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# Network Theorems

Circuit analysis
Mesh analysis
Nodal analysis
Superposition
Thevenins Theorem
Nortons Theorem
Delta-star transformation
An active network having two terminals A and B
can be replaced by a constant-voltage source
having an e.m.f V
th
and an internal resistance
R
th
.
The value of V
th
is equal to the open-circuited
p.d between A and B.
The value of R
th
is the resistance of the network
measured between A and B with the load
disconnected and the sources of e.m.f replaced
by their internal resistances.
Networks to illustrate Thevenin theorem
V
R
2
R
R
1
R
3
A
B
R
2
R
th
R
1
R
3
A
B
V
R
2
V
th
R
1
R
3
A
B
V
th
R
R
th
A
B
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3 1
3
R R
V
I
R
+
=
3 1
3
R R
VR
V
th
+
=
3 1
3
3
R R
VR
V
R
+
=
Since no current in R
2
, thus
Refer to network (b), in R
2
there is not complete circuit, thus no
current, thus current in R
3
And p.d across R
3
is
3 1
3 1
2
R R
R R
R R
th
+
+ =
R R
V
I
th
th
+
=
Thus current in R

(refer network (d))
Refer to network (c) the resistance at AB
R
3
=10O
R
1
=2O
R
2
=3O
E
1
=6V E
2
=4V
C
D
A B
R
1
=2O
R
2
=3O
E
1
=6V E
2
=4V
C
D
A B
V
I
1
A
R R
I 4 . 0
3 2
2 4 6
3 1
1
=
+
=
+

=
( ) V V 2 . 5 2 4 . 0 6 = =
Calculate the current through R
3
Solution
With R
3
disconnected as in figure below
p.d across CD is E
1
-I
1
R
1
continue
R
1
=2O
R
2
=3O
C
D
A B
r
r=1.2O
R
3
=10O
C
D
V=5.2V
I
O =
+

= 2 . 1
3 2
3 2
r
A I 46 . 0
10 2 . 1
2 . 5
=
+
=
To determine the internal resistance we
remove the e.m.f s
Replace the network with V=5.2V
and r=1.2, then the at terminal CD,
R
3
, thus the current

Determine the value and direction of the current in BD, using
(a) Kirchoffs law (b) Thevenin theorem
A
B
C
D
E=2V
10O
40O
20O
15O
30O
I
1 I
1
-I
3
I
3
I
2
I
2
+I
3
( )
3 1 1
30 10 2 I I I + =
3 1
30 40 2 I I =
Solution
(a) Kirchoffs law
Using K.V.L in mesh ABC + the voltage E

( ) ( )
3 1 3 2 3
30 15 _ 40 0 I I I I I + + =
3 2 1
40 20 10 0 I I I + =
Similarly to mesh ABDA
For mesh BDCB

3 2 1
85 15 30 0 I I I + + =
..(a)
(b)
..(c)
3 1
460 90 0 I I + =
3 1
111 . 5 I I =
Continue
Multiplying (b) by 3 and (c) by 4and adding the two expressions,
thus

3 2 1
120 60 30 0 I I I + =
mA A I 5 . 11 0115 . 0
3
= =
Since the I
3
is positive then the direction in the figure is
correct.
3 2 1
340 60 120 0 I I I + + =
Substitute I
1
in (a)
continue
A
B
C
D
E=2V
10O
20O
15O
30O
By Thevenin Theorem
V V
143 . 1
15 20
20
2 =
+
=
V V
BD
643 . 0 5 . 0 143 . 1 = =
V V
AB
5 . 0
30 10
10
2 =
+
=
P.D between A and B (voltage divider)
P.D between A and D (voltage divider)
P.D between B and D
continue
A
B
C
D
10O
20O
15O
30O
r
16.07O
0.643V
10O
O =
+

57 . 8
15 20
15 20
O = + = 07 . 16 57 . 8 5 . 7 r
For effective resistance,
O =
+

5 . 7
30 10
30 10
A I 0115 . 0
10 07 . 16
643 . 0
3
=
+
=
Substitute the voltage, resistance r and 10W as in figure below
D to B from 5 . 11 mA =
10O parallel to 30 O
20O parallel to 15 O
Total
E
R
S
R
L
I
L
s
S
R
E
I =
S
L s
s
R
R R
R
E
L s
L
I
R R
R
R R
E
I
s
L s
s

