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What is denim fabric Denim is a strong, durable fabric constructed in a twill weave with indigo and white yarns. The blue/indigo yarns are the lengthwise or warp threads (parallel to the selvage). The white yarns run across the fabric width (the weft threads). Denim is traditionally woven with 100%-cotton yarn; however, today its blended with polyester, to control shrinkage and wrinkles, and Lycra to add stretch.

Usually the weave is a 4- heald shaft warpfaced twill with the twill to right or to the left. Denims are particularly strong in the warp direction, where the fabric is subjected to greater wear. The standard denim, is made with indigo-blue dyed warp yarn and gray filling.

Yarns used in denim fabric Production:

Yarn Used: 1. Rotor Yarn 2. Ring Yarn 3. Slub Yarn 4. Polyester 5. Lycra Yarn

Classification of denim fabric ( According to use)

1. Regular 2. Ring 3. Rotor 4. Slub 5. Cross Slub 6. Stretch 6. Polyester 7. Polystretch

Regular fabric:
1. There is no mixing of count both in warp & weft 2. Only one count is used so no count variation 3. The fabrics are so called 100% cotton, 100% ring etc according to yarn used to produce the fabric

100% cotton Ring Denim

Ring fabric:
1. This fabric is produced by mixing count or using two or more counts.
2. There is no slub yarn used in this type of fabric 3. This mixing is done in warpers beam using shets of different counted yarn 4. There is ring effect or horizontal straight line is formed in Ring fabric

Ring Fabric

Process Flow Chart

For Warp Yarn

Yarn in Cone
Warping Pre-treatment Indigo Dyeing Drying Sizing Drying Beaming Weaving Preparatory

For Weft Yarn

Yarn in Cone

Singeing Softening Skewness Sanforizing Calendaring Finishing Mercerizing Stentering

Desizing Resin Finishing Inspection Packing Delivery

In general terms, warping is transferring many yarns from a creel of single-end packages forming a parallel sheet of yarns wound onto a beam or a section beam.

Types of Warping: ( In Partex Denim)

There are Two types of warping, which are as follows: Direct Warping Ball Warping

1. 2.

Direct Warping: In direct warping, the yarns are withdrawn from the single-end yarn packages on the creel and directly wound on a beam. Direct warping can be used to directly produce the weavers beam in a single operation. This is also called direct beaming

Figure: High speed/Direct warping

Ball Warping
Ball Warping is mainly used in manufacturing of denim fabrics. The warp yarns are wound on a ball beam in the form of a tow for indigo dyeing. After the dyeing process, the tow is separated and wound on a beam. This stage is also called long chain beaming or re-beaming.

Figure: Ball warping

Warping M/C used in Partex Denim:


Machine Specifications:

TotalMachine Model



YearofInstallation Creelcapacity WindingSpeed MaximumBeamDiameter AirPressureRequired AirConsumption Power PressureofDrum MaximumLengthofYarnCanWind YarnCount

:2005 :Max.:520,Min.:372 :Maximum1200m/min :1250mm :5-8bar

:2.53m/hour :21-23KW :600daN :Around30000m :BothRing&OpenEndyarn

Dyeing & Sizing

Theory of Dyeing:
The whole process of dyeing is completed by four steps as follows: 1. Dye molecules come to the fabric surface from the dye bath. 2. Fibre absorbs the dye molecule from the outer surface of the fibre to the internal surface of the cellulose. 3. Migrates the dye molecules everywhere of the fibre molecules. 4. Anchoring or fixing the dye molecules to the fibre molecules by hydrogen or covalent bond.

