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NURSING CARE MANAGEMENT 100

HISTORY OF NURSING

HISTORY OF NURSING
– Nursing today is far different from nursing as it was practiced years ago and it is expected to continue changing during the 21st century. To comprehend present day nursing and at the same time prepare for the future, one must understand not only past events but also contemporary nursing practice and the sociological and historical factors that affect it.

FOUR PERIODS OF NURSING DEVELOPMENT
Intuitive Period – Pre-historic to Christian
Period of Apprentice – 6th century through Crusaders in the 11th to 19th Period of Modern Educated Nursing Contemporary Nursing

I. Animistic and Demonic . Theory of Self-Preservation 2. INTUITIVE PERIOD Instinctive or untaught Two Theories: 1.

He was a “nomad”. . “with the survival of the fittest”.Primitive Man: Beliefs and practices of the Prehistoric Man: 1. The female member of the family acted as a custodian and a nurse. 2. He was ruled by the Law of Preservation.

(external and supernatural) ex..3. a) “sorcery” b) magic c) breaking a taboo can cause punishment through a disease. Illness was attributed to a wide range of possible causes. d) intrusion of a disease object e) bodily invasion by a spirit (demonic theory of disease) f) loss of the soul g) dreams .

talismans .amulets .Shaman or witch doctor . Applied primitive measures to treat illness: .4.

biting. wearing of frightening masks.treatments a. pinching. kicking. incense making the patient drink bile-tasting concoctions annoying the spirit by alternately plunging the patient in hot and cold water. Deprive the sick person of rest and quiet env’t. pummeling the patient. to drive away the evil spirit by.      . driving out spirits with obnoxious odors. yells and deafening noises jolting the spirit by shaking.

b. trephination – as a last resort.  placating the spirits with amulet. enticing the spirit to leave the body by placing an object or animal at the patient’s bedside  pacifying the spirit using sacrifices  use of objects with magical powers such as fetishes. boring a hole into the patient’s skull using a trephine (sharp stone) to free the entrapped spirit. .  use of rhythmic incantations. primitive curved figures presumed to carry supernatural powers.

soul searching ceremony – enticing the lost soul to go back into the pt’s body. . and chant the description of the event. d.c. Herbal medicines – use of different herbs from plants or trees. a palm leaf is tied around the wrist of the pt to prevent the soul from escaping. Community members gather around the pt. As the soul returns.

PERIOD OF APPRENTICE It extends from the founding of religious nursing orders in the 6th century through the crusades until 1836 when Pastor Fliedner and his wife established the Deaconess School of Nursing in Kaiserwerth.II. The Crusades – were Holy wars waged in an attempt to recapture the Holy Land from the Turks who denied Christ’s pilgrims to visit the Holy Sepulcher. . Military religious orders were established hospitals staffed with men. Germany. A.

Sanitation & public health. b. Practice of surgery and bloodletting c. .Contributions of other countries in the field of Medicine & Nursing. Babylonia – was located in what is now Iraq Code of Hammurabi – code of laws that contained the rules governing medical practice. 1. Differentiation between the practice of human medicine & veterinary medicine. a.

g. Tables of fees for operations.d. f. Recommended specific doctors for each disease. Gave each patient the right to choose among the use of charms. Penalties for violations of the code. e. medications or surgical procedures to cure his disease. .

The Egyptian goddess Isis and her son Herus were regarded as creators of medical arts. Egypt .disposing of human excreta b. Papyrus Ebers d. Hygienic Principles .meat restriction . Imhotep – Egyptian God of Medicine . Egyptian Mythology e.choice of edible foods .prevention of leprosy .2. a. They used the medium of dreams to minister to the sick. Art of Embalming c.

Papyrus Ebers… .

first to compile herbal medicines .Hua To – exponent of acupuncture. surgeon .Pan Ku – medical god who formed the universe .Chang Chung Ching – “Chinese Hippocrates” .Emperor Shen Nung – “Father of Chinese Medicine”. China a. inventor of acupuncture. Acupuncture .3.

