You are on page 1of 186

TAKE OUR YOUR PERIODIC TABLE

How

is the periodic table principally organized?

Atomic number

Columns Rows

TRANSITION METALS/ELEMENTS

TRANSITION METALS/ELEMENTS
Sometimes known as B group elements Not all follow normal rules for filling electron shells

We will worry more about this later

REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS

METALS, NONMETALS, METALLOIDS

SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES

GROUP OR FAMILY

Column on the periodic table All elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons React similarly with other elements; similar chemical properties

IMPORTANT FAMILIES/GROUPS
Alkali

Metals: 1A; very reactive with water and form strong bases called alkalis Alkaline Earth Metals: 2A; form alkaline (basic) solutions with oxygen and have VERY HIGH melting points

So they remain earths in fire (cannot be broken down)

IMPORTANT FAMILIES/GROUPS
Halogens: 7A; hals (sea) + gen (salt) because they produce a salt when in the presence of metals, NaCl Noble Gases: 8A; do not react and are therefore like nobility and do not interact with others

PERIOD

Row on the periodic table

All

elements within a period have the same number of electron shells

ELECTRON SHELLS

Bohr

said electrons can only occupy certain orbits/energy levels

We can think about these like shells

HOW MANY ELECTRONS CAN A SHELL HOLD? GENERALLY FOR MOST ELEMENTS

n=1 shell 2 electrons

n=2 shell 8 electrons


n=3 shell 8 electrons

Valence electrons:
electrons in the outermost shell most reactive electrons of an atom

ELECTRON SHELL DIAGRAMS

First we need to know how many electrons we have Recall for a neutral atom, protons = electrons

ALUMINUM

Atomic number is 13, so has 13 electrons

Fill in lowest shells first, IE fill up n=1 before starting on n=2 Single up electrons north, south, east, west before doubling up

URINAL TEST

Just

like a guy at a urinal, electrons would rather be as far away from each other as possible, but sometimes they have to pair up

WHY DO WE FILL EACH DIRECTION BEFORE DOUBLING UP?


Electrons

are loners, would rather be alone than pair up

SPECIFICALLY

Hunds rule every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied

Electrons single up before they double up

Why: provides the atom with the lowest possible energy (makes it the most stable)

Why would it make sense that an atom would be more stable with electrons by themselves than paired up?

ELECTRON SHELL DIAGRAM NEON, NE

ELECTRON SHELL DIAGRAM SILICON, SI

DRAW THE ELECTRON SHELL DIAGRAMS FOR:


Li Mg He K

N
F

Ca
C

What do the numbers in front of the A tell us? How many valence electrons the elements have

TYPES OF IONS
+ or Anion ion with a negative charge Cation ion with a positive charge

ELECTRON SHELL DIAGRAM IONS


Same process Be careful to have correct amount of electrons Add: brackets with charge

Example: Na+

http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=MTcgo46nx NE&feature=fvwrel http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=xiAT9xvTV KI

OCTET RULE

Each atom wants to have a full valence shell of electrons. A full octet allows the element to be stable and nonreactive.

Why?

http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=O_aziIIp8U 8

OCTET

How do you gain a full octet?

Either lose or gain electrons

How can you tell if an atom will lose or gain electrons?

Whichever way is easiest

LEWIS DOT STRUCTURES


Basically easier and faster way to do electron shell diagrams Only show valence electrons and element symbol

Example: C

Electron Shell Diagram

EXAMPLE CL
Lewis Dot Structure:

Electron Shell Diagram

We can do Lewis Dot Structures for all representative elements (everything but transition metals) Can also do ions

Example: Li+

Just add brackets with charge

Example: Na+

Example: Cl-

COMPLETE THE PRACTICE BEFORE YOU


Work

on your own If you need help quietly ask your partner


Fill in all columns but oxidation number Remember a full valence shell will mean gaining electrons to get to 8 or losing electrons to get to 0 (previous shell)

OXIDATION NUMBER
Hypothetical charge that an atom would have if it had a full octet Hypothetical?

