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past decade has seen an exponential growth in the Indian Telecom Sector. In the year 2000, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India(TRAI) Act was amended. And in 2001 Telecom Disputes Settlement And Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) started its functioning. Currently, the call rates in India are one of the lowest; to the extent where some operators are even offering Per-SecondBilling.
Subsequently. after the telecommunication policies were revised to allow private operators.A large population. Tata Indicom. and a rise in consumers' income and spending owing to strong economic growth have helped make India the fastest-growing telecom market in the world. Bharti Airtel. a government unit responsible for provision of telephony services. . low telephony penetration levels. Aircel have entered the space. Idea Cellular. The first operator is the state-owned incumbent BSNL which was created by corporatization of the erstwhile DTS (Department of Telecommunication Services). companies such as Vodafone.
19 million subscribers have been added in Dec 2009. Bharti Airtel now is the largest telecom company in India. India's mobile phone market is the fastest growing in the world. 2010. CDMA & WLL (F)) base is more than 543.20 million now. The total number of telephones in the country crossed the 671. In the wireless segment.69 million mark in June 30.85% in Oct 2009. with companies adding some 20.31 million new customers in March 2010. The total wireless subscribers (GSM. rural India outpaced urban India in mobile growth rate. .In 2008-09. The overall tele-density has increased to 44.
India is Third in the world in terms of the number of Telecom subscribers. In 2009 the Indian Telecom sector contributed 5. next only to China. . In addition to this. India has the second largest wireless network in the world. There were 442 million wireless subscribers as of July 2009.Despite the financial slowdown. The Indian telecom industry had an awesome run in 2009. the industry continued its high growth rate.65 to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and attracted a Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) of over $2 billion. adding some 170 million phone connections to take the subscriber base to nearly 550 million.
The Telecom Scenario can be broadly dissected into four categories: 1) Rural India: Bridging the Telecom Divide.The government initiatives like announcement of 3G policy and WiMax rollout are bold steps in serving mass communications. The adoption of 3G and Broadband Wireless Association (BWA) is likely to galvanize competition and expand network coverage into the hinterlands of the country. Sharing of the basic telecom infrastructure among the major telecom players such as Airtel and Vodafone has also resulted in a pan India reach. The emergence of Rural Market in India provides an extensive market place for mobile industry. .
3) VAS.2) India as hub for Telecom Equipments Manufacturing and Exports. focus is on commercialization of telecom. This can contribute towards inclusive growth by making low cost handsets available that support affordable access in rural areas. In order to make the latest technology available in the market. Content development. pricing and innovative strategies are the key factors for driving the VAS demand. Mobile Banking and M-commerce Value Added Services(VAS) has an immense potential to grow with services like Mobile banking and Mobile -commerce. .
. telecom operators are re-examining their traditional business models and are making substantial investments in upcoming technologies. Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) and Future Generation Networks. These include 3G Band Allocation.4) Exploring New Frontiers With growing competitive pressure on all fronts and the inevitable need to keep pace with emerging technologies globally.
Growth of Telecom in India 1994 Aug 1995 1997 1999 March 1999 National Telecom Policy – 1994 announced Kolkata became the first metro to have a cellular network Telecom Regulatory Authority of India was setup Tariff rebalancing exercises gets initiated National Telecom Policy – 99 announced .
10% & 8% on Circle wise basis 2000 TRAI Act amended & separate tribunal proposed Jan 2001 TDSAT started functioning Jan 2001 Policy announced for additional licenses in Basic and Mobile Services Jan 2001 Limited mobility allowed to Basic Services (CDMA spectrum allotted to Basic Service Operators) . Aug 1999 License fee (revenue share) reduced from provisional 15% to 12%.
Oct-2002 BSNL entered in to GSM cellular operation w.f 19th October. 2010 3G spectrum auction for various circles. . 2002. Apr 2004 License fee reduced by 2% across the board for all the access licenses. Tariff for GSM cellular mobiles reduced. Made incoming call free & initiated tariff equalization process.e.
Policy guidelines on new services like 3G. Regular monitoring of Quality of Service parameters . Reduced upper limit in tariff (Local. Internet Telephony. Radio Paging etc. STD & ISD) and other Inter-operators tariffs. Protection of Consumer Interest. Directives on number of network access service providers. Major Activities Reduced levies on Operators.TRAI Setup in 1997. WiMAX. Nurture Conditions for Growth of Telecom in India.
MMarketing. Value added services like M-Commerce. more percentage of global business for Indian telecom. offer venues of additional revenue. Special Information. Ring tones.25%. Technologies like 3G. BPO business is growing fast: Telecom can ride on it. vast scope. will open up new frontier of business. etc. Overall tele-density is only 24%. WiMAX. As globalization is increasing. hence . Broadband penetration is just 0. Rural tele-density is less than 10%.
of operators are increasing per circle: hence more competition ARPUs are going down Cost/ Customer is very high in rural areas Spectrum – a scare commodity Infrastructure readiness in rural PC prices are very high Availability of Contents in local language Availability of Contents for Rural Population International Bandwidth is costly Telecom Manufacturing in India. .No.
decode it if applicable and render the original information. channel and receiver. The receiver is the output or destination component. The transmitter is the input or source component. Because they tend to get affected by external signals or noise. . Channel is responsible to transfer the information from the source to the destination without distortion or loss of information. This is responsible for receiving the message in the form transmitted. It is also responsible for any encoding of the information.A communication system consists of a transmitter.
. These early wireless networks which were formed in early 1960’s only concentrated on voice communication. The analog frequency division multiple access (FDMA) systems are 1G systems. Complete analog systems are considered as the start-up and hence they are first generation systems. Generations in wireless systems are measured on the basis of the considerable innovations in the standards and applications.
GSM is a digital TDMA system which was first deployed in Germany in 1991. In 1983 Europe started to develop GSM (Global System for Mobile). . This digital time division multiple access (TDMA) systems with circuit switching are 2G systems. 2G technology offered a quite satisfactory voice communication but with growing data traffic 3G technology seems to be the way to go. GSM came out with data transmission enhancement called GPRS.
e-commerce. The code division multiple access (CDMA) systems with packet/circuit switching are 3G systems. The main service component of the 3G technology is quality and reliable data traffic. video telephony etc. voicemail. online shopping. internet access. Typical applications could be teleconferencing. Private players have launched 3G services in India already though BSNL and MTNL are the pioneers. video clips. .
quality of service etc. low mobile cost. best quality voice. . Multimedia on mobile. seamless integrated services and coverage. LAN and intranet/internet on mobile are the services we should look out for. Advanced mobile technology used with an all Internet protocol (IP) network are 4G systems. The 4G technology is developed to provide high-speed transmission next generation Internet support high capacity.
In 2000s. the size. weight and service charge of cellular phones were drastically reduced and paging systems eventually disappeared. The receiver is a beeper with a dedicated telephone number to receive the message. . Paging system is a one-way personal wireless alerting and messaging system. In some systems. a voice message may be transmitted after the beep. The message primarily is the caller’s phone number. Pagers were very popular in 1990s because of its low service charge.
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