Ephedrine from Mahung tree – asthma and URTI g. infection. Eating of seaweeds – goiter d. and muscular afflictions c.b. Materia Medica – pharmacology book of treating wounds. Opium – severe pain f. Eating of liver – iron/anemia e. . Inoculation – (introducing an antigen to produce antibodies) powdering smallpox scabs that were blown thru bamboo tubes into the nostrils.

diseases of nervous and urinary Charaka Samhita – team concept Duties of the Nurse:  Drug administration  Clever. India Vedas – source of practice of medicine.4. alert. skillful. talented  Devoted to the patient  Purity of both mind and body . expert. surgeries.

cooks .Contributions: Keeping nails short Sweet smelling drugs burned in the OR Nurses being combination of pharmacist. PT.

Caduceus – insignia of the medical profession c.reporting of successful and unsuccessful method of medication . Greece a.no value of care if without an available qualified nurse. Aesculapius – “God of Medicine”. only medical students should remain with the client .rejected the supernatural as the origin of disease .case taking and recording of findings . single serpent staff b.5. Hippocrates – “Father of Medicine” .

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Urethritis. Palestine a.contagious disease . Medical functions were assigned to the priests d. Hygiene and sanitation.6. gonorrhea . Unitarian – belief in one God who is the source of health and illness b.evil deed . Bathing with water of purification . compelled to follow religious orders c.entered house of dead person .

7. Rome Greek Physicians became war prisoners Translation of Greek terminologies into Latin terms used in Medicine Emperor Verpasian – opened school to teach medicine using Greek Fabiola – Roman matron established 1st general hospital in 476 AD .

Teutonic Knights – German Knights who converted their tents into Emergency Hospitals 4. The Knights 1. John Jerusalem – warriors in the battle and nurses in the hospital 2.B. Alexian Brothers – opened school of nursing for men in Chicago . Knights of Templers – pledged to protect the pilgrim and to care for wounded Christians 5. Knights of St. Lazarus – hospitals for the nursing of lepers 3. Knights of St.

Permission from nearest male relative . housekeeping.Medical certificate .Preliminary probationary period of 3 months of trial and error for school and students . and nursing care for men and women . laundry and linen. Deaconesses – earliest order of women in the church concerned with care of the poor and the sick in their homes Qualifications: .Rotating 3 years experience in cooking.Character reference from clergyman .Regular Orders or Religious Nursing Orders 1.

and nursing of the sick 5. Oblates – staffed the hospitals of Nightingale after their training 6. Augustinian Sisters 3. Poor Claires 4. Beguines – household aids. Benedictines . Ursuline Sisters – car of the sick and education of girls 7. Order of the Holy Ghost 8.2.

St. St. daughter of Hungarian King 4. St. Early Nursing Saints (12th to 16th century) 1. Frances of Rome – begged for food during plague and starvation . and treatment 7.left the palace to build monastery and served patients 2. Hildegarde – wrote 2 books on medicine and natural history focused on causes. Catherine of Siena “First Lady of the Lamp” 5. St. St. symptoms. Agnes of Bohemia – daughter of a royal father who left the palace and gave nursing care to the lepers and the sick 6. St. Matilda – “mold the Good Queen”. Radegunde. St. Bridget of Sweden – introduced psychosomatic medicine 8. built hospitals for lepers 3. St.D. Elizabeth of Hungary – “Patroness of Nurses”.

Elizabeth Seton – founded Sisters of Charity 3. Roman Catholic and Protestants in US and Canada 2. Harriet Tubman And Sojourner Truth provided care and safety to slaves fleeing to north on the Underground Railroad. Pre-Civil War Nursing (Crimean War) 1.E. .

Mary Ann Bickerdyke – widow. Clara Barton – founder of American Red Cross (1882) 4. 1861) 1.F. Nursing During the Civil War (April 12. nursing wounded soldiers. . Louisa may Alcott – author and nurse who voluntered to give care to injured soldiers. herb doctor 3. Dorothea Lynde Dix – not a nurse but appointed as Superintendent of Female Nurses for US government 2.

