# MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA - AZCAPOTZALCO

Prof. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo.azc.uam.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012

TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, Boresi and Schmidt, Wiley, 6th Edition

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Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo. particularly for small displacements. Wiley. 6th Edition 2 . In other words. The rotation 𝛽 of a given section.uam. will depend on its distance from the plane 𝑧 = 0. deformation in the plane of the cross section is negligible.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 Not radial symmetry. For small deformation TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. relative to the plane 𝑧 = 0. this axis is called the axis oftwist. therefore plane cross sections of the torsion member normal to the z axis do not necessarily remain plane after deformation.azc. The torque T causes each cross section to rotate as a rigid body about the z axis (axis of the couple).MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . Boresi and Schmidt. neither radii have to remain straight. Experimental evidence indicates that the cross-sectional dimensions of the torsion member are not changed significantly by the deformations.AZCAPOTZALCO Prof.

the torsion problem is transformed into the determination of the stress function 𝜙 TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 St Venant’s Semi-inverse Method Establish a set of equations that represent the assumed "mathematical structure" of the solution.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA .AZCAPOTZALCO Prof. 𝑦 Warping function (alabeo) geometrical condition (compatibility condition) to be satisfied for the torsion problem 𝜎𝑥𝑧 ≠ 0 𝜎𝑦𝑧 ≠ 0 Equilibrium equations 𝑧 independent necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a stress function ϕ(𝑥. Wiley. 𝑤 = 𝜃 ∙ 𝜓 𝑥.azc. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo. and typically include various parameters to be determined. Boresi and Schmidt.uam. 6th Edition 3 . 𝑦) (Prandtl stress function) such that Thus.

Boresi and Schmidt.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. 𝜎𝑧𝑦 𝑥 𝜏 𝜎𝑧𝑥 𝜶 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝜶 TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. Wiley.AZCAPOTZALCO Prof. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo. 6th Edition 4 .uam. Lateral surface 𝑦 Because the lateral surface of a torsion member is free of applied stress.azc.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . the resultant shear stress 𝜏 on the surface S of the cross section must be directed tangent to the surface.

the torque is equal to twice the volume between the stress function and the plane of the cross section. This surface is in contact with the boundary of the cross section.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . 6. Boresi and Schmidt.AZCAPOTZALCO Prof. TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.azc.uam.7. (Saint-Venant principle) 0= 𝜕𝜙 𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 𝜕𝑥 0 = 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝜙 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 0 = 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝜙 0 = 𝑑𝑦 𝜙 𝐵 − 𝜙 𝐴 = 𝑥𝐵 𝑦𝐵 𝑇 = 𝑑𝑦 𝑥𝐴 𝜙𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑥 𝑦𝐴 𝜙𝑑𝑦 = 𝜙𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 + 𝜙𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 = 2 𝜙𝑑𝑥𝑑𝑦 The stress function 𝝓 can be considered to represent a surface over the cross section of the torsion member. 6th Edition 5 .mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS. Wiley. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo. Hence. End surfaces Assumed that stresses undergo a redistribution with distance from the ends of the bar until the distributions are essentially given by Eqs.

Wiley.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . Boresi and Schmidt. although it is not a general method. Let the boundary of the cross section for a given torsion member be specified by the relation is a solution of the torsion problem.uam.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 LINEAR ELASTIC SOLUTION Laplacian 𝛻 2 𝜙 = −2𝐺𝜃 Poisson’s equation • The elasticity solution of the torsion problem for many practical cross sections requires special methods for determining the function 𝜙. • An indirect method may be used to obtain solutions for certain types of cross sections. 𝑦) = 0 on the lateral surface of the bar 𝜕 2 𝐵𝐹 𝜕 2 𝐵𝐹 + = −2𝐺𝜃 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 𝐵 = −2𝐺𝜃 −2𝐺𝜃 = 2 𝜕 𝐹 𝜕 2 𝐹 𝛻 2 𝐹 + 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑦 2 6 TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo.azc. provided 𝐵 = 𝐶𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 and 𝐹(𝑥. 6th Edition .AZCAPOTZALCO Prof.

6th Edition 7 .AZCAPOTZALCO Prof.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 ELLIPTICAL CROSS SECTION 𝐵 = −2𝐺𝜃 𝛻 2 𝐹 TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . Wiley. Boresi and Schmidt.uam. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo.azc.

azc.uam. Boresi and Schmidt.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE CROSS SECTION TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. Wiley.AZCAPOTZALCO Prof.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . 6th Edition 8 . Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo.

mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 THE PRANDTL ELASTIC-MEMBRANE (SOAP-FILM) ANALOGY • The method is based on the similarity of the equilibrium equation for a membrane subjected to lateral pressure and the torsion (stress function) equation.uam. Wiley. Boresi and Schmidt. 6th Edition 9 .AZCAPOTZALCO Prof.azc. It is useful in the visualization of the distribution of shear-stress components in the cross section of a torsion member • 𝑧 denotes the lateral (small) displacement of an elastic membrane subjected to a lateral pressure 𝑝 in terms of force per unit area and an initial (large) tension 𝑆 in terms of force per unit length Prandtl stress function TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA .

𝛻 2 𝜙 = −2𝐺𝜃 For cross sections with equal area. 𝑦) plane membrane displacement 𝑧 is proportional to the Prandtl stress function 𝜙 The stiffnesses of torsion members with same G are proportional to the volumes between the membranes and flat plate. 𝑦) of the bar are proportional to the slopes of the membrane at the corresponding point (𝑥.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 where c is a constant of proportionality Stress components at a point (𝑥. one can deduce that a long narrow rectangular section has the least stiffness and a circular section has the greatest stiffness TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.uam. 6th Edition 10 . 𝑦) of the membrane Twisting moment T is proportional to the volume enclosed by the membrane and the (𝑥.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . Wiley. Boresi and Schmidt.AZCAPOTZALCO Prof. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo.azc.

6th Edition 11 . • If material is brittle or the torsion member is subjected to fatigue loading. external comers do not constitute a design problem. therefore.uam. Emilio Sordo Zabay esz@correo. In practical problems.AZCAPOTZALCO Prof. the corresponding membrane would have an infinite slope.azc. At the reentrant comer at D. so stress concentration at D is not particularly important. Boresi and Schmidt. shear stress at D limits the load-carrying capacity of the member Solution Better Solution ( ↑ stiffness ) TEXTO: ADVANCED MECHANICS OF MATERIALS.mx Área de Estructuras 05 de noviembre de 2012 At the external comers A. the material yields and the load is redistributed to adjacent material. E. B. which indicates an infinite shear stress.MECÁNICA AVANZADA 1 DIVISIÓN DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS E INGENIERÍA UNIVERSIDAD AUTÓNOMA METROPOLITANA . the membrane has zero slope and the shear stress is zero. and F. C. the magnitude of the shear stress at D would be finite but very large compared to that at other points in the cross section • If the torsion member is made of a ductile material and subjected to static loads. Wiley.