Oswar Mungkasa Representing Deputy for Infrastructures Affairs National Development Agency Jakarta, 31 October 2012

• People can be said to be deprived if they lack the types of clothing, housing, household facilities, fuel, environmental, educational, working and social conditions, activities and facilities which are customary or at least widely accepted by the societies to which they belong. • People are in poverty if they lack the resources to escape deprivation.

Urban Deprivation

The Fact
Over the last 2 centuries  proportion of the world’s population living in urban areas have increased from 5% to 50% • Around 3 billion peoplevirtually half of the world’s total population –now live in urban settlements. • Population experts predict that by the year 2030, around two-thirds of the world’s population will live in cities.

The Fact
• One of the most recognizable forms of urban deprivation is the formation and rapid growth of slum areas in almost all cities. • In 1990, there were nearly 715 million slum dwellers in the world. By 2000, the slum population had increased to 912 million. Today, around 1 billion or 33 per cent, of the world’s urban population resides in slums. One out of every three city dwellers lives in slum conditions • the slum population will reach 1.4 billion by 2020.

The Fact
• 133 million people living in cities of the developing world lack durable housing; • in 2003, approximately 20 per cent of the developing world’s urban population –401 million people – lived in houses that lacked sufficient living area (with three or more people sharing a bedroom);


The Fact
• getting water from a tap is a luxury enjoyed by only two-third of the world’s urban population; less than half of this group (46 per cent) have piped water within their dwelling; 10 per cent rely on public taps, while 8 per cent have access only to manually pumped water or protected wells;


The Fact
• Over 25 per cent of the developing world’s urban population – or 560 million city residents – lack adequate sanitation; • A global survey in 60 countries found that 6.7 million people had been evicted from their homes between 2000 and 2002, compared with 4.2 million in the previous two years.

lack of a political will of the government to address the issue in a sustainable and large scale manner

the mobilization of the potentials and capacities of the related stakeholders, particularly the community itself

the lack or limited number of financing resources for home ownership

security of tenure also a fundamental challenge to adopt an adequate approach to urban land management.

• demand for water cannot be satisfied by the locally available water resources • the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater increases costs for downstream users and has detrimental effects on the aquatic systems;

The Issues
helping the poor to become more integrated into the fabric of urban society is the only long-lasting and sustainable solution to the growing urbanization of poverty.


Policies and strategies
the non-physical activities such as the formulation of city plans, road maps, regulations and the provisions of employment should also be a part of the overall policies and strategies

addressing the issue of slum areas need to be sustainable, and as such the applied policies and strategies should consider the social, environmental and economic aspects.

Policies and Strategies

urban policy in the provision of infrastructure towards alleviating the urban deprivation phenomena should have at least 3 (three) characteristics: (a) area-based policies; (b) coordination among agencies (joint efforts or partnership); (c) community-based

Policies and Strategies
• the local government need to have an integrated urban development strategies, encompassing physical, economic and social development, and Agenda 21 to provide an overall strategic approach • a long-term initiative needs to fully involve all stakeholders, first amongst them the slum dwellers and their organizations.

Policies and Strategies
• improving the welfare of the poor through income generating programs and policies that support livelihood strategies, • Slum area management through upgrading programs is needed • local authorities need to be strengthened by providing them with the necessary resources and capacity to undertake a wide range of functions;

Policies and strategies
all cities should consider developing land-resource management plans to guide land-resource development and utilization and, to that end, should:  Encourage partnerships among the public, private and community sectors in managing land resources for human settlements development;  Strengthen community-based land-resource protection practices in existing urban settlements;  Accelerate efforts to promote access to land by the urban poor, including credit schemes for the purchase of land and for building/acquiring or improving safe and healthy shelter and infrastructure services;

Policies and Strategies
an integrated approach to urban water management (IUWM) is necessary. An IUWM approach involves managing freshwater, wastewater, and storm water as links within the resource management structure, using an urban area as the unit of management.


Policies and strategies
Some key solutions for financing water and sanitation for the poor (Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor/WSUP);  maximize local small-scale private-sector involvement in water and sanitation service provision. There is broad consensus that local small-private-sector entrepreneurs can make very important contribution to sustainable propoor services in urban communities. These smaller independent operators may perform auxiliary roles that large-scale service providers are unable to provide;

Policies and strategies
 introduce innovative water tariff systems that are ensure both financial sustainability and affordability for the poorest of the poor. Promote policies aimed at recovering the actual cost of infrastructure services, while at the same time recognizing the need to find suitable approaches (incl. subsidies) to extend basic services to all households;  use water revenues to cross-subsidize sanitation: including sanitation charges in water bills;  use output-based financing approaches: by making disbursement dependent on demonstrated delivery of infrastructures or services, international funders can ensure that funds are spent more efficiently. 18

Thank you


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