Atoms will only form these charges when bonding with other elements (thats why we say the hypothetical charge) They either need to get electrons from another atom or give their electrons to another atom

CAN YOU MAKE PREDICTIONS ON POSSIBLE BONDING PARTNERS? NOTICE ANY TRENDS?

IF YOU DID NOTICE A TREND WHY DOES IT MAKE SENSE?

HTTP://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=QNQE 0XW_JY4

5 min 10 sec to 8 min

PERIODIC LAW
There is a rhyme and reason! When arranged by increasing atomic number, the chemical elements display a regular and repeating pattern of chemical and physical properties

What are some trends we have noticed or studied so far?

Sodium

has 1 valence electron, fluorine has

Which element do you think wants to hold onto their electrons more? In other words which do you think it would be harder to steal an electron from?

IONIZATION ENERGY

Energy required to remove a valence electron from a neutral atom in the gaseous state

How easily an atom loses an electron

Unit: Measured in eV or kJ/mol both measures of energy

Atoms get energy in the form of photons

Li has an ionization energy of 520 kJ/mol, F has an ionization energy of 1681 kJ/mol. What does this mean? It takes more energy to remove an electron from F than from Li. F holds onto its electrons more tightly than Li. It takes 520 kJ/mol of energy to remove an electron from Na and 1681 kJ/mol of energy to remove an electron from F.

If I shoot a certain amount of energy (photon) at Li and the same amount of energy at F which is more likely to lose an electron? Why? Ionization Energies: Li 520 kJ/mol F 1681 kJ/mol

Ionization Energies (kJ/mol): Ca 590 Se 941 Br 1140 Kr 1386

HOW MIGHT WE EXPECT IE (IONIZATION ENERGY) TO CHANGE AS WE MOVE AROUND THE PERIODIC TABLE?

Lets graph some data to see


Graph 3 10

Change across period Change down a group

Graph 1, 3, 11, and 19

IONIZATION ENERGY TRENDS


Decreases across a period Decreases down a group

Magnesium

has 2 valence electrons, chlorine has 7


Which element do you think wants to take another atoms electron more? Which would you expect to be better so to speak at taking another atoms electron?

ELECTRONEGATIVITY
Measure

of an atoms attraction for another atoms electrons


How bad an atom wants another electron How easily atom takes or steals another atoms electrons

Unitless!

Scale ranges from 0-4

Li has an electronegativity of 1, F has an electronegativity of 4. What does this mean? F has a stronger attraction for other atoms electron than Li. F is more likely to take an electron from another atom than Li.

There is an electron on the run! Which atom is more likely to catch the electron O or K, why? Electronegativity: O 3.5 K 0.8

Electronegativity: Ca 1 Se 2.4 Br 2.8 Kr 0

HOW MIGHT WE EXPECT ELECTRONEGATIVITY TO CHANGE AS WE MOVE AROUND THE PERIODIC TABLE?

Lets graph some data to see


Graph 3 10

Change across period Change down a group

Graph 1, 3, 11, and 19

WHY DO ALL THE NOBLE GASES HAVE AN ELECTRONEGATIVITY OF 0?

ELECTRONEGATIVITY
Increases across a period Decreases down a group

ATOMIC RADIUS
Distance

from the center of the nucleus to the edge of the electron cloud

How big the atom is

Units:

Meters (m) Picometers (pm) 10-12 m Angstroms (A) 10-10 m

Li has an atomic radius of 134 pm, F has an atomic radius of 72 pm. What does this mean?
Li

is bigger than F, because its radius is larger. Li takes up more space than F.

HOW MIGHT WE EXPECT ATOMIC RADIUS TO CHANGE AS WE MOVE AROUND THE PERIODIC TABLE?

Lets graph some data to see


Graph 3 10

Change across period Change down a group

Graph 1, 3, 11, and 19

ATOMIC RADIUS
Decreases across a period Increases down a group

IONIC RADIUS
Same

thing as atomic radius except for

ions
Do

you think a cation or anion will always be larger than a neutral atom of the same element? Why?