Denim dyeing Denim Dyeing:

The classical jeans were produced out of indigo-dyed Denim fabric. The special character of this fabric

only the warp thread is dyed makes it necessary to carry out dyeing in yarn form. The yarns applied for Denim were exclusively produced on ring spinning machines in former times. The development of OE yarns by applying smaller rotors with a spinning speed of up to 200 m/min has led to the application of OE rotor yarns both for warp and weft. The yarns applied for weaving must be of high quality, a high fiber for strength, regularity as well as a small part of short-stapled cotton fibres belongs to the basic features of the denim yarn. Dyes use for Denim:

Vat Dyes Sulphur Dyes

Why Vat dye is used: (Mainly Indigo Class) 1. Vat dyes provide textile materials with the best colour fastness of all the dyes in common use

2. . Indigo is attractive for its pleasing blue colour and for the unique fading characteristics of garment dyed with it Why Sulphur dye is used: (Mainly Black) 1. Sulphur dyes are widely used on cotton mainly because they are economical to use 2. They have good to excellent wash fastness and good light fastness in dark shades

Denim Dyeing Process: (Used in Partex Denim) There are two processes in the practice for continuous denim dyeing: 1. Slasher dyeing 2. Rope dyeing

Rope Dyeing:
The indigo Rope dyeing technology for denim production is considered a superior dyeing technology, where better uniformity of dyeing is achieved than other Indigo dyeing technologies like slasher dyeing.

Figure: Rope Dyeing Range

Features of Rope Dyeing: 1. Better uniformity of dyeing is achieved than other Indigo dyeing technologies like slasher dyeing.

2. Today rope dyeing accounts for a large percentage of warp

yarn dyed for denim production 3. The system offers highest production, due to continuous

process, as there is no stoppage for set changes

4. Maximum continuity of shades and minimum danger of center to selvedge shade variation can be achieved

Figure: Rope dyeing and subsequent sizing, Step 1: Ball Warper, Step 2: Rope Dyeing, Step 3: Long Chain Beamer, Step 4: Sizing

Slasher Dyeing:
In continuous slasher/sheet dyeing and sizing machine, direct warping beams are used, instead of ball warping logs in case of Indigo rope dyeing system. The Slasher Dyeing machine is capable of handling Ne count form 9/s to 30/s (OE and Slub both). The yarns sheet from each beam is pulled over and combined with

the yarns from the other beams so that multiple sheets of yarns
can be made.

Figure: Sheet Dyeing Range

Relative merits and demerits Between Rope dyeing & Slasher dyeing:
Generally rope dyeing denim range produces better quality of denim than slasher dyeing. Rope dyeing means for higher production and long runs. Ropes dyeing can more lots without any stoppages at set change. In case of sheet dyeing, the machine remains stop at set change. In rope dyeing better dry and wet fastness properties in denim fabric can be achieved, than sheet dyeing. In sheet dyeing good quality yarn is required, as mending of broken ends is very difficult in sheet dyeing. This problem is less in rope dyeing. Sheet dyeing produces more waste than rope dyeing. Lot to lot, set to set shade consistency is better in rope dyeing,

The process of applying a protective adhesive coating upon the yarn surface is called sizing. This is the most important operation to attain maximum weaving efficiency

Objects of Sizing:
1. To improve the weave ability of warp yarn. 2. To increase the tensile or breaking strength for cellulose yarn. 3. To maintain good quality fabric. 4. To reduce hairiness, weakness of textile materials. 5. To remove electrolytic formation for synthetic or blended yarn. 6. To increase elasticity.

Changes in Yarn due to Sizing:

1. Breaking strength: Increase 2. Abrasion Resistance: Increase 3. Stiffness: Increase 4. Frictional Resistance: Increase 5. Yarn Diameter: Increase 6. Extension: Decrease 7. Electrostatic Charger: Decrease

8. Hairiness: Decrease

Why Sizing is called Heart of Weaving:

1 Higher Strength 2. Higher Elasticity 3. Higher Smoothness 4. Higher yarn diameter 5. Higher weight of yarn

6. Lower static electricity

7. Lower weakness 8. Lower absorbency

9. Lower flexibility
10. Lower hairiness 11. Higher frictional resistance

Types of sizing according to application:

Pure sizing: When sizing is done in yarn which produces unbleached fabric is called pure sizing. So, ingredients are on the weight of yarn 7 to 10%.