G. untrained and uneducated women entered the nursing service 5.Betty Prig and Sairy Gamp – took bribes from patients. stole their foods. Women serving jail sentences were ordered to take care of the sick 6. Doctor’s handmaiden . 2. Patient were given care in the homes. Dark Period of Nursing (17th to 19th century) 1. No nurses available 4. used alcohol as tranquilizers . 4 open hospitals in England 3. Illiterate.

III. Florence Nightingale System of Education Florence Nightingale – “Lady with a Lamp”. decent living quarters for students 3. instructors paid both by the hospital and the school 4. PERIOD OF EDUCATED MODERN NURSING A. Focus on the why’s and how’s of nursing . “Angel of Crimea” 1. self-supporting school 2. correlate theories into practice 5. superintendent of female nursing establishment.

campaigned for legislation to allow nurses rather than physicians to control their professions.America’s first trained nurse. c. Lavinia Dock .founder of public health nursing d. She worked on the acceptance of African Americans in nursing and for the promotion of equal opportunities. She also initiated the practice of wearing uniforms. . Lilian Wald . Margaret Sanger . She is known for introducing nurse’s notes and doctor’s orders.founder of planned parenthood.Other Known Nursing Leaders: a. e. Mary Mahoney .first African American nurse. Linda Richards . b.

Service oriented curriculum 2. Duties: cook. Nursing Then 1.III. carry out orders . No licensing exam 6. hospitals pay $10/month 9. House dresses uniforms 7. grooming. Grading System : quietness. 1875 : no tuition fees. ward management. No textbook 4. No examination 5. Dust cap to tuck all the hair under the cap 8. Female nurses for female patients 11. technical skills 12. serve meal. punctuality. wash/iron soiled clothes. 1:6 ratio 3. MODERN NURSING A. Concentration on MCN 10.

Licensure exam 5. BSN 5 years. personality traits. Comprehensive nursing care for the sick and well . Grading : clinical competence. academic. Required uniforms 6. Nursing Now 1. 4 years in summer conceptual approach 2. 4 years. requirements 10. Render services to all sexes 9. Different books 3. Quizzes and long exams 4. Various fields of nursing 8. Tuition and affiliation fees 7.B.

cellar cuffs and cap 1890: required uniforms with shorter skirts and sleeves 1904: sterile gowns and linens. no masks . trailing skirts white apron.1873: importance of uniform -uniform patterned after Euphemia Van Renssekaer (blue and white striped seersucker.

Improve living standards . WHO .Health information . CONTEMPORARY PERIOD A. United Nations .International space peace .Improve nutrition .IV.Improve environmental conditions .International security B.

Disease prevention 6. Maintain physical and psychological climate 3. Include patient and family 4.Functions of Nurse: 1. Coordinate nursing functions . Carry out therapeutic program 2. Health teachings 5.

Space Medicine .C. Atomic Energy 2.Col. Scientific and Technological Advances 1. Pearl Tucker. Computers 3.Air Force Nursing 5. Future: hospital satellites . Diagnostic and Therapeutic Agents 4.

History of Nursing in the Philippines .

Another person (an enemy or a witch) – b. they were called herb doctors) .Early Beliefs and Practices • 1. People believed in special gods of healing.Evil Spirits • 2. with the priest-physician (called “word doctors” as intermediary. • 3. If they uses leaves or roots. Beliefs about causation of disease – a. People believed that evil spirits could be driven away by person with powers to expel demons.

witches were supposed to be the cause. Difficult childbirth and some diseases (called Pamao) were attributed to “nonos”. the “good midwife” (Mabuting hilot) was called in. During labor. Midwife assisted in childbirth.Early Care of the Sick Herbmen were called “Herbiceros” meaning one who practiced witchcraft. gunpowder was exploded from a bamboo cane close to the head of the sufferer. . To dispense their influence. if birth became difficult. Persons suffering from diseases without any identified cause were believed to be bewitched by the “mangkukulam” or “mangagaway”.

