. 1990). It provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study.1. 1989). as well as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings. It should establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer is knowledgeable about the area” (Wiersma.

In a proposal. the literature review is generally brief and to the point.Cont.  All work cited must be always acknowledged and referenced  Use of the Harvard System is recommended**  Internet sources should be completely acknowledged (full web address NOT just: google.  Demonstrate to the reader that you have a comprehensive grasp of the field and are aware of important recent substantive and methodological developments.com.com etc)**  WIKIPEDIA is NOT a refereed source – it‟s jus a compilation of people‟s opinions. search. Be judicious in your choice of exemplars. not edited…we DON‟T ACCEPT IT!! ..

# It should include : The research design. sampling .1. . population definition. and the justification thereof. data collection approaches. research instruments and data analysis procedures to be used.6 Research Methodology # The methodology section is really the heart of the research proposal / final research.

the concerned organization / industry and / or to the public / society as a whole  .1. or methodological significance. revise. theory.  Think about implications i. revisions. curricula. or extensions may have either substantive. Note that such refinements. practice.  Justify why the research is important to the researcher. policy.e. theoretical. counseling. educational interventions. how results of the study may affect scholarly research.7 Justification/Significance/Rationale of the Study Indicate how your research will refine. or extend existing knowledge in the area under investigation.

 Challenges faced during the research  Should we then anticipate problems/challenges during the proposal stage?  Limitations.  Boundaries of the research  Should be specific and justified . when identified. that is.  A delimitation addresses how a study will be narrowed in scope. how it is bounded. should normally have a prescription of solutions devised in overcoming the challenge.1.8 Limitations and Delimitations  A limitation is an impediment to the study.

data collection.1. This will include time taken to conduct background research. data analysis and report writing.  May make use of the Gantt Chart – Sample Gant Chart.9 Research Outline/Plan  A detailed timetable scheduling all aspects of the research should be produced.doc . questionnaire or interview schedule development.

1.  . although some Promoters will want to know that you have thought carefully about what resources are needed and from where you expect to obtain these.10 Budget If you‟re applying to a funding body you need to think about what you will need for your research and how much this is likely to cost.  If you are a student you may not have to include this section in your proposal.

as to be (used) in the research project e.g. drug store or the government health department.11 Definition of Terms The Researcher defines the key technical terms to be used (used) in the research  Should be contextually defined i. .1.e.   Consumer – anyone who buys and/or uses pharmaceutical products. could be a patient.

1.12 References    Only references cited in the text are included in the reference list Internet sources should have full web addresses and should include the date(s) when the site(s) was / were accessed WE USE the Harvard Referencing style. .

Volume. Prentice-Hall. Publisher. Title. (1996). Title & Edition. India Be arranged ascending in Alphabetical order  Journals should include Authors. Issue Number and year of publication  . Control and Implementation: 9th Edition.The Harvard system of Referencing In-text referencing – Author‟s Surname & Year only…include page(s) in cases of direct quotations / Figures. Marketing – Planning. Country of Publisher   Kotler P.  Author(s)‟ name(s) [Surname first] (year).

(1996).zw/books/about/Delivering_ Quality_Service_A_Pharmaceuti.Referencing Examples: Kotler P. 1.co. 2012 . 1.google. Vol.html?id=9igsLgEA CAAJ&redir_esc=y – Accessed July 15. and Lauronen. J. pp. No. J.  Internet Sources:   http://books. (2007) Fostering commercialization of innovation in small high technology firms. Marketing Management: 10th Edition Prentice Hall.92–108. International Journal of Techno-entrepreneurship. India  Pellikka.

the research proposal becomes a useful background for preparing Chapter 1 of the final research (with minor adjustments.Conclusion If presented well and comprehensively. especially on tenses)  It also becomes a background to the whole research project  .

THE RESEARCH PROJECT .

THE RESEARCH PROJECT It synthesizes pronouncements made by the research proposal. the assumption being that the research has already been carried out  . the final research write-up (draft and final) should make use of PAST TENSE.  Organized in interlinking chapters. making the theoretical proposal practical.  While the proposal makes use of future tenses.

