What is denim fabric Denim is a strong, durable fabric constructed in a twill weave with indigo and white yarns. The blue/indigo yarns are the lengthwise or “warp” threads (parallel to the selvage). The white yarns run across the fabric width (the weft threads). Denim is traditionally woven with 100%-cotton yarn; however, today it’s blended with polyester, to control shrinkage and wrinkles, and Lycra to add stretch.

Usually the weave is a 4- heald shaft warpfaced twill with the twill to right or to the left. Denims are particularly strong in the warp direction, where the fabric is subjected to greater wear. The standard denim, is made with indigo-blue dyed warp yarn and gray filling.

Yarns used in denim fabric Production:
Yarn Used: 1. Rotor Yarn 2. Ring Yarn 3. Slub Yarn 4. Polyester 5. Lycra Yarn

Cross Slub 6. Rotor 4. Stretch 6. Regular 2. Polyester 7. Slub 5. Polystretch . Ring 3.Classification of denim fabric ( According to use) 1.

100% ring etc according to yarn used to produce the fabric 100% cotton Ring Denim . The fabrics are so called 100% cotton.Regular fabric: 1. Only one count is used so no count variation 3. There is no mixing of count both in warp & weft 2.

Ring fabric: 1. 2. There is no slub yarn used in this type of fabric 3. This mixing is done in warpers beam using shets of different counted yarn 4. This fabric is produced by mixing count or using two or more counts. There is ring effect or horizontal straight line is formed in Ring fabric Ring Fabric .

Process Flow Chart For Warp Yarn Yarn in Cone Warping Pre-treatment Indigo Dyeing Drying Sizing Drying Beaming Weaving Preparatory For Weft Yarn Yarn in Cone Singeing Softening Skewness Sanforizing Calendaring Finishing Mercerizing Stentering Desizing Resin Finishing Inspection Packing Delivery .

which are as follows: Direct Warping Ball Warping 1.Warping: Definition: In general terms. 2. Types of Warping: ( In Partex Denim) There are Two types of warping. warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end packages forming a parallel sheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam. .

Direct warping can be used to directly produce the weaver’s beam in a single operation. This is also called direct beaming Figure: High speed/Direct warping .Direct Warping: In direct warping. the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packages on the creel and directly wound on a beam.

Figure: Ball warping .Ball Warping Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. This stage is also called long chain beaming or re-beaming. The warp yarns are wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. the tow is separated and wound on a beam. After the dyeing process.

Min.5–3m/hour :21-23KW :600daN :Around30000m :BothRing&OpenEndyarn .CH-9240UZWILBENINGER2005 Origin YearofInstallation Creelcapacity WindingSpeed MaximumBeamDiameter AirPressureRequired AirConsumption Power PressureofDrum MaximumLengthofYarnCanWind YarnCount :Germany :2005 :Max.:520.Warping M/C used in Partex Denim: BENDIRECT WARPING MACHINE Machine Specifications: NAME TotalMachine Model :BENDIRECT WARPING MACHINE :02 :AG.:372 :Maximum1200m/min :1250mm :5-8bar 3 :2.

Anchoring or fixing the dye molecules to the fibre molecules by hydrogen or covalent bond.Dyeing & Sizing Theory of Dyeing: The whole process of dyeing is completed by four steps as follows: 1. Migrates the dye molecules everywhere of the fibre molecules. 3. Fibre absorbs the dye molecule from the outer surface of the fibre to the internal surface of the cellulose. . 2. Dye molecules come to the fabric surface from the dye bath. 4.

The special character of this fabric – only the warp thread is dyed makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form. regularity as well as a small part of short-stapled cotton fibres belongs to the basic features of the denim yarn.Denim dyeing Denim Dyeing: The classical jeans were produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. a high fiber for strength. Dyes use for Denim:  Vat Dyes  Sulphur Dyes . The development of OE yarns by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality.

Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use 2. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades . .Why Vat dye is used: (Mainly Indigo Class) 1. Vat dyes provide textile materials with the best colour fastness of all the dyes in common use 2. Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it Why Sulphur dye is used: (Mainly Black) 1.

Slasher dyeing 2. Rope dyeing .Denim Dyeing Process: (Used in Partex Denim) There are two processes in the practice for continuous denim dyeing: 1.

where better uniformity of dyeing is achieved than other Indigo dyeing technologies like slasher dyeing. Figure: Rope Dyeing Range .Rope Dyeing: The indigo Rope dyeing technology for denim production is considered a superior dyeing technology.

2. as there is no stoppage for set changes 4. Maximum continuity of shades and minimum danger of center to selvedge shade variation can be achieved . The system offers highest production. due to continuous process.Features of Rope Dyeing: 1. Today rope dyeing accounts for a large percentage of warp yarn dyed for denim production 3. Better uniformity of dyeing is achieved than other Indigo dyeing technologies like slasher dyeing.

Figure: Rope dyeing and subsequent sizing. Step 2: Rope Dyeing. Step 4: Sizing . Step 3: Long Chain Beamer. Step 1: Ball Warper.