Hospital de Indio (1586) – established by the Franciscan Order. • 2. Francisco de Sande.Health Care During the Spanish Regime The earliest hospitals established were the following: • 1. and also admitted Spanish civilians. . Hospital Real de Manila (1577) – established mainly to care for the Spanish king’s soldiers. built exclusively for patients with leprosy. It was founded by Gov. San Lazaro Hospital (1578) – founded by Brother Juan Clemente and was administers for many years by the Hospitaliers of San Juan de Dios. service was in general supported by alms and contributions from charitable persons. • 3.

4. rendered general health service for the people. . San Juan de Dios Hospital (1596) – founded by the Brotherhood of Misericordia and administered by the Hospitalliers of San Juan de Dios. Hospital de Aguas Santas (1590) – Established in Laguna. Bautista of the Franciscan Order. support was derived from alms and rents. 5. near a medicinal spring founded by Brother J.

Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo – wife of Emilio Aguinaldo. Jose Rizal. Rosa Sevilla de Alvaro – converted their house into quarters for the Filipino soldiers. • 2.Nursing During the Philippine Revolution The prominent persons involved in nursing works were: • 1. Josephine Bracken – wife of Dr. • 3. during the Philippine – American War that broke in 1899. organized the Filipino Red Cross under the inspiration of Apolinario Mabini. Installed a field hospital in an estate house in Tejeros and provided nursing care to the wounded night and day. .

President of the Filipino Red Cross branch in Batangas. 7. Capitan Salome – a revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija who provided care to the wounded when not in combat. Trinidad Tecson – “Ina ng Biac na Bato” stayed in the hospital at Biac na Bato to care for the wounded soldiers/ . provided nursing care to Filipino soldiers during the revolution.4. Agueda Kahabagan – revolutionary leader in Laguna also provided nursing services to her troops. Dona Maria Agoncillo de Aguinaldo – second wife of Emilio Aguinaldo. 6. 8. 5. Melchora Aquino – nursed the wounded Filipino soldiers and gave them food and shelter.

• Functions of Filipino Red Cross: – 1. age requirement for officer was 25 years old.Of sound reputation .• Filipino Red Cross  キ Malolos. charity. – 2. • Requirements for membership: – 1. Bulacan was the location of the National Headquarters. and voluntary contributions. – 2.Collection of war funds and materials through concerts. bazaars.Provision of nursing care to wounded Filipino soldiers.At least 14 years old.

Hospitals and Schools of Nursing • 1. Mary Johnston Hospital And School Of Nursing (Manila. Iloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing (Iloilo City. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing (Quezon City. 1907) . 1907) • 5. Paul’s Hospital School of Nursing (Manila. Philippine General Hospital School of Nursing (1907) • 4. St. 1906) • 2. St. 1907) • 3.

San Juan de Dios Hospital School of Nursing (Manila. 1918) . 1913) 8. 1913) 9. 1912) 7. Emmanuel Hospital School of Nursing (Capiz. Philippine Christian Mission Institute Schools of Nursing a. Mary Chiles Hospiatal School Of Nursing (Manila. Ilocos Sur. Ilocos Norte.6. 1903) b. Sallie Long Read Memorial Hospital School of Nursing (Laoag. Southern Islands Hospital School of Nursing (Cebu. Frank Dunn Memorial Hospital (Vigan. 1911) c.

Chinese General Hospital School of Nursing (1921) c. St. Zamboanga General Hospital School of Nursing (1921) b.Manila Sanitarium and Hospital School of Nursing (1930) e. North General Hospital and school of Nursing (1946) g. Baguio General Hospital School of Nursing (1923) d.Siliman University School of Nursing (1947) . Paul’s School of Nursing in Iloilo City (1946) f.• Other schools of Nursing established: – – – – – – – a.

The First Colleges of Nursing in the Philippines • 1. University of Santo Tomas College of Nursing (1946) • 2. University of the Philippines College of Nursing (1948) . Manila Central University College of Nursing (1947) • 3.

founder of the Philippine Nurses Association. • 3. Cesaria Tan – First Filipino to receive Masters degree in Nursing abroad. Anastacia Giron Tupas – First Filipino nurse to hold the position Chief Nurse Superintendent. .Nursing Leaders in the Philippines • 1. • 2. Socorro Sirilan – pioneered in Hospital Social Service in San Lazaro Hospital where she was the chief nurse.