+
= =
+
=
+
Another of expressing the current I
L
Where I
S
=E/R
S
is the current would flow in a short circuit
across the source terminal( i.e when R
L
is replaced by short
circuit)
Then we can represent the voltage source as equivalent
current source
E
R
S
I
S
R
S
1A
5O
15O
5O
R
s
V
o
V V
o
15 15 1 = =
20 15 5 = + =
s
R
Calculate the equivalent constant-voltage generator for the
following constant current source
V
o
Current flowing in 15O is 1 A, therefore
Current source is opened thus the 5 W and 15 W are in series, therefore
Node 1
5O
4V
reference
node
V
2
Node 2
6V
8O
15O
12O
10O
V
1
I
1
I
2
I
4
I
5
I
3
4V
5O
5O
0.8A
6V
12O
12O
0.5A
Analysis of circuit using constant current source
From circuit above we change all the voltage sources to current sources
A
R
V
I 5 . 0
12
6
= = = A
R
V
I 8 . 0
5
4
= = =
continue
Node 1
reference
node
V
2
Node 2
8O
15O
10O
V
1
I
2
I
4
I
3
0.8A
0.5A 12 O
5O
I
1
I
5
10 15 5
8 . 0
2 1 1 1
V V V V
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
12
1
10
1
8
1
10
5 . 0
2
1
V
V
( ) 10 12 15 12 60
2 1
+ + + = V V
10 10
1
15
1
5
1
8 . 0
2
1
V
V
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
( )
2 1
3 3 2 6 24 V V + + =
10 12 8
5 . 0
2 1 2 2
V V V V
+ =
At node 1 At node 2
2 1
37 12 60 V V + =
2 1
3 11 24 V V =
..(a) (b)
X 30
X 120
continue
65 . 31 55 . 2 3 24 11
1
= + = V
2
727 . 33 8 . 86 V =
A
V
I 32 . 0
8
55 . 2
8
2
4
= = =
2 1
273 . 3 12 8 . 26 V V =
11
12
) ( a
V V 55 . 2
2
=
( c )
(c) + (b)
Hence the current in the 8 O is
So the answers are same as before
V V 88 . 2
11
65 . 31
1
= =
From (a)
Calculate the potential difference across the 2.0O
resistor in the following circuit
10V
20V
2.0O
8.0O
8.0O 4.0O
10V
20V
8.0O 4.0O
A I 5 . 2
0 . 4
10
1
= =
O =
+

= = 67 . 2
0 . 8 0 . 4
0 . 8 0 . 4
0 . 8 // 0 . 4
s
R
A I I I
s
5 5 . 2 5 . 2
2 1
= + = + =
2
0 . 8 20 I =
1
0 . 4 10 I =
( c )
I
2
First short-circuiting the branch containing 2.0O resistor
A I 5 . 2
0 . 8
20
2
= =
I
1
I
s
continue
A I 06 . 1 5
10 67 . 2
67 . 2
=
+
=
V V 1 . 2 0 . 2 06 . 1 = =
Redraw for equivalent current constant circuit
Hence the voltage different in 8 O is Using current division method
5A
8.0O
2.0O
2.67O
I
s
I
V
Calculate the current in the 5.0O resistor in the
following circuit
10A
8.0O
2.0O
5.0O 4.0O
6.0O
10A
8.0O
2.0O
4.0O
6.0O
I
s
A I
s
0 . 8 10
0 . 2 0 . 8
0 . 8
=
+
=
Short-circuiting the branch that containing the 5.0 O resistor
Since the circuit is short-circuited
across the 6.0O and 4.0O so they have
not introduced any impedance. Thus
using current divider method
continue
8.0O
2.0O
4.0O
6.0O
5.0O
5.0O
8.0A
( )( )
( ) ( )
O =
+ + +
+ +
= 0 . 5
0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 . 2
0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 . 2
s
R
A I 0 . 4 0 . 8
0 . 5 0 . 5
0 . 5
=
+
=
The equivalent resistance is a parallel (2.0+8.0)//(6.0+4.0)
Hence the current in the 5 O is
Redraw the equivalent constant current circuit with the load 5.0O
I
A
C
B
R
1
R
a
R
b
R
c
R
3
R
2
B
C
A
3 2 1
2 1 3 1
R R R
R R R R
R R
b a
+ +
+
= +
3 2 1
2 1
R R R
R R
R
c
+ +
=
b a AB
R R R + =
( )
3 2 1
2 1 3
R R R
R R R
R
AB
+ +
+
=
3 2 1
1 3
R R R
R R
R
b
+ +
=
From delta cct , impedance sees from AB
Thus equating
Delta to star transformation
3 2 1
3 2
R R R
R R
R
a
+ +
=
Similarly from BC
3 2 1
3 2 2 1
R R R
R R R R
R R
c a
+ +
+
= +
3 2 1
3 1 2 1
R R R
R R R R
R R
c b
+ +
+
= +
3 2 1
2 1 3 2
R R R
R R R R
R R
c a
+ +

=
From star cct , impedance sees from AB
and from AC
(a)
(b)
(c)
(b) (c)
(d)
By adding (a) and (d) ; (b) and (d) ;and (c) and (d) and then divided
by two yield
(e)
(f)
(g)
1
3
R
R
R
R
c
a
=
b
a
R
R R
R
1
2
=
1
2
R
R
R
R
b
a
=
Dividing (e) by (f)
Similarly
Delta to star transformation
c
b a
b a
R
R R
R R R + + =
3
Similarly, dividing (e) by (g)
a
c b
c b
R
R R
R R R + + =
1
c
a
R
R R
R
1
3
=
b
a c
a c
R
R R
R R R + + =
2
therefore
We have
(i)
(j)
(j)
Substitude R
2
and R
3
into (e)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
Similarly
A
B
C
D
R1
16
R3
6
R2
8
R4
12
R5
20
C
B
D
B'
R2
8
R4
12
R5
20
1
2
3
4
Rc
Ra
Rb
Find the effective resistance at
terminal between A and B of the
network on the right side
Solution
ER = R
2
+ R
4
+ R
5
= 40 O
R
a
= R
2
x R
5
/ER = 4 O
R
b
= R
4
x R
5
/ER = 6 O
R
c
= R
2
x R
4
/ER = 2.4 O
Substitute R
2
, R
5
and R
4
with R
a
, R
b
dan R
c
:
R
1
+R
a
20
R
3
+R
b
12
A
B
R
3
6
R
1
16
Rc
2.4
R
a
4
R
b
6
A
B
R
c
2.4
R
AB
= [(20x12)/(20+12)] + 2.4 = 9.9 O