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MICROWAVE NETWORKS

Dr L.Anjaneyulu
NIT, Warangal
anjan@nitw.ac.in


What is a microwave network
• A microwave network is formed when several
microwave devices such as
• Sources
• Attenuators
• Resonators
• Filters
• Amplifiers etc
Are coupled together by transmission line or
waveguide for the desired transmission of
microwave signal
Network ports
• What is the difference between the port of
low frequency network and microwave
frequency network ?
For low frequency network a port is a pair
of terminals where as for a microwave
network a port is reference plane
transverse to the length of microwave
transmission line
Network Parameters
• Z, h, Y and ABCD parameters are difficult
to measure for microwave network
because at microwave frequencies the
physical length of the component or line is
comparable to or much greater than the
wavelength.
• so the voltage and current are not well
defined at a given point for a microwave
circuit
Why Z, Y,h and ABCD parameters are
difficult to measure for MW circuit ?
• 1) Non- availability of terminal voltage and
current measuring equipment
• 2) Short circuit and open circuits are not
easily achieved for a wide range of
frequencies
• 3) Presence of active devices makes the
circuit unsuitable for short and open circuit

A photograph of the Hewlett-
Packard HP8510B Network
Analyzer. This test instrument
is used to measure the
scattering parameters
(magnitude and phase) of a
one- or two-port microwave
network from 0.05 GHz to
26.5 GHz. Built-in
microprocessors provide
error correction, a high
degree of accuracy, and a
wide choice of display
formats. This analyzer can
also perform a fast Fourier
transform of the frequency
domain data to provide a time
domain response of the
network under test.
Courtesy of Agilent
Technologies.
Properties of S - Parameters
• a) Zero diagonal elements for perfect
matched network

For an ideal N-port network with matched
termination s
ii
= 0 since there is no reflection
from any port

so under perfect patched conditions the
diagonal elements of [S] are zero

Properties ….
b) Symmetry of [S] for a reciprocal network
A reciprocal device has the same
transmission characteristics in either
direction of a pair of ports is
characerized by a symmetric matrix
S
ij
= S
ji
( i not equal to j)

Properties
c)Unitary property for a lossless junction
For any lossless network the sum of the
products of each term of any row or of any
column of the S matrix multiplied by its
conjugate is unity
If all
Phase shift property
Device S
1’ 1
2 2’
| |

=
22 21
12 11
S S
S S
S
Complex S-parameters of a
network defined with respect to
the positions of the port or
reference planes
For unprimed reference planes the S –parameters have
definite complex values
Phase shift property cont..
2 2 2
1 1 1
l
l
| o
| o
=
=
Device S
1’ 1
2 2’
If reference planes 1 and 2
are shifted outward to 1’
and 2’ by electrical phase
shifts
| | | |

=
÷
÷
÷
÷
2
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
'
o
o
o
o
j
j
j
j
e
e
S
e
e
S
The new S matrix is given by
Several Losses in Microwave
circuits
• The losses in a microwave circuit can be
expressed in terms of S-parameters
Insertion Loss
(dB)
Pi = Power fed at Port 1; Pr = Power reflected at the same port
Losses …
Transmission Loss
or Attenuation (dB)
Reflection Loss
(dB)
Losses ..
Return Loss (dB)
S parameters for some microwave
components
Wave guide sections
| |

=
0 1
1 0
S
The S-Matrix for
ideal sections are
Examples of S matrices: 2-ports (1)
Bends
Adopters
Between series adapter (WR-51 to WR-42)
Waveguide to coax adapter
(WR-62 to type N)
• Flexguide (non-twistable)
Examples of S matrices: 2-ports (2)
Examples of S matrices: 2-ports (3)
S Matrix for Wave guide - Tees
• Wave guide tees are three port
components. They are used to
connect a branch or sections of the
waveguide in series or parallel with
the main waveguide transmission line
for providing means of splitting and
also of combining power in a
waveguide system
Two basic types of Tees
• E-plane T
• H-plane T
S-parameters of E-plane and H-
plane -T
E-plane H-plane
Because of the
symmetry S
ij =
S
ji
j = 1.2
| |

=
33 23 13
23 11 12
13 12 11
S S S
S S S
S S S
S
E-plane T
S31 = S13= - S23 = -S32
S12=S21
a
i
= incident power
b
i =
reflected power

÷
÷
0 2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
2
13
2
33
2 ) 1 ( S S = ÷
If S33 =0 ,
S13 = 1/ 2
I/p power =o/p power
H-plane Tee
In a H-plane tee if two waves are
fed into port 1 and port 2 of the
collinear arms the output wave at
port 3 will be in phase and
additive.
Reversely an input wave at port 3 will be equally divided into port1
and port 2 in phase.
| |

÷
÷
=
0 2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
S
Hybrid -T
Cross guide couplers
Directional Coupler
The coupling factor is defined as:
S-parameters of DC
• Insertion Loss (IL) = 10*log(P1/P2)=-
20*log(S21)
• Coupling Factor (CF) = 10*log(P1/P4)=-
20*log(S41)
• Isolation (I) = 10*log(P1/P3) = -20*log(S31)
• Directivity (D) = 10*log(P4/P3)=-
20*log(S31/S41)
DC
COUPLERS
| |
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
.
1 0 0 1
2
0 1 1 0
j
S
÷
÷
=
÷






| |
0 1 0
0 0 1
1
1 0 0
2
0 1 0
,
j
j
S
j
j
÷
=






The quadrature hybrid (or branch-line hybrid) is
a 3 dB coupler. The quadrature term comes
from the 90 deg phase difference between the
outputs at ports 2 and 3.
The coupling and insertion loss are both equal
to 3 dB.
Ring hybrid (or rat-race) coupler
Quadrature hybrid Coupler
A microwave signal fed at port 1 will split evenly
in both directions, giving identical signals out of
ports 2 and 3. But the split signals are 180 deg
out of phase at port 4, the isolated port, so they
cancel and no power exits port 4.
The insertion loss and coupling are both equal to
3 dB. Not only can the ring hybrid split power to
two ports, but it can add and subtract a pair of
signals.
Filters
Filters are two-port networks used to attenuate undesirable frequencies.
Microwave filters are commonly used in transceiver circuits.
The four basic filter types are low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and bandstop.
Low-pass High-pass
Bandstop Bandpass
A low-pass filter is characterized by the insertion loss
versus frequency plot in Figure. Notice that there may
be ripple in the passband (the frequency range
desired to pass through the filter), and a roll off in
transmission above the cutoff or corner frequency, fc.
Simple filters (like series inductors or shunt capacitors)
feature 20 dB/decade roll off. Sharper roll off is
available using active filters or multisection filters.
Active filters employ operational amplifiers that are
limited by performance to the lower RF frequencies.
Multisection filters use passive components (inductors
and capacitors), to achieve filtering.
The two primary types are the Butterworth and the
Chebyshev. A Butterworth filter has no ripple in the
passband, while the Chebyshev filter features sharper
roll off.
Filters
Low-pass Filters
Low-pass Filters
High-pass Filters Band-pass Filters
Lumped Element Filters
Some simple lumped element filter circuits are shown below.
Low-pass Filter Example
Lumped Element Filters
2
,
l
L
o
v
P
R
=
.
2
o
l s
o
R
v v
R j L e
=
+
20log 1 .
2
o
j L
IL
R
e
= +
| |
|
\ .
The 3 dB cutoff frequency, also termed the corner frequency, occurs where
insertion loss reaches 3 dB.
1,
2
o
L
R
e
=
20log 1
2
3
o
j L
R
e
+
| |
=
|
\ .
3
20
1 10 2
2
o
j L
R
e
+ = =
.
o
c
R
f
L t
=
( )
2
2 2
2
.
4
s
l s
A
o o o
v
v v
P
R R R
= = =
10log
L
A
IL
P
P
=
| |
|
\ .
Power delivered to the load
Insertion Loss
Maximum available Power:
Low-pass Filter Example
Example 10.12: Let us design a low-pass filter for a 50.0 O system using a
series inductor. The 3 dB cutoff frequency is specified as 1.00 GHz.
Lumped Element Filters
.
o
c
R
f
L t
=
The 3 dB cutoff frequency is given by
( )
9
50
15.9 .
1 10 1
o
R H
L nH
f s x s t t
O
= = =
O
| |
|
\ .
Therefore, the required inductance value is
Filters
The insertion loss for a bandpass filter is shown in
Figure. Here the passband ripple is desired small.
The sharpness of the filter response is given by the
shape factor, SF, related to the filter bandwidth at 3dB
and 60dB by
60
3
.
dB
dB
BW
SF
BW
=
A filter’s insertion loss relates the power delivered to
the load without the filter in place (PL) to the power
delivered with the filter in place (PLf):
10log .
L
Lf
P
IL
P
=
| |
|
\ .
Band-pass Filters
Amplifier Design
Microwave amplifiers are a common and crucial component of wireless transceivers.
They are constructed around a microwave transistor from the field effect transistor
(FET) or bipolar junction transistor (BJT) families.
A general microwave amplifier can be represented by the 2-port S-matrix network
between a pair of impedance-matching networks as shown in the Figure below. The
matching networks are necessary to minimize reflections seen by the source and to
maximize power to the output.
Example : Output Matching Network
Step 1: Plot the reflection coefficient
Step 3:Intersection points on 1+jb Circle
Step 4:Open-Circuited Stub Length
Step 2: Find the Admittance y
L
Shunt Stub Problem:
Admittance Calculation
° Z = I 61 876 . 0
L
L
I
1
2
3
4
3’
4’
2 3 4
Example : Input Matching Network
Step 1: Plot the reflection coefficient
Step 3:Intersection points on 1+jb Circle
Step 4:Open-Circuited Stub Length
Step 2: Find the Admittance y
s
1
2
3
4
Shunt Stub Problem:
Admittance Calculation
ì 120 . 0
1
= d
5 . 3 1
1
j y + =
ì 206 . 0
1
= 
° Z = I 123 872 . 0
s
S
I
X
Ignore
Treat as a load
2 3 4