. Choncita Ruiz – first full time editor of the newly named PNA magazine “The Filipino Nurse” 8. Loreto Tupaz – “Dean of the Philippine Nursing”. Florence Nightingale of Iloilo. Socorro Diaz – first editor of the PNA magazine called “The Message” 7. Rosa Militar – a pioneer in school health education 5. Sor Ricarda Mendoza – a pioneer in nursing education 6.4.

1782) 2. Colegio de Santa Isabel (Naga City) – took care of poor girls . Asylum of San Jose (Cebu) 3.Health Nursing Organizations Early institutions for child welfare: • • • • 1. Asylum of Looban (Manila) 4. Hospicio de San Jose (Manila.

6. 1907) – Milk station. 7.5. Liga Nacional Filipiniana para la Protection de la Primera Infancia – worked for the passage of child welfare legislations. Public Welfare Board – took over the work of the Liga in 1915. Conducted a systematic campaign on child hygiene in 1917. Gota de Leche (Manila. .

– 2. Philippine Nurses Association – national organization of Filipino nurses. IRNOP. Catholic Nurses Guild of the Philippines – 4. etc. National League of Nurses – association of nurses employed in Department of Health – 3.• Nursing Organizations – 1. . MCNAP. Others: ORNAP.

Definitions of Nursing .

the family.act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery. goal oriented and adaptale to the needs of the individual. sick or well. and the community during health and illness.direct. will. . ANA .Nigthingale .the unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual. Henderson . in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength. or knowledge. and to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.

Recipients of Nursing
A. Consumers B. Patients C. Clients

Scopes of nursing
A. Promoting Health and Wellness
• • • • Facilitates decisions about lifestyle that enhance the quality of life and encourages acceptance of responsibility for one’s own health. Increases health awareness by assisting in the understanding that health is more than just not being ill and by teaching that certain behaviors and factors can contribute to or diminish wellness. Teaches wellness skills by promoting decision making so that selfcare activities maximize achievement of goals that are realistic and attainable and by serving as a role model. Encourages the use of wellness resources by providing information and referrals.

B. Preventing Illness
• Educational programs in areas such as prenatal care for pregnant women, smoking cessation programs and stressreduction seminars. • Community programs and resources that encourage healthy lifestyle, including aerobic exercise classes, swimnastics and physical fitness program. • Literature and television information on diet, exercise and the importance of good health program. • Health assessments in institutions, clinic, and community settings that identify areas of strength and the potential for illness.

taking BP. arthritis and stroke. teaching and carrying out rehabilitation for illnesses such as heart attacks. by such measures as providing physical care. • Working in mental health and chemical-dependency programs.g. Restoring Health • Providing direct care of the person who is ill. • Planning. . • Performing diagnostic measurements and examinations (e. administering medications and carrying out procedures and treatment.C. measuring blood sugars) that detect illness. • Referring questions and abnormal findings to other healthcare providers as appropriate.

D. . Caring for the dying giving care and comforting to all people who are dying.

Standards of Nursing Practice Based on ANA To describe the responsibilities for which nurses are accountable. .

Roles and Functions of the Nurse Caregiver Communicator Teacher Client Advocate Counselor Change Agent Leader Manager Case Manager Research Consumer .

Fields of Opportunities in Nursing Institutional Nursing Hospital Staff Nursing Community Health Nursing School Nursing Industrial Nursing Independent Nursing Practice Nurses in Education Nursing in other fields .

Definition of Terms… Profession . .an occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge.

Difference of Profession from other occupation Needs prolonged. An orientation toward service Ongoing research Code of ethics Autonomy Professional organization . specialized training to acquire a body of knowledge pertinent to the role to be performed.

5. Specialized Education Body of Knowledge Service Orientation Ongoing Research Code of Ethics Autonomy . 4.Criteria of a Profession 1. 2. 3. 6.

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