# „Funnel approach‟ to writing is used. # The conclusion “closes” the chapter and interlinks the next chapter. serve for Chapter 5 (whose thrust is on Conclusions and Recommendations) # It is not unusual to open chapter introductions with some relevant witty quotations. .Cont. # Each chapter begins with an introduction and ends with a conclusion..

Chapter 1: General Introduction to the Research        Introduction Background to the Study Statement of the Problem / Problem Statement Research Objectives Research Questions  Research Proposition / Hypotheses (optional)     Justification / Significance of the study Assumptions (if any) Limitations Research Scope / Delimitations Definition of Terms Conclusion .

delimitations etc may be subject to amendments as the research sails through. questions.  .Chapter 1 is an edited version of about 95% of a well-designed Research Proposal  Normally recommended to make Ch. 1 writeup lastly since research objectives.  Gives the impression of the whole research so should be carefully thought of and logically arranged.

Chapter 2 : Literature review A review of the literature is a compilation of the research that has been published on a topic by recognized scholars and researchers. c) Identify gaps or areas of controversy in the literature.  purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on the research topic  A literature review should do the following: a) Be organized around and related to the research question(s) raised b)Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known. d)Formulate questions that need further research.  .

what is already known?) and where new research is needed (i. Providing a solid theoretical foundation for the proposed study (related to “what is already known?”) 3.e. Substantiating the presence of the research problem (related to “what is needed to be known?”) 4. Justifying the proposed study as one that contributes something new to the BoK .Why conduct Literature Review?? 1. Helping the researcher understand the existing body of knowledge (BoK) including where excess research exists (i.e. what is needed to be known?) 2.

.         Hart (1998) contributes additional reasons for reviewing the literature.Cont. identifying relationships between ideas and practices. synthesizing and gaining a new perspective. enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary. . understanding the structure of the subject. discovering important variables relevant to the topic. relating ideas and theory to applications. establishing the context of the topic or problem. including: distinguishing what has been done from what needs to be done.

Electronic data bases (watch out. Recommended literature from `experts‟ in the field (likely to be highly selective. Model papers (may also be `star‟ papers that are deemed exemplary within their field and may provide a benchmark for your own study). as they can be overwhelming and incomplete) . so be cautious).Literature review sources       Sources most relevant for preparation of reviews Review papers or books that survey a topic (may indicate a dominant approach rather than what is relevant for you) Star papers that are repeatedly cited (may indicate a dominant approach rather than what is relevant for you).

Close reading – attentive and repeated reading. .Forms of reading      Rapid scanning – form an impression of the potential relevance of the paper – high. Sometimes the most revealing and insightful points can be tucked away in the references. low. introduction and conclusion only. doubtful or potential Selective reading – paying attention to only those sections. chapters or pages that contain relevant material Top and tailing – reading of abstract. perhaps as a basis for deciding whether to undertake rapid scanning or close reading of the entire paper Notes/ Bibliography reading – reading the references or the footnotes to gain a quick sense of where the author is `coming from‟.

..”..(Asser.e. “argues. “”postulates.Important points in Ch.”. “asserts.. quote it indirectly i.”. 2      ALL works cited must be acknowledged. a serious academic crime! Acknowledgement of authors is usually introduced by use of words such as. through the secondary source e. 2012:123) For Author‟s work cited by another authority. Author X (19XX) “says.” Direct quotations should normally include page numbers: “………….. “adds.”.”. otherwise it is considered PLAGIARISM.g. avoid monotonous phrases like…”According to….. “Saunders (1990) in Garth (2000) is of the opinion that…” .” etc Be creative in use of these words. …tends to differ.

g: Sarchaz et al (2012) propose … Use relevant past Empirical Studies Tables and Diagrams (Figures) should be systematically and fully labeled (with Title. Source.      For works by up to three (3) Authors. followed by “et al”. including page numbers where necessary) Tables: label on top / above the table Figures: Label beneath the Figure  This applies for all Tables/Figures throughout the research project . the first (principal) Author need be mentioned. NB:Take note of the plural(s) For more that three Authors. the names (surnames) of all the 3 should be mentioned in the text. which means “and others” e.

