1

Per-Unit System
EE341 – Energy Conversion
Ali Keyhani
Transformer
Lecture #3
2
Per-Unit System
In the per-unit system, the voltages, currents,
powers, impedances, and other electrical
quantities are expressed on a per-unit basis by
the equation:
Quantity per unit =

Actual value

Base value of quantity

It is customary to select two base quantities to
define a given per-unit system. The ones usually
selected are voltage and power.
3
Per-Unit System
Assume:
Then compute base values for currents and
impedances:
rated b
V V =
rated b
S S =
b
b
b
V
S
I =
b
b
b
b
b
S
V
I
V
Z
2
= =
4
Per-Unit System
And the per-unit system is:
b
actual
u p
V
V
V =
. .
b
actual
u p
I
I
I =
. .
b
actual
u p
S
S
S =
. .
b
actual
u p
Z
Z
Z =
. .
% 100 %
. .
× =
u p
Z Z
Percent of base Z
5
Example 1
An electrical lamp is rated 120 volts, 500 watts.
Compute the per-unit and percent impedance of
the lamp. Give the p.u. equivalent circuit.

Solution:
(1) Compute lamp resistance




power factor = 1.0
O = = = ¬ = 8 . 28
500
) 120 (
2
2 2
P
V
R
R
V
P
O Z = 0 8 . 28 Z
6
Example 1
(2) Select base quantities




(3) Compute base impedance



(4) The per-unit impedance is:
VA S
b
500 =
V V
b
120 =
O = = = 8 . 28
500
) 120 (
2 2
b
b
b
S
V
Z
. . 0 1
8 . 28
0 8 . 28
. .
u p
Z
Z
Z
b
u p
Z =
Z
= =
7
Example 1
(5) Percent impedance:


(6) Per-unit equivalent circuit:



% 100 %= Z
. . 0 1 u p Z Z =
. . 0 1 u p V
S
Z =
8
Example 2
An electrical lamp is rated 120 volts, 500 watts. If
the voltage applied across the lamp is twice the
rated value, compute the current that flows
through the lamp. Use the per-unit method.