IONIC RADIUS
Cations (+) are always smaller than a neutral atom of the same element Anions (-) are always larger than a neutral atom of the same element

Which

is larger Cl or Cl-? is smaller Na or Na+?

Cl-

Which

Na+

Is

Na+ smaller than F-?


Cannot tell, can only make comparisons when working with atoms of the same element

WHERE WOULD YOU WANT TO BE?

EFFECTIVE NUCLEAR CHARGE

Charge or pull that a valence electron actually feels from the nucleus

The closer an electron actually is to the nucleus the more of a charge it feels

Valence electrons feel less of a charge because they are shielded by the electrons in the lower shells

The effective nuclear charge of Cl is +7, the effective nuclear charge of Mg is +2. What does this mean? The valence electrons of Cl see more of a charge than the valence electrons of Mg Put another way the valence electrons of Cl feel more of a pull from the nucleus than the valence electrons of Mg

Effective nuclear charge: Ca +2 Se +6 Br +7 Kr +8

EFFECTIVE NUCLEAR CHARGE

Corresponds to the # of valence electrons an atom has, by convention is written as + Mg has 2 valence electrons and thus has an effective nuclear charge of +2 Br had 7 valence electrons and thus has an effective nuclear charge of +7

WHY CAN SOME SHELLS HOLD MORE ELECTRONS THAN OTHERS?


Recall all elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells Why can I only have 2 in the first shell, and 8 in the second shell?

We can think of periods like states Some states (periods) are bigger and can hold more people (electrons)

# OF ELECTRONS IN PERIOD

Corresponds to 2n2

n = period

1st shell/period 2 electrons 2nd shell/period 8 electrons 3rd shell/period 16 electrons 4th shell/period 32 electrons

Just like bigger states have more people

Bigger states have more cities which have more streets which have more addresses that people can live at
State City Street Address

If I have the state, city, street and address of someone I can get to where they live We can think of electron orbits like addresses

There are different orbits an electron can be in and if we have all the information about the orbit we can know which electron we are specifically talking about

QUANTUM NUMBERS
The state, city, street and address of electrons Specify the properties of atomic orbitals and their electrons

There are four quantum numbers: 1. Principal (State) These 4 numbers 2. Orbital (City) give the electrons 3. Magnetic (Street) very own address! 4. Spin (House Number)

PRINCIPAL

Symbol = n

Period or shell (state)

Distance from the nucleus

Bigger states = more people Bigger periods = more electrons

ORBITAL
Symbol

=l

Many different orbitals (cities) in a period (state) Specifies shape or type of orbital There are more possible orbitals though in the higher periods

Just like we would expect a larger state to have more cities

HOW MANY ORBITALS CAN A PERIOD HOLD?

Formula:

0ln1 Where n = period and l is the orbital quantum number

n=1

l=0 l = 0, 1 l = 0, 1, 2

n=2

n=3

ALSO ASSIGN LETTERS TO DIFFERENT ORBITS


OR VALUE OF L

L value 0

Letter s

1 2 3

p d f

Again just like saying that some states (bigger ones) have more cities than smaller states How many orbitals for n = 4, in other words what are the possible values of l?

WHY IS KNOWING THE ORBITAL IMPORTANT?


Different orbitals have different energies! Remember atoms fill the lowest energy orbits first!

MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER

Symbol = ml

Indicates the orientation of an orbital around the nucleus

Position in an orbital (up, down, north, south, east, west, etc)

Much like a street within a city

SOME CITIES HAVE MORE STREETS THAN


OTHERS Similarly some orbitals (cities) have more possible orientations (streets) Formula:

l=0

l=1

-1, 0, 1
-2, -1, 0, 1, 2

l=2

SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER

Symbol = ms

The address of the electron


Only two possible values (+

and ) or up () and down ()

Think of this like clockwise versus counterclockwise

IS IT POSSIBLE FOR TWO LOCATIONS TO HAVE THE EXACT SAME ADDRESS, CAN TWO BUILDINGS EXIST AT THE EXACT SAME SPOT?