Light sizing: This is used for dyeing and printing. 11 to 15% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn. Medium sizing: For increase of strength and weight of the yarn 16 to 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.

Heavy sizing: It is used to increase the weight of yarn. Above 40% sizing ingredients are used on the weight of yarn.

Machine process Sequence of Dyeing & Sizing

1. Pre Wetting Box 2. Three Pre wash box 3. Sheet Dyeing process (Regular, Bottoming, Topping, Pure Black) 4. Three Post Wash Box 5. Pre-drying cylinder 6. Size bath 7. Post drying cylinder 8. Weavers beam winder

As discussed above denim warp sheet is dyed with Indigo (Vat) dyes and sulfur dyes. There are some options in dyeing of warp sheet.

Indigo (Regular): In this case we use indigo in all tanks. According to shade. Bottoming: In this case another dye is applied before dyeing with indigo. First the warp sheet is dyed with sulfur dye (black color) and then it is washed and then dyed with indigo.

Topping: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with indigo in start and then it is washed and then it is dyed with another dye (normally with sulfur).
Pure Black: In this case the warp sheet is dyed with sulphur dye (black color) with high concentration of color.

Controlling Point of Sizing:

1. Viscosity of the size solution

2. Sizing machine speed 3. Size add-on levels

4. Concentration of the size mixture

5. Volume of the size box (both quantity and size level) 6. Condition of squeeze rollers 7. Squeezing pressure 8. Hardness of squeeze rollers

9. Diameter of squeeze rollers

10. Yarn count and size box warp density per unit space.

The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving.

Basic Weave Designs:

Plain weave Twill weave: Zigzag twill Herringbone twill Broken twill
But Mostly 2/1, 3/1 RHT is used in Partex Denim

Weaving Machines used to produce denim fabric:

1. Rapier 2. Projectile 3. Air-Jet 4. Water-Jet

But in Partex only Rapier & Airjet loom is used.

Air-Jet Weaving:
Air-jet weaving is a type of weaving in which the filling yarn is inserted into the warp shed with compressed air. Air-jet system utilizes a multiple nozzle systems and a profiled reed.

Rapier Weaving:
In Rapier weaving, a flexible or rigid solid element, called rapier, is used to insert the filling yarn across the shed. The rapier head picks up the filling yarn and carries it through the shed. After reaching the destination, the rapier head returns empty to pick up the next filling yarn, which completes the cycle. A rapier performs a reciprocating motion.

Figure: Relay Nozzles

Figure: Rapier head


Flow Process Chart for Denim Finish Line

Fabric Unwinding Brushing J-Box Singeing Brushing J-Box Softening Skewness Dryer - 1, 2 Mini Stenter
Control of fabric width Motor speed: 25-80 m/min Protruding fibre removed by blower Fabric store unit gas Pressure: 1-2 Bar Bust removed by blower Bust removed by blower Fabric store unit Softener Flacks used for soften the fabric Strengthening the weft yarn Steam pressure: 2 Bar

Sanforizing Calendaring Folding

Fabric Shrinkage Control Make the fabric surface uniform Prepare for next step


Skewness Control:

Some important terms in Denim finishing:

The skewness in denim fabric, particularly in twill weave creates a serious problem in subsequent garment manufacturing and its washing. Leg twist is a major problem in denim manufacturing. Due to this problem the leg is rotated in the opposite direction of the twill of the fabric after laundering. Leg twist is assumed to be happen due to the directional yarn stresses. These are inherent in regular twill weave fabrics and developed during weaving. During washing the yarn stresses is relaxed which change the regular position of interlacement between warp and filling yarns. Due to this reason the legs are twisted. Normally leg twist not shown on garment stage. It only observed after laundering of the garment. Although leg twist appears after first laundering and it increases progressively with repeated launderings.

Figure: Fabric with skew

Figure: Fabric without skew

In general, Z- twist cotton yarns generate right-handed skew.

