Circuit analysis
Mesh analysis
Nodal analysis
Superposition
Thevenins Theorem
Nortons Theorem
Deltastar transformation
An active network having two terminals A and B
can be replaced by a constantvoltage source
having an e.m.f V
th
and an internal resistance
R
th
.
The value of V
th
is equal to the opencircuited
p.d between A and B.
The value of R
th
is the resistance of the network
measured between A and B with the load
disconnected and the sources of e.m.f replaced
by their internal resistances.
Networks to illustrate Thevenin theorem
V
R
2
R
R
1
R
3
A
B
R
2
R
th
R
1
R
3
A
B
V
R
2
V
th
R
1
R
3
A
B
V
th
R
R
th
A
B
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
3 1
3
R R
V
I
R
+
=
3 1
3
R R
VR
V
th
+
=
3 1
3
3
R R
VR
V
R
+
=
Since no current in R
2
, thus
Refer to network (b), in R
2
there is not complete circuit, thus no
current, thus current in R
3
And p.d across R
3
is
3 1
3 1
2
R R
R R
R R
th
+
+ =
R R
V
I
th
th
+
=
Thus current in R
(refer network (d))
Refer to network (c) the resistance at AB
R
3
=10O
R
1
=2O
R
2
=3O
E
1
=6V E
2
=4V
C
D
A B
R
1
=2O
R
2
=3O
E
1
=6V E
2
=4V
C
D
A B
V
I
1
A
R R
I 4 . 0
3 2
2 4 6
3 1
1
=
+
=
+
=
( ) V V 2 . 5 2 4 . 0 6 = =
Calculate the current through R
3
Solution
With R
3
disconnected as in figure below
p.d across CD is E
1
I
1
R
1
continue
R
1
=2O
R
2
=3O
C
D
A B
r
r=1.2O
R
3
=10O
C
D
V=5.2V
I
O =
+
= 2 . 1
3 2
3 2
r
A I 46 . 0
10 2 . 1
2 . 5
=
+
=
To determine the internal resistance we
remove the e.m.f s
Replace the network with V=5.2V
and r=1.2, then the at terminal CD,
R
3
, thus the current
Determine the value and direction of the current in BD, using
(a) Kirchoffs law (b) Thevenin theorem
A
B
C
D
E=2V
10O
40O
20O
15O
30O
I
1 I
1
I
3
I
3
I
2
I
2
+I
3
( )
3 1 1
30 10 2 I I I + =
3 1
30 40 2 I I =
Solution
(a) Kirchoffs law
Using K.V.L in mesh ABC + the voltage E
( ) ( )
3 1 3 2 3
30 15 _ 40 0 I I I I I + + =
3 2 1
40 20 10 0 I I I + =
Similarly to mesh ABDA
For mesh BDCB
3 2 1
85 15 30 0 I I I + + =
..(a)
(b)
..(c)
3 1
460 90 0 I I + =
3 1
111 . 5 I I =
Continue
Multiplying (b) by 3 and (c) by 4and adding the two expressions,
thus
3 2 1
120 60 30 0 I I I + =
mA A I 5 . 11 0115 . 0
3
= =
Since the I
3
is positive then the direction in the figure is
correct.
3 2 1
340 60 120 0 I I I + + =
Substitute I
1
in (a)
continue
A
B
C
D
E=2V
10O
20O
15O
30O
By Thevenin Theorem
V V
AD
143 . 1
15 20
20
2 =
+
=
V V
BD
643 . 0 5 . 0 143 . 1 = =
V V
AB
5 . 0
30 10
10
2 =
+
=
P.D between A and B (voltage divider)
P.D between A and D (voltage divider)
P.D between B and D
continue
A
B
C
D
10O
20O
15O
30O
r
16.07O
0.643V
10O
O =
+
57 . 8
15 20
15 20
O = + = 07 . 16 57 . 8 5 . 7 r
For effective resistance,
O =
+
5 . 7
30 10
30 10
A I 0115 . 0
10 07 . 16
643 . 0
3
=
+
=
Substitute the voltage, resistance r and 10W as in figure below
D to B from 5 . 11 mA =
10O parallel to 30 O
20O parallel to 15 O
Total
E
R
S
R
L
I
L
s
S
R
E
I =
S
L s
s
R
R R
R
E
L s
L
I
R R
R
R R
E
I
s
L s
s
+
= =
+
=
+
Another of expressing the current I
L
Where I
S
=E/R
S
is the current would flow in a short circuit
across the source terminal( i.e when R
L
is replaced by short
circuit)
Then we can represent the voltage source as equivalent
current source
E
R
S
I
S
R
S
1A
5O
15O
5O
R
s
V
o
V V
o
15 15 1 = =
20 15 5 = + =
s
R
Calculate the equivalent constantvoltage generator for the
following constant current source
V
o
Current flowing in 15O is 1 A, therefore
Current source is opened thus the 5 W and 15 W are in series, therefore
Node 1
5O
4V
reference
node
V
2
Node 2
6V
8O
15O
12O
10O
V
1
I
1
I
2
I
4
I
5
I
3
4V
5O
5O
0.8A
6V
12O
12O
0.5A
Analysis of circuit using constant current source
From circuit above we change all the voltage sources to current sources
A
R
V
I 5 . 0
12
6
= = = A
R
V
I 8 . 0
5
4
= = =
continue
Node 1
reference
node
V
2
Node 2
8O
15O
10O
V
1
I
2
I
4
I
3
0.8A
0.5A 12 O
5O
I
1
I
5
10 15 5
8 . 0
2 1 1 1
V V V V
+ + =

.