The Slasher Dyeing machine is capable of handling Ne count form 9/s to 30/s (OE and Slub both). The yarns sheet from each beam is pulled over and combined with the yarns from the other beams so that multiple sheets of yarns can be made. . instead of ball warping logs in case of Indigo rope dyeing system. direct warping beams are used.Slasher Dyeing: In continuous slasher/sheet dyeing and sizing machine.

Figure: Sheet Dyeing Range .

as mending of broken ends is very difficult in sheet dyeing. . set to set shade consistency is better in rope dyeing.  Sheet dyeing produces more waste than rope dyeing. In case of sheet dyeing.  Rope dyeing means for higher production and long runs.  In sheet dyeing good quality yarn is required.Relative merits and demerits Between Rope dyeing & Slasher dyeing:  Generally rope dyeing denim range produces better quality of denim than slasher dyeing. than sheet dyeing. the machine remains stop at set change. Ropes dyeing can more lots without any stoppages at set change. This problem is less in rope dyeing.  Lot to lot.  In rope dyeing better dry and wet fastness properties in denim fabric can be achieved.

3. To maintain good quality fabric. 5. To increase the tensile or breaking strength for cellulose yarn. To improve the weave ability of warp yarn. . To increase elasticity. To reduce hairiness. 4. 2.Sizing: Definition: The process of applying a protective adhesive coating upon the yarn surface is called sizing. weakness of textile materials. 6. To remove electrolytic formation for synthetic or blended yarn. This is the most important operation to attain maximum weaving efficiency Objects of Sizing: 1.

Electrostatic Charger: Decrease 8. Yarn Diameter: Increase 6. Stiffness: Increase 4. Hairiness: Decrease . Abrasion Resistance: Increase 3. Breaking strength: Increase 2.Changes in Yarn due to Sizing: 1. Frictional Resistance: Increase 5. Extension: Decrease 7.

Higher Elasticity 3. Lower absorbency 9. Higher frictional resistance . Lower static electricity 7. Higher weight of yarn 6. Lower weakness 8. Lower hairiness 11. Higher yarn diameter 5. Lower flexibility 10.Why Sizing is called Heart of Weaving: 1 Higher Strength 2. Higher Smoothness 4.

11 to 15% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn. So. ingredients are on the weight of yarn 7 to 10%.Types of sizing according to application: Pure sizing: When sizing is done in yarn which produces unbleached fabric is called pure sizing. Above 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.  Medium sizing: For increase of strength and weight of the yarn 16 to 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.  Heavy sizing: It is used to increase the weight of yarn. .   Light sizing: This is used for dyeing and printing.

Machine process Sequence of Dyeing & Sizing 1. Three Pre wash box 3. Pre-drying cylinder 6. Three Post Wash Box 5. Size bath 7. Post drying cylinder 8. Pure Black) 4. Sheet Dyeing process (Regular. Topping. Pre Wetting Box 2. Weavers beam winder . Bottoming.

 Indigo (Regular): In this case we use indigo in all tanks.  Topping: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with indigo in start and then it is washed and then it is dyed with another dye (normally with sulfur). According to shade. There are some options in dyeing of warp sheet.Dyeing: As discussed above denim warp sheet is dyed with Indigo (Vat) dyes and sulfur dyes.  Bottoming: In this case another dye is applied before dyeing with indigo. . First the warp sheet is dyed with sulfur dye (black color) and then it is washed and then dyed with indigo.  Pure Black: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with sulphur dye (black color) with high concentration of color.

Concentration of the size mixture 5. Volume of the size box (both quantity and size level) 6. Sizing machine speed 3. Yarn count and size box warp density per unit space. Hardness of squeeze rollers 9. Size add-on levels 4. . Diameter of squeeze rollers 10. Squeezing pressure 8. Viscosity of the size solution 2.Controlling Point of Sizing: 1. Condition of squeeze rollers 7.

Basic Weave Designs:  Plain weave  Twill weave: Zigzag twill Herringbone twill Broken twill But Mostly 2/1.Weaving: The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. 3/1 RHT is used in Partex Denim .

. Water-Jet But in Partex only Rapier & Airjet loom is used. Air-Jet Weaving: Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed.Weaving Machines used to produce denim fabric: 1. Projectile 3. Air-Jet 4. Rapier 2.

which completes the cycle. The rapier head picks up the filling yarn and carries it through the shed. a flexible or rigid solid element. called rapier. the rapier head returns empty to pick up the next filling yarn. Figure: Relay Nozzles Figure: Rapier head . is used to insert the filling yarn across the shed. A rapier performs a reciprocating motion. After reaching the destination.Rapier Weaving: In Rapier weaving.

PARTEX DENIM Flow Process Chart for Denim Finish Line Fabric Unwinding Brushing J-Box Singeing Brushing J-Box Softening Skewness Dryer . 2 Mini Stenter Control of fabric width Motor speed: 25-80 m/min Protruding fibre removed by blower Fabric store unit gas Pressure: 1-2 Bar Bust removed by blower Bust removed by blower Fabric store unit Softener Flacks used for soften the fabric Strengthening the weft yarn Steam pressure: 2 Bar Sanforizing Calendaring Folding Fabric Shrinkage Control Make the fabric surface uniform Prepare for next step th .1.