Solution:
V V
b
120 =
. . 0 2
120
240
. .
u p
V
V
V
b
u p
Z = = =
. . 0 1
. .
u p Z
u p
Z =
9
Example 2
The per-unit equivalent circuit is as follows:
. . 0 1 u p Z Z =
. . 0 2 u p V
S
Z =
. . 0 2
0 1
0 2
. .
. .
. .
u p
Z
V
I
u p
u p
u p
Z =
Z
Z
= =
A
V
S
I
b
b
b
167 . 4
120
500
= = =
A I I I
b u p actual
0 334 . 8 167 . 4 0 2
. .
Z = × Z = =
10
Per-unit System for 1- Circuits
One-phase circuits
LV bLV
V V
|
=
| | |
I V S S
b
= =
÷ 1
where
neutral to line
V V
÷ ÷
=
|
current line
I I
÷
=
|
HV bHV
V V
|
=
bLV
b
bLV
V
S
I =
bHV
b
bHV
V
S
I =
11
Per-unit System for 1- Circuits
b
bLV
bLV
bLV
bLV
S
V
I
V
Z
2
) (
= =
b
bHV
bHV
bHV
bHV
S
V
I
V
Z
2
) (
= =
*
pu pu
b
pu
I V
S
S
S = =
u cos
pu pu
b
pu
I V
S
P
P = =
u sin
pu pu
b
pu
I V
S
Q
Q = =
12
Transformation Between Bases
Selection 1
A b
V V =
1 A b
S S =
1
Then
1
1
b
L
pu
Z
Z
Z =
1
2
1
1
b
b
b
S
V
Z =
Selection 2
B b
V V =
2 B b
S S =
2
Then
2
2
b
L
pu
Z
Z
Z =
2
2
2
2
b
b
b
S
V
Z =
13
Transformation Between Bases
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1 1
2 1
2
b
b
b
b
b
b
L
b
b
L
pu
pu
V
S
S
V
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z
× = = × =
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
2
2
1
1 2
b
b
b
b
pu pu
S
S
V
V
Z Z
“1” – old
“2” - new
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
old b
new b
new b
old b
old pu new pu
S
S
V
V
Z Z
,
,
2
,
,
, ,
14
Transformation Between Bases
Generally per-unit values given to another base
can be converted to new base by by the
equations:
2
1
1 _ _ _ 2 _ _ _
) , , ( ) , , (
base
base
base on pu base on pu
S
S
S Q P S Q P =
2
1
1 _ _ _ 2 _ _ _
base
base
base on pu base on pu
V
V
V V =
1
2
2
2
2
1
1 _ _ _ 2 _ _ _
) (
) (
) , , ( ) , , (
base base
base base
base on pu base on pu
S V
S V
Z X R Z X R =
When performing calculations in a power system, every
per-unit value must be converted to the same base.
15
Per-unit System for 1- Transformer
Consider the equivalent circuit of transformer
referred to LV side and HV side shown below:
LV
V
HV
V
LV
V
HV
V
S S
jX R +
1
N
2
N
2 2
a
X
j
a
R
S S
+
(1) Referred to LV side (2) Referred to HV side
Define
1
2
1
< = =
N
N
V
V
a
HV
LV
S
16
Per-unit System for 1- Transformer
Choose:
rated LV b
V V
, 1
=
rated b
S S =
Compute:
1 1 2
1
b b
LV
HV
b
V
a
V
V
V
V = =
b
b
b
S
V
Z
2
1
1
=
b
b
b
S
V
Z
2
2
2
=
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
)
1
(
a
V
a
V
V
V
Z
Z
b
b
b
b
b
b
= = =
Normal choose rated
values as base values
17
Per-unit System for 1- Transformer
Per-unit impedances are:
1
1 . .
b
S S
u p
Z
jX R
Z
+
=
1
2
1
2 2
2
2 2
2 . .
b
S S
b
S S
b
S S
u p
Z
jX R
a
Z
a
jX
a
R
Z
a
jX
a
R
Z
+
=
+
=
+
=
So:
2 . . 1 . . u p u p
Z Z =
Per-unit equivalent
circuits of transformer
referred to LV side and
HV side are identical !!
18
Per-unit Eq. Ckt for 1- Transformer
LV
V
HV
V
S S
jX R +
1
N
2
N
Fig 1. Eq Ckt referred to LV side
1
2
1
< = =
N
N
V
V
a
HV
LV
S
1 b
Z
1 b
V
2 b
V
Fig 2. Per-unit Eq Ckt referred to LV side Fig 3.
pu S
Z
,
1 : 1
1 b
V
2 b
V
pu S
Z
,
1 b
V
2 b
V
b
S
19
Per-unit Eq. Ckt for 1- Transformer
LV
V
HV
V
1
N
2
N
Fig 4. Eq Ckt referred to HV side
1
2
1
< = =
N
N
V
V
a
HV
LV
S
2 b
Z
2 b
V
Fig 5. Per-unit Eq Ckt referred to HV side Fig 6.
pu S
Z
,
1 : 1
1 b
V
2 b
V
pu S
Z
,
1 b
V
2 b
V
1 b
V
2 2
a
X
j
a
R
S S
+
b
S
20
Voltage Regulation
% 100 ×
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷
load full
load full load no
V
V V
VR
Voltage regulation is defined as:
% 100
,
, ,
×
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷
load full pu
load full pu load no pu
V
V V
VR
In per-unit system:
V
full-load
: Desired load voltage at full load. It may be equal
to, above, or below rated voltage
V
no-load
: The no load voltage when the primary voltage is
the desired voltage in order the secondary voltage
be at its desired value at full load
21
Voltage Regulation Example
A single-phase transformer rated 200-kVA, 200/400-V, and
10% short circuit reactance. Compute the VR when the
transformer is fully loaded at unity PF and rated voltage
400-V.