All S- twist yarns exhibit left hand skew. In general open-end yarns result in less skew than the ring spun yarns.

Figure: Woven fabric skewness

Sanforizing is a mechanical finishing process of treating textile fabrics to prevent the normal dimensional

alternation of warp & weft. After sanforizing the

residual shrinkage of woven fabric may be zero.

The sole objective of sanforizing is to control the length wise shrinkage of fabric. The Maximum percentage of shrinkage depends on fabric construction and quality but controlled according to the customer specifications.



Mercerization is a physio-chemical process where yarn (cotton) is treated with 15-25% caustic soda solution at a temperature of 200-300C. It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension and wash thoroughly.

Flow Process Chart for Mercerization

Fabric Unwinding Bath-1 Bath-2 Bath-3 Stenter Bath-4 to 7 Bath-8 Bath-9 Dryer - 1, 2 Fabric folding

Speed: 25-35 m/min Dosing of NaOH at room temperature Dosing of NaOH at room temperature Normal water wash at room temperature Width control Hot water wash at 90OC Hot water wash at 90OC PH control Normal water wash at room temperature Moisture remove and drying Prepare for next process


Advantages of mercerization: 1. Increase tensile strength 2. Improve hygroscopicity

3. Improve dye affinity

4. Improve smoothness 5. Improve luster

6. Improve dimensional stability and physical compactness

7. 20-30% dye and chemical save while dyeing after mercerization.



Desizing is the process of removing size materials from fabric. This is done simply passing the fabric through some hot water bath for several times. Sometimes softener can be used for better removing of size materials and also for better soft hand feeling.

Flow Process Chart for Desizing

Fabric Unwinding J-box Bath-1-6 Dryer - 1, 2 J-box Fabric folding
Temporary fabric store Normal water wash at 80-90 OC Dryer, moisture remove Temporary fabric store Prepare for next process


Resin Finishing:
Resin may be applied on the fabric surface to form a coating or it may be applied to the amorphous region of the material to impart a crease resisting property. It is a permanent chemical finishing process.

Flow Process Chart for Resin

Fabric Unwinding J-box Fabric straighten roller Roller Printing Coating Stenter/Heat setting Rolling


Inspection Process:
Fabric batcher is set at the back side of machine equipped with rollers which provides fabric unwinding. Inspection table is laminated white to enhance the defect identification. Four tube lights are provided to optimize the lighting. Measuring counter is provided in front of the inspection table for controlling length. It has forward, reverse, start and stop button controls. Inspection is carried out on white board table. The cloth is pulled over the white board table by a variable speed motor and different cloth defects are recorded for quality control purpose. They inspect the fabric according to 4 point system. After inspection fabric is wound on roller.

Inspection m/c

Four (4) Point System:

Faults are scored with penalty points of 1, 2, 3 and 4 according to their size and significance.
Size Of Defect (Length in Inches) Penalty Points

3 inches or less
Over 3 inches but less than 6 inches


Over 6inches but less than 9 inches

Over 9 inches


Quality Assurance Procedure:

Inspection Calculation Formula =

(Total Point 36 100)/ (Fabric lengthFabric width)

Point Range
Upto 20Points/100m.

Class A

Class Name

Upto 2030Points/100m.
Upto 3040Points/100m. More than 40 Points/100m.

Class B
Class C Rejected

Insta Rejected

Denim is an important fabric in day to day use. So we all should know the basic concept of this fabric. In Bangladesh denim production is growing very fast. So knowledge about denim fabric is a must.

For preparing this presentation we got little time and as it is a vast knowledge about the denim fabric production details & clear concept is a must. Thanks to my group members who has helped me getting the best idea to prepare the presentation. We hope in near future we will be able to produce elite denim in our Country.

Prepared by:
1. S.M.ARIFUR RAHMAN ID: 2008 1-009 2. TOSLIM HOSSAIN KHAN ID: 2008 1-072 3. RUSSELL ANWAR ID: 2008 1-080

( Department of Fabric Manufacturing