\

+ + + =
12
1
10
1
8
1
10
5 . 0
2
1
V
V
( ) 10 12 15 12 60
2 1
+ + + = V V
10 10
1
15
1
5
1
8 . 0
2
1
V
V

.

\

+ + =
( )
2 1
3 3 2 6 24 V V + + =
10 12 8
5 . 0
2 1 2 2
V V V V
+ =
At node 1 At node 2
2 1
37 12 60 V V + =
2 1
3 11 24 V V =
..(a) (b)
X 30
X 120
continue
65 . 31 55 . 2 3 24 11
1
= + = V
2
727 . 33 8 . 86 V =
A
V
I 32 . 0
8
55 . 2
8
2
4
= = =
2 1
273 . 3 12 8 . 26 V V =
11
12
) ( a
V V 55 . 2
2
=
( c )
(c) + (b)
Hence the current in the 8 O is
So the answers are same as before
V V 88 . 2
11
65 . 31
1
= =
From (a)
Calculate the potential difference across the 2.0O
resistor in the following circuit
10V
20V
2.0O
8.0O
8.0O 4.0O
10V
20V
8.0O 4.0O
A I 5 . 2
0 . 4
10
1
= =
O =
+
= = 67 . 2
0 . 8 0 . 4
0 . 8 0 . 4
0 . 8 // 0 . 4
s
R
A I I I
s
5 5 . 2 5 . 2
2 1
= + = + =
2
0 . 8 20 I =
1
0 . 4 10 I =
( c )
I
2
First shortcircuiting the branch containing 2.0O resistor
A I 5 . 2
0 . 8
20
2
= =
I
1
I
s
continue
A I 06 . 1 5
10 67 . 2
67 . 2
=
+
=
V V 1 . 2 0 . 2 06 . 1 = =
Redraw for equivalent current constant circuit
Hence the voltage different in 8 O is Using current division method
5A
8.0O
2.0O
2.67O
I
s
I
V
Calculate the current in the 5.0O resistor in the
following circuit
10A
8.0O
2.0O
5.0O 4.0O
6.0O
10A
8.0O
2.0O
4.0O
6.0O
I
s
A I
s
0 . 8 10
0 . 2 0 . 8
0 . 8
=
+
=
Shortcircuiting the branch that containing the 5.0 O resistor
Since the circuit is shortcircuited
across the 6.0O and 4.0O so they have
not introduced any impedance. Thus
using current divider method
continue
8.0O
2.0O
4.0O
6.0O
5.0O
5.0O
8.0A
( )( )
( ) ( )
O =
+ + +
+ +
= 0 . 5
0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 . 2
0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 0 . 2
s
R
A I 0 . 4 0 . 8
0 . 5 0 . 5
0 . 5
=
+
=
The equivalent resistance is a parallel (2.0+8.0)//(6.0+4.0)
Hence the current in the 5 O is
Redraw the equivalent constant current circuit with the load 5.0O
I
A
C
B
R
1
R
a
R
b
R
c
R
3
R
2
B
C
A
3 2 1
2 1 3 1
R R R
R R R R
R R
b a
+ +
+
= +
3 2 1
2 1
R R R
R R
R
c
+ +
=
b a AB
R R R + =
( )
3 2 1
2 1 3
R R R
R R R
R
AB
+ +
+
=
3 2 1
1 3
R R R
R R
R
b
+ +
=
From delta cct , impedance sees from AB
Thus equating
Delta to star transformation
3 2 1
3 2
R R R
R R
R
a
+ +
=
Similarly from BC
3 2 1
3 2 2 1
R R R
R R R R
R R
c a
+ +
+
= +
3 2 1
3 1 2 1
R R R
R R R R
R R
c b
+ +
+
= +
3 2 1
2 1 3 2
R R R
R R R R
R R
c a
+ +
=
From star cct , impedance sees from AB
and from AC
(a)
(b)
(c)
(b) (c)
(d)
By adding (a) and (d) ; (b) and (d) ;and (c) and (d) and then divided
by two yield
(e)
(f)
(g)
1
3
R
R
R
R
c
a
=
b
a
R
R R
R
1
2
=
1
2
R
R
R
R
b
a
=
Dividing (e) by (f)
Similarly
Delta to star transformation
c
b a
b a
R
R R
R R R + + =
3
Similarly, dividing (e) by (g)
a
c b
c b
R
R R
R R R + + =
1
c
a
R
R R
R
1
3
=
b
a c
a c
R
R R
R R R + + =
2
therefore
We have
(i)
(j)
(j)
Substitude R
2
and R
3
into (e)
(k)
(l)
(m)
(n)
Similarly
A
B
C
D
R1
16
R3
6
R2
8
R4
12
R5
20
C
B
D
B'
R2
8
R4
12
R5
20
1
2
3
4
Rc
Ra
Rb
Find the effective resistance at
terminal between A and B of the
network on the right side
Solution
ER = R
2
+ R
4
+ R
5
= 40 O
R
a
= R
2
x R
5
/ER = 4 O
R
b
= R
4
x R
5
/ER = 6 O
R
c
= R
2
x R
4
/ER = 2.4 O
Substitute R
2
, R
5
and R
4
with R
a
, R
b
dan R
c
:
R
1
+R
a
20
R
3
+R
b
12
A
B
R
3
6
R
1
16
Rc
2.4
R
a
4
R
b
6
A
B
R
c
2.4
R
AB
= [(20x12)/(20+12)] + 2.4 = 9.9 O