DO YOU THINK IT IS POSSIBLE TO HAVE TWO


ELECTRONS AT THE SAME SPOT AT THE SAME
TIME?

No, it is not possible, two electrons just like a building cant have the same address or be at the same location at the same time

PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE


No

two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers


No two electrons can be at the same place at the same time

SUMMARY
City, period, distance from nucleus, n State, orbital, shape, l Street, magnetic, position/orientation, ml Address, spin, mz

Quantum Numbers for the First Four Levels of Orbitals in the Hydrogen Atom Orbital Number of n l ml Designation Orbitals 1 0 1s 0 1 0 2s 0 1 2 1 2p 1, 0, +1 3 0 3s 0 1 3 1 3p 1, 0, 1 3 2 3d 2, 1, 0, 1, 2 5 0 4s 0 1 1 4p 1, 0, 1 3 4 2 4d 2, 1, 0, 1, 2 5 3 4f 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 7

Remember, 2n2, looks like it checks out

ATOMIC THEORY

RECALL
City, period, distance from nucleus, n State, orbital, shape, l Street, magnetic, position/orientation, ml Address, spin, mz

When it comes to quantum numbers we are primarily concerned with orbits, which are characteristic of a certain shell and shape We indicate orbits using a #letter format

# - shell or principle quantum number (n) Letter shape (s, p, d, f)

IE 4d tells me principle quantum number (shell) 4 and orbital (shape) d

Or the 4d orbital

Much like we represent locations in a standard format:


Gaston, NC Charlotte, NC

WHY ARE ORBITALS IMPORTANT?


We

want to use quantum numbers and know our orbitals because some orbitals have more energy than others Electrons want to fill the lowest energy level orbitals first

The first two quantum numbers are sufficient to distinguish orbitals based on their energy

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION GUIDELINES:


Electrons

want to fill orbitals from lower energy to higher energy


Electrons would rather have less energy because less energy means more stability Scientist named Aufbau was one of the first to propose this idea and determine the relative energies of the different orbitals

AUFBAU DIAGRAM
Shows

the orbitals in order of increasing energy This corresponds to the order in which electrons fill orbitals

B/c electrons fill lower energy orbitals first!

WE WILL USE THE AUFBAU DIAGRAM A LOT! To make your own:


1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Write a column of 's' orbitals from 1 to 7. Write a second column for the 'p' orbitals starting at n=2 ending at n=7 Write a column for the 'd' orbitals starting at n=3 ending at n=6 Write a final column for 4f and 5f. There are no elements that will need a 6f or 7f shell to fill. Read the chart by running the diagonals starting from 1s.

Quantum Numbers for the First Five Periods (values of n) Value of n Possible l values (principle) (orbital) 1 2 0; s 0, 1; s, p Possible ml values (magnetic) 0 -1, 0, 1

3
4 5

0, 1, 2; s, p, d
0, 1, 2, 3; s, p, d, f

-2, -1, 0, 1, 2
-3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3

0, 1, 2, 3, 4; s, p, d, f, g -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

1s
2s 3s 4s 5s 2p 3p 4p 5p 3d 4d 5d 4f 5f

6s
7s

6p

6d

SO WHY DOES THE PERIODIC TABLE LOOK LIKE THIS?

HOW MANY ELECTRONS CAN AN ORBIT HOLD?

Orbit s p d f

Max Electrons 2 6 10 14

HOW TO WRITE AN E- CONFIGURATION.


1.

2.