Time. ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research. data collection approaches. money. feasibility. population definition.  Each aspect of Research methodology used/applied should be justified otherwise is considered as part of literature (hence should be acknowledged) . research instruments and data analysis procedures to be used. sampling .  It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do.Chapter 3: Research Methodology  The methodology section is really the heart of the research project  It should include : The research design.

diagrams etc. charts. meaningful and appropriate interpretation  Strictly Address Research Objectives!  .  Use simple statistical data analysis techniques such as graphs.Chapter 4: Data Presentation.  Ensure accuracy. – ensure VARIETY!  This helps to convey meaning in a simple way which can be understood by laymen. Analysis and Interpretation Analyse the gathered data to extract information needed for decision making.

 The chapter must take a retrospective view to establish whether the objectives of the study were achieved  Recommendations are generally words of informed advice directed towards the sponsors of the research or the company one is researching on…based on literature review and research findings.Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process.  Recommendations for further research  . how good the measurement was to reflect the real world and what more could have affected the results. It has to be based on the validity and reliability of the measurement. not just because the researcher got the expected result.

.Chapter 6: The Entrepreneurial  The Thrust centered on one of the key Chapter is thrusts of the University – Entrepreneurship!  Outline and describe the business opportunities that exist in the sector/industry/organisation under research  May zoom down to one entrepreneurial project you wish to undertake. with justification  Outline the challenges that exist. recommending a relevant business model that could be used in successful running of the entrepreneurial project.

( breadth of research)  The reader will typically review the list of references to determine whether you have consulted the more prominent works in the field.References Every citation made in the body of your dissertation must appear in the list of references.  Know that unlike a bibliography. which may include titles that are not directly referred to in the text. The preferred way of organizing your references is alphabetically by author surname  Refer to Proposal‟s presentation for more…  . every item in your list of references must be referred to in the body of the thesis.

 The following materials are appropriate: Original scales or questionnaires. If an instrument is copyrighted.  .  Official letters of permission to conduct research.  Cover letters sent to appropriate stakeholders. permission in writing to reproduce the instrument from the copyright holder or proof of purchase of the instrument.  Sample of informed consent forms.Appendices  Contains materials which may otherwise interrupt the general flow of the dissertation.  Interview protocols / Guide(s).

Regulatory Requirements & General Guidelines . Research Supervision Acknowledgement / Approval Form – as per given format 3. no paragraphs! 1. Acknowledgements 5. Should be 1 page.Title page – as per given format. Figures and Appendices 6.brief but comprehensive summary of the research project. Abstract** . 2. Dedication 4. Table of Contents – should include lists of Tables.

5  Labeling of Figures and Tables – ALL should be labeled…HOW?  Page numbering – Center bottom of each page from Chapter 1 (Numeric)  For preliminary pages. via the assigned Supervisor  Should be signed by the Supervisor . spiral bound to be submitted to the Department. use Roman Numerals. still on Bottom centre  2 final copies (one side printing). General presentation :–  Font type – Times New Roman  font size – Font 12  spacing – 1.

falsification & forgery .RESEARCH ETHICS…  Plagiarism  Privacy & confidentiality  Unauthorised access  Violation of the Non-Disclosure Agreement  Fabrication.

2013 . 2013 May 31. 2012 November 16. 2012 May 10.Important Dates…2012/3 Research Project Calendar Event / Activity Proposal Submission & VIVA (come along with 2 copies) Research Project Supervisor Allocation First Draft Project Submission Final Project Submission Date November 13.

 Eat properly at consistent times  Trust in Devine Power  Always ensure you save your work and have as many back-ups as possible to avoid unnecessary stress & disappointments! .Remember: Be Health-Conscious!! the NEWSTART (8 natural)  Remember Doctors  Don’t overwork yourself – take time to rest  Drink lots of water : MashWest is generally hot.

Upcoming Presentations…  Research Ethics Managing your Research & Supervision Getting the best out of your Research…After the Research Project. then what?  Keep checking the Notice Board!   .

THANK YOU FOR BEING ATTENTIVE!! Wishing you the best in all your endeavors!  MAY YOU BE RICHLY BLESSED! .