Normally leg twist not shown on garment stage. Leg twist is assumed to be happen due to the directional yarn stresses. It only observed after laundering of the garment. Leg twist is a major problem in denim manufacturing. Due to this reason the legs are twisted. Due to this problem the leg is rotated in the opposite direction of the twill of the fabric after laundering. Although leg twist appears after first laundering and it increases progressively with repeated launderings. particularly in twill weave creates a serious problem in subsequent garment manufacturing and its washing. Figure: Fabric with skew Figure: Fabric without skew .Skewness Control: Some important terms in Denim finishing: The skewness in denim fabric. These are inherent in regular twill weave fabrics and developed during weaving. During washing the yarn stresses is relaxed which change the regular position of interlacement between warp and filling yarns.

twist yarns exhibit left hand skew.In general. Figure: Woven fabric skewness .twist cotton yarns generate right-handed skew. All S. In general open-end yarns result in less skew than the ring spun yarns. Z.

Sanforizing: Sanforizing is a mechanical finishing process of treating textile fabrics to prevent the normal dimensional alternation of warp & weft. The sole objective of sanforizing is to control the length wise shrinkage of fabric. After sanforizing the residual shrinkage of woven fabric may be zero. The Maximum percentage of shrinkage depends on fabric construction and quality but controlled according to the customer specifications. .

It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension and wash thoroughly.1.Mercerization: PARTEX DENIM Mercerization is a physio-chemical process where yarn (cotton) is treated with 15-25% caustic soda solution at a temperature of 200-300C. Flow Process Chart for Mercerization Fabric Unwinding Bath-1 Bath-2 Bath-3 Stenter Bath-4 to 7 Bath-8 Bath-9 Dryer . 2 Fabric folding Speed: 25-35 m/min Dosing of NaOH at room temperature Dosing of NaOH at room temperature Normal water wash at room temperature Width control Hot water wash at 90OC Hot water wash at 90OC PH control Normal water wash at room temperature Moisture remove and drying Prepare for next process th .

Improve dye affinity 4. Improve hygroscopicity 3.Advantages of mercerization: 1. Improve smoothness 5. 20-30% dye and chemical save while dyeing after mercerization. Improve dimensional stability and physical compactness 7. Increase tensile strength 2. Improve luster 6. .

Desizing: PARTEX DENIM Desizing is the process of removing size materials from fabric. 2 J-box Fabric folding Temporary fabric store Normal water wash at 80-90 OC Dryer. Sometimes softener can be used for better removing of size materials and also for better soft hand feeling. Flow Process Chart for Desizing Fabric Unwinding J-box Bath-1-6 Dryer . This is done simply passing the fabric through some hot water bath for several times.1. moisture remove Temporary fabric store Prepare for next process th .

Resin Finishing: Resin may be applied on the fabric surface to form a coating or it may be applied to the amorphous region of the material to impart a crease resisting property. Flow Process Chart for Resin Fabric Unwinding J-box Fabric straighten roller Roller Printing Coating Stenter/Heat setting Rolling th . It is a permanent chemical finishing process.

After inspection fabric is wound on roller. Inspection m/c . They inspect the fabric according to 4 point system. The cloth is pulled over the white board table by a variable speed motor and different cloth defects are recorded for quality control purpose. start and stop button controls. Four tube lights are provided to optimize the lighting.Inspection Process: Fabric batcher is set at the back side of machine equipped with rollers which provides fabric unwinding. reverse. Inspection table is laminated white to enhance the defect identification. It has forward. Inspection is carried out on white board table. Measuring counter is provided in front of the inspection table for controlling length.

Size Of Defect (Length in Inches) Penalty Points 3 inches or less Over 3 inches but less than 6 inches 1 2 Over 6inches but less than 9 inches Over 9 inches 3 4 . 2. 3 and 4 according to their size and significance.Four (4) Point System: Faults are scored with penalty points of 1.

More than 40 Points/100m. Class Class A Class Name Elite Upto 20–30Points/100m. Upto 30–40Points/100m. Class B Class C Rejected Zenith Insta Rejected .Quality Assurance Procedure: Inspection Calculation Formula = (Total Point ×36 ×100)/ (Fabric length×Fabric width) Point Range Upto 20Points/100m.

In Bangladesh denim production is growing very fast. So we all should know the basic concept of this fabric.Conclusion: Denim is an important fabric in day to day use. So knowledge about denim fabric is a must. .

We hope in near future we will be able to produce elite denim in our Country. . Thanks to my group members who has helped me getting the best idea to prepare the presentation.Acknowledgement: For preparing this presentation we got little time and as it is a vast knowledge about the denim fabric production details & clear concept is a must.

ARIFUR RAHMAN ID: 2008 1-009 2.Prepared by: 1. TOSLIM HOSSAIN KHAN ID: 2008 1-072 3. S. RUSSELL ANWAR ID: 2008 1-080 ( Department of Fabric Manufacturing Technology) .M.

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