Determine # of electrons Fill orbitals with electrons starting with the lowest energy orbitals first until all electrons are gone
Fill each orbital with the max number of electrons it can hold Once electrons run out, fill the orbital only with the electrons you have left The number of electrons in each orbital is written as a superscript (power, the 2 in 102)

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION EXAMPLES

C, CARBON

MG, MAGNESIUM

V, VANADIUM

SN, TIN

AU, GOLD

CL, CHLORINE

WHITEBOARD PRACTICE
N, Nitrogen Al, Aluminum S, Sulfur Ca, Calcium Br, Bromine Xe, Xenon

IS THERE AN EASIER WAY THAN JUST COUNTING UP TO THE NUMBER OF ELECTRONS YOU NEED?
Yes!! If you know where to stop you save yourself a lot of effort How do I know where to stop?

The Periodic Table!

PERIODIC TABLE HAS A RHYME AND REASON

MAKE YOUR OWN

WHITEBOARD PRACTICE

How will the electron configuration end?


1.

Na
3s1

5.

Ag

4d9 5p5 4d10 5f3

2.

Br
4p5

6.
7.

3.

Rn

Cd

6p6
8.

4.

Ba

6s2

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION ACTIVITY

PRACTICE
1.

K Ar Cd Au

2.

3.

4.

5.

Po

ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS IN ORDER


OF INCREASING IONIZATION ENERGY

Xe, Rn, Kr, Ar, Ne P, Cl, Si, Na, Mg Sr, Ba, Mg, Be

ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS IN ORDER


OF INCREASING ELECTRONEGATIVITY

P, Cl, Si, Na, Ar Sr, Ba, Mg, Be Se, Br, Ga, Ge, Kr

ARRANGE THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS IN ORDER OF INCREASING ATOMIC RADIUS

P, Cl, Si, Na, Mg Sr, Ba, Mg, Be Se, Br, Ga, Ge

If you lose an electron you are Positive

If you gain an electron you are Negative

ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS WITH IONS


Recall an ion is an atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons and therefore has a charge Same as econfigurations so far but with less or more electrons

ANION (-)
Add electron to the next or current orbital with space according to the Aufbau diagram Its like youre doing the electron configuration for an element with a higher atomic number

Cl Neutral: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Where should next e- go?

3p orbital

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

Se-2 Neutral: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p4 Where should next 2 e- go?


4p orbital

1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6

CATION (+)

Remove electron from the highest shell (largest number, valence electrons)

If multiple orbits of the same highest shell remove electrons from the highest orbital (f then d then p then s)

Not necessarily the last orbital to be filled

Na+ Neutral: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 Highest n, shell?

1s2

2s2 2p6

Ca+2 Neutral: 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 Highest n, shell?

1s22s22p63s23p6

LOOK AT WHERE THE CONFIGURATIONS OF ALL THE


IONS WE HAVE DONE SO FAR ARE ENDING

In what shape and with how many electrons are they all ending?

p with 6; p6

Which elements does such a configuration correspond to?

Noble gases

Ions generally have the configuration of the nearest noble gas Why?

All atoms want a full octet

HW Examples

ABBREVIATED ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS

EXAMPLE:

We go from: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 for Ca To [Ar] 4s2 So much, much less work

HOW?
1.

Determine noble gas before element, write symbol of noble gas in brackets

Noble Gases

Essentially just what is the noble gas in the period (row) above the element

HOW?
1.

2.

Determine noble gas before element, write symbol of noble gas in brackets Start configuration at the s orbital of the period the element is in

HOW?
1.

2.

3.

Determine noble gas before element, write symbol of noble gas in brackets Start configuration at the s orbital of the period the element is in End configuration when electrons run out

We can use the skill we already know to determine where our configuration will end

EXAMPLES
Na Normal: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 What is noble gas before sodium?

Ne

[Ne]3s1

Ca Normal: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 What is noble gas before calcium?

Ar

[Ar]4s2

Cl Normal: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 What is noble gas before chlorine?

Ne

[Ne]3s23p5

Ar Normal: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 What is noble gas before argon?

Ne

[Ne]3s23p6

Ra Normal: 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s2 4f145d106p67s2 What is noble gas before radium?


Rn

[Rn]7s2

BESIDES MAKING OUR LIVES EASIER WHY CAN WE DO THIS?

