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Introduction to Literature

Etymological Definition

Real Definition

- Derived from the Latin word Litera, which means letter

- A faithful reproduction of man’s manifold experiences blended into one harmonious expression - (Zulueta & Kahayon)

Literature is anything that is printed, as long as it is related to the ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true or a product of one’s imagination. - Webster


dreams or aspirations . feelings or’s ideas or thoughts.CONTENT .

or revenge . pity. grief. hatred.THEME .

selective. interpretative.imaginative.LANGUAGE . creative. figurative .

narrative.FORM . poetic .


It help us to appreciate and preserve literary heritage It helps us to connect ourselves to cultural context which we are part It helps us to grow both personally and intellectually It helps us to shape our lives and makes us humans 3. It encourages us to assist talented people who are in need. 5.1. 4. 2. .


and a discovery about man’s life. POETRY .is an expression of a feeling. an insight. It is alanguage of imagination in verse form.1. .

A. NARRATIVE POETRY .a poem that tells a story .

A.1 BALLAD  The narration of a story in poetic form Examples: The Walrus and the Carpenter – Lewis Caroll The Ballad of the Oysterman   .

2 EPIC  A story about the heroic deeds of an individual in written in verse Examples:  Illiad  Odyssey  Beowulf .A.

Example: .Samuel Coleridge .3  METRICAL TALE A fictitious account of events or facts presented based on the metric system as a standard of measurement.The Rhyme of an Ancient Mariner. .A.

B. LYRIC POETRY .a poem that is subjective and emotional .

1 Song .1 SONG .a poem set to music -Example: -“Hymn to Earth the Mother of all” B.B.

2 PSALM Psalm 23—The Lord Is My Sheperd .B.2 Psalm -- A poem that praises God Example: B.

B.3 ELEGY Amores—Ovid .3 Elegy -A poem for a dead person -Examples: .Woes of Daphnis— Theocritus -- B.

4 Corrido poem having eight syllables in each line B.B.4 CORRIDO -Example: -Ibong -A Adarna .

5 Sonnet poem consisting of fourteen lines B.5 SONNET -Example -Sonnet -A 116 -Sonnet 18 .B.

6 ODE to Aphrodite -Ode .6 Ode -A poem that exalts a feeling or style -Example: B.B.

B.7 Lullaby -A song that makes children to sleep -Example B.7 LULLABY and Goodnight— Johannes Brahms -Lullaby .

a play written in verse form .B. DRAMATIC POETRY .

C.1 MONOLOGUE .A dramatic sketch performed by one actor alone .

C.2 SOLILOQUY A presentation where one actor talks to himself .

C.3 COMEDY A light drama written with the purpose of amusing the audience .

4 FARCE An exaggerated comedy that seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines .C.

.C.5 MELODRAMA A drama that arouses an intense emotion and is usually sad.

C.6 TRAGEDY A drama that involves hero struggling against dynamic forces .

PROSE .2.consists of those written within the common flow of conversations sentence and paragraphs .

Novel • A long narrative divided into chapters A. NOVEL .A.

and single impression/event B. Short Story • A narrative involving one or more characters. SHORT STORY .B. one plot.

LEGEND . Legend •A fictitious narrative. usually about origins C.C.

FABLE . Fable • A fictitious narrative that deals with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people D.D.

E. PARABLE . Parable • A simple story told to illustrate moral truth E.

F. Play • A drama presented on stage F. PLAY .

ANECDOTE . amusing biographical incident. G. Anecdote • A brief story of an interesting.G.

H. Essay • A literary composition usually deals with the subject from a personal point of view of a writer H. ESSAY .

BIOGRAPHY . Biography • A written story of a person’s life I.I.

News • A report of recent events in the society J. NEWS .J.

K. ORATION . Oration • a formal and public speech K.

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