Solution:
Fig 7. Per-unit equivalent circuit
P
V
S
V
1 . 0 j
load
S
V V
b
400
2
=
kVA S
b
200 =
pu S
pu load
0 1
,
Z =
pu j X
pu S
1 . 0
,
=
S
X
22
Voltage Regulation Example
Rated voltage:
pu V
pu S
0 0 . 1
,
Z =
pu
j j
X I V V
o
pu S pu pu S pu P
7 . 5 001 . 1
1 . 0 1 1 . 0 0 0 . 1 0 0 . 1
, , ,
Z =
+ = × Z + Z =
+ =
pu
V
S
I
pu S
pu load
pu load
0 0 . 1
0 0 . 1
0 0 . 1
*
*
,
,
,
Z =
|
.
|

\
|
Z
Z
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
23
Voltage Regulation Example
pu V V
o
pu P load no pu
7 . 5 001 . 1
, ,
Z = =
÷
pu V V
pu S load full pu
0 0 . 1
, ,
Z = =
÷
Secondary side:
Voltage regulation:
% 1 . 0 % 100
0 . 1
0 . 1 001 . 1
% 100
,
, ,
= ×
÷
=
×
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷
load full pu
load full pu load no pu
V
V V
VR
24
Select V
base
in generator circuit and S
b
=100MVA,
compute p.u. equivalent circuit.
Problem 1
G
O 100 j
20 kV 22kV/220kV
80MVA
14%
220kV/20kV
50MVA
10%
50MVA
0.8 PF
lagging
25
Per-unit System for 3- Circuits
Three-phase circuits
LV L bLV
V V
,
=
| | | |
I V S S S
b
3 3
1 3
= = =
÷ ÷
where
3 /
) (line L neutral to line
V V V = =
÷ ÷ |
L current line
I I I = =
÷ |
HV L bHV
V V
,
=
L L b
I V S 3 =
bHV bHV bLV bLV b
I V I V S 3 3 = =
26
Per-unit System for 3- Circuits
b
bLV
b
bLV bLV
LV
LV
bLV
S
V
S
V V
I
V
Z
2
) ( 3
3
= = =
|
|
b
bHV
bHV
S
V
Z
2
) (
=
*
*
3
3
3
pu pu
b b
L L
b
pu
I V
I V
I V
S
S
S = = =
|
bLV
b
bLV
V
S
I
3
=
bHV
b
bHV
V
S
I
3
=
27
Three 25-kVA, 34500/277-V transformers
connected in A-Y. Short-circuit test on high voltage
side:






Determine the per-unit equivalent circuit of the
transformer.
Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
V V
SC Line
2010
,
=
A I
SC Line
26 . 1
,
=
W P
SC
912
, 3
=
|
28
(a) Using Y-equivalent
Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
3
34500
277
S S
jX R +
VA S
b
25000 =
3
2010
=
SC
V
26 . 1 =
SC
I
O = = 00 . 921
26 . 1
47 . 1160
SC
Z
V V
SC
47 . 1160
3
2010
= =
29
So
Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
O = ÷ = ÷ = 86 . 900 48 . 191 921
2 2 2
2
S SC S
R Z X
W P 304
3
912
= =
|
O = = = 48 . 191
26 . 1
304
2 2
SC
S
I
P
R
|
O + = 86 . 900 48 . 191 j Z
SC
VA S
b
25000 = V V
HV b
58 . 19918
3
34500
,
= =
O = = 99 . 15869
25000
58 . 19918
2
,HV b
Z
pu j
j
Z
Y pu SC
0568 . 0 012 . 0
99 . 15869
86 . 900 48 . 191
, ,
+ =
+
=
30
(b) Using A-equivalent
Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
34500 277
A , SC
Z
VA S
b
25000 =
2010 =
SC
V
3
26 . 1
=
SC
I
O = =
A
79 . 2764
727 . 0
2010
, SC
Z
V V
SC
2010 =
A I
SC
727 . 0
3
26 . 1
= =
31
So
Per-unit System for 3- Transformer
O = ÷ = ÷ =
A A A
30 . 2704 18 . 575 79 . 2764
2 2 2
,
2
, , S SC S
R Z X
W P 304
3
912
= =
|
O = = =
A
18 . 575
727 . 0
304
2 2
,
SC
S
I
P
R
|
O + = 86 . 900 48 . 191 j Z
SC
VA S
b
25000 = V V
HV b
34500
,
=
O = = 47610
25000
34500
2
,HV b
Z
pu j
j
Z
pu SC
0568 . 0 012 . 0
47610
30 . 1704 18 . 575
, ,
+ =
+
=
A
32
Related Materials in Textbook
(1) Section 2.6 and 2.7, page 83~90, Chapman
book
(2) Section 2.10, page 113~116, Chapman book

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