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Chapter-(5) Five Training Design

Effective Training: Strategies, Systems and Practices, 3rd Edition
P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker

Design Phase
Learning Theory



Determine factors that facilitate learning & transfer

Develop Training Objectives
Identify alternative method of instruction
Chapter 6, 7


Organizational Constraints

Evaluation objectives
Chapter 9

Guide to determining time required to prepare training – Part 1 of 3
Variables Level Of Effort For Design

1. Designer knowledge and skills related to instructional design 2. Designer knowledge of subject matter 3. Size and complexity of the target training group 4. Designer’s and client’s track record for sticking to plans  extensive knowledge and skills  extensive knowledge  small, homogeneous  always stick

 Moderate knowledge and skills  some knowledge  medium size, moderately complex  sometimes stick

 minimal knowledge and skills  no knowledge  large, complex  never stick


Guide to determining time required to prepare training – Part 2 of 3
Low What
5. the number of instruction modules 6. Elements included in the training materials 7. client’s or organization’s expectations regarding packaging 8. what is considered final product  few (5 modules)  several (8 modules)  instructor and participant manuals  modest (desktop publishing)  many (12 modules)  instructor and participant manuals, overheads, job aids  extensive (professionally produced)  designer completes all drafts, finalizes after pilot

Level Of Effort For Design
Medium High

 trainee manual only  minimal (produced inhouse)  first draft by designer, client does rest

 designer completes up to the pilot

Guide to determining time required to prepare training – Part 3 of 3
Variables Level Of Effort For Design

9. data collection  a focus group made up of a few well-informed people  deals directly with top decision maker

 a focus group and a few interviews  deals with more than one level of decision makers  reviews and approves key materials  moderate

 several focus groups and several interviews  deals with a complex labormanagement committee  reviews and approves all materials  extensive

10. designer’s interaction with the client 11. client’s level of involvement

 approves general direction and final draft  minimal

12. Amount of interactivity

000 $2.Proposal for developing a one day workshop on Effective Communication Action Prepare Interview relevant employees to determine issues and context to develop training 1 day $1.5 days $1.000 Develop usual aids and evaluation material Miscellaneous TOTAL 2.000 $2.000 $1.400 $15.5 days $1.000 Time Rate Total Develop objectives and plan for developing training.500 8 days $1.000 $8.400 6 . Includes identifying appropriate instructional methods and developing evaluation objectives Develop training materials based on objectives 2.500 $1.

trainer compensation. materials. TNA. marketing.Types of Costs in Training Programs (1 of 2) Development Costs (costs related to the development of the training program. & clerical support) 7 . etc) Indirect Costs (cost incurred even if training were cancelled: preparation. materials used to design the program.. facilities.) Direct Costs (costs directly attributed to the delivery of the training. piloting of the training. etc. administrative.

etc…) 8 . assessment tools.Types of Costs in Training Programs (2 of 2)  Overhead Costs (costs associated with purchase and maintenance of training equipment and training facilities)  Participant Compensation (costs associated with trainees salary and benefits)  Evaluation Costs (costs associated with evaluating the training.

20 days of director’s time at $50.000 per year 3.000 $ 600 $ 4. Materials Direct Costs 1. 5 days of trainer’s time at $30.Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training – Part 1 of 2 Developmental Costs 1.000 9 . and muffins $ 600 $ 750 $ 2. Materials and equipment 4.000 per year 2. juice.000 per year 2.000 $ 600 $ 1. 5 days of trainer’s time at $30. Training facility rental 5 days at $150 per day 3. Coffee.

Training Costs for Grievance Reduction Training – Part 2 of 2 Indirect Costs 1.000 per year 2. 3 days administrative preparation at 20.000 / yr.) Evaluation Costs 1.310 10 . 1 day trainer preparation 2. 6 days of evaluator’s time at $30. Materials Total Training Costs $21.000 $ 720 $ 800 $32.000 per year Participant Compensation (may include travel) $ 120 $ 120 1. 30 supervisors attending 5-day workshop (Average $35.

Learning Objective Objectives are statements which describe what the learner is expected to achieve as a result of training 11 .

3. 2. or quality) 12 .Developing Objectives A good objective has three components: 1. accuracy. speed. Desired outcome – type of behavior Condition – where. when and/or what tools will be used Standards – the criteria that will be used to judge the adequacy of the behavior. (minimal acceptable level.

Developing Learning Objectives Fundamental Rules: • Must be measurable and observable • Articulates the goal(s) of training • Communicates the intent to trainee • Provides a means for evaluation • Assists in the selection of materials 13 .

I. Observable Outcome/Behavior An action verb that you want the participants to be able to do as a result of the training Measurable 14 .

Examples Action Verbs • • • • • Build Demonstrate Describe Develop Draw      Dissect Draw Identify Implement Write 15 .

Condition • Describes the environment under which the work to be performed How you get to your outcome 16 .II.

Condition Examples • • • • • • • • After completing this activity… Using a computer… After completing this seminar… After completing this training session… Using the information in the workbook… In the classroom… On the firing range… Given a hypothetical situation… 17 .

how well (MAY BE IMPLICIT). Criteria/Standard • A standard which describes how many.III. how quickly. What will happen as a result of the training 18 .

Criterion Examples • • • • • Achieving a score of 75% According to policy Accurately With no errors Within one hour 19 .

Example 1: Learning Objective • Condition – “Using a drop wire. bushing and connectors. but without the use of a manual” • Behavior – “the trainee will splice a drop wire” • Standard – “according to the standard set in the manual” 20 .

Example 2: Learning Objective • Condition – “Using a standard climbing harness and spikes” • Behavior – “the trainee will climb a standard telephone pole” • Standard – “within 5 minutes. following all safety procedures” 21 .

and criteria in judging success Program Objectives 22 .• Mager: “Description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent” • Specify what learners should be able to do. conditions under which they must do it.

• Objective Performance Objectives Indicator Discriminate between normal and abnormal X-rays Recall procedure for making a loan Identify transistors on a schematic diagram • Understand how to read X-rays • Knowledge of loans • Ability to read diagrams 23 .

• Show an appreciation for loan procedures • Be able to think critically and analytically • Have a deep awareness and thorough humanizing grasp of interpersonal relations False Objectives 24 .

Conditions for Performance • Relevant and important conditions under which performance is expected to occur • “Repair a motor with two minor defects using a standard set of tools and diagrams” 25 .

accuracy and quality • Examples: finish in 20 minutes.1 inch 26 . no more that 2 errors. within a tolerance of . • Includes speed.Criterion for Performance • How well trainees should be able to perform in order to be acceptable.

Types of Training Objectives – Part 1 of 2 (Kirkpatrick) 1. Learning Objectives: Describes the type of behavior that will demonstrate the learning. the conditions under which the behavior must occur. and the criteria that will signify that a sufficient level of learning has occurred 27 . Trainee Reaction Objectives: Describes the desired trainee attitudinal and subjective evaluations of training 2.

openness. conscientiousness. stability 28 . Perceptions of work environment) – Perceptions of training – Self-efficacy – Factors that increase motivation • Personality and attitudes – Extraversion. Ability.Trainee Characteristics • Trainability = f(Motivation. agreeableness.

No Trait and Treatment Interaction High Training Design A Training Design B Low Low Individual Trait 29 High .

A Trait and Treatment Interaction High Training Design A Training Design B Low Low Individual Trait 30 High .

pre-training communications.Social Learning Processes and Corresponding Training Events Attention/Expectancy Retention Activation of memory Symbolic coding and cognitive organization Symbolic rehearsal and cues for retrieval Behavioral Reproduction Reinforcement Stimulation of prior related learning Presentation of encoding schemes and images. hypothetical scenarios. aids for transfer (identical elements and principles) Active and guided practice (role plays and simulations) Assessment and feedback (positive and/or negative) 31 Learning environment. order of presentation during training Case studies. statement of objectives and process. associations with previously learned material. highlighting of key learning points .

greater difficulty and amount the better spaced practice – Less capable. part 32 . less experienced learner does better with spaced practice – Retention better with spaced practice • Whole vs.Conditions of Practice • Active practice – can be mental practice • Massed vs. spaced practice – Rest intervals early in training – Less meaningful.

Conditions of Practice • Overlearning • Knowledge of results/feedback – Important aspects – Provisions of feedback – Specify corrective actions – Reward/punishment consequences 33 .

Retention • Meaningfulness of material • Degree of original learning • Retroactive interference – new learning interferes with old learning • Proactive – old learning interferes with the retention of new learning 34 .

Seven Step Relapse-Prevention Training Step 1. Learn coping (relapse prevention) strategies 5. Commit to retain the skill 4. Identify likely circumstances for first relapse 6. Learn to monitor target skill 35 . Choose a skill to retain 2. Practice coping (relapse prevention) strategies 7. Set goals 3.

Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention – Part 1 of 2 Step Understand the relapse process Recognize difference between training and work setting Create an effective support network on the job Identify high risk situations 36 .

Coping Strategies for Relapse Prevention – Part 2 of 2 Step Reduce emotional reactions that interfere with learning Diagnose specific support skills necessary to retain new skill Identify organizational support for skill retention 37 .

Transfer of Training Stimulus same same Response same different Transfer positive negative different different zero/none 38 .

Increasing Transfer • • • • • • • • Maximize similarity Practice Provide a variety of situations and examples Understand general principles Support Opportunity to perform on the job Feedback and reinforcement Develop and follow learning objectives 39 .

What skill/technique: (be specific) What will using skill/technique look like: (be specific) 3. 2. Under what circumstances is a slip likely to occur? What support is needed? 40 . What will a “slip” look like? How will you feel if you slip back to old techniques? 6. Positive (+) Negative (-) Using Skill Not Using Skill 4. 5. What are the positive and negative consequences of using and not using the skill. 7.A Plan to Apply Skills Back on the Job 1.

Cognitive organization 41 .Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction – Part 1 of 2 Instructional Event Gain attention Informing the trainee of Goal (objectives) Stimulate recall of prior knowledge (learning) Present the material Relation to Social Learning Theory Attention Attention Retention: Activation of memory Retention: Activation of memory. Semantic coding.

Gagne-Briggs Nine Events of Instruction – Part 2 of 2 Instructional Event Provide guidance for learning Relation to Social Learning Theory Retention: Semantic coding/ cognitive organization through guided discovery Retention: Symbolic Rehearsal Behavioral Reproduction Reinforcement Elicit performance (practice) Provide informative feedback Assess performance Enhance retention and transfer Reinforcement 42 .

Have learning objectives distributed ahead of time. Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider Identify those with low expectations/ send to pre-training workshop Provide information to influence expectancies/ identify positive outcomes.Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 1 of 5 Social learning Theory Pretraining Attention/Expectancy Influence expectations & attitudes of trainees. Have supervisors discuss performance of trainee and set mutual goals. Demonstrate the need for training and set goals Do needs analysis so only relevant trainees attend. 43 .

show learning objectives. draw example from trainees Choose site where anxiety level will be low (see classical conditioning).Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 2 of 5 Social learning Theory Training Beginning Attention/ Expectancy Create/reinforce positive attitude toward training Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Gain Attention Factors to Consider Allow time for instructor and trainee introductions and develop a relaxed atmosphere Inform trainee of goals Allow for time to go through needs analysis. 44 Eliminate distractions . Choose proper facilities. and discuss usefulness on the job.

Use multiple media and make interesting Ask questions and get involvement Present material 45 .Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 3 of 5 Social learning Theory During Retention Make relevant Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider Continue to focus on training objectives Stimulate recall of prior knowledge Develop links between previous learning and the new learning (activation of memory).

Provide feedback Let trainees know how they are doing.Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 4 of 5 Social learning Theory Make interesting Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Provide guidance for learning Factors to Consider Get trainees involved (symbolic rehearsal) Use relevant examples and offer many of them Behavioral Elicit Reproduction/ performance Reinforcement Encourage learning Provide relevant practice process (including maximum similarity and/or different situations). 46 .

Provide time to evaluate performance level accomplished and provide feedback Enhance retention and transfer Incorporate relapse-prevention strategy. Develop trainees goals for transfer of training 47 Sensitize trainees to difficulty in transfer of training .Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 4 of 5 Social learning Theory Ending Reinforcement Be sure trainees see results of training Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider Assess Provide time for examining objectives performance to see what was accomplished. Provide commitment of trainer to meet with trainees to facilitate transfer.

Learning and Transfer Factors as related to Social Learning theory and Gagne Briggs theory of design – 5 of 5 Social learning Theory PostTraining Reinforcement Facilitate transfer Gagne Briggs 9 events of instruction Factors to Consider Obtain support from supervisor/ peers/ trainer to help trainee in transferring the training to the workplace. 48 . Ensure that reward systems are in line with newly trained behaviors.

high ability • Positively accelerated – material complex. learner inexperienced • S shaped – positively accelerated in early stages negatively in later (common) 49 . experienced learner.Learning Curves • Negatively accelerated – material easy.

Plateaus in Learning • • • • Hierarchy of habits Motivation declines Incorrect learning being eliminated Learning material that is complex whole composed of several simple parts 50 .

Perceptual Preferences • • • • • • • Print Visual Aural Interactive Tactile/manipulative Kinesthetic/psychomotor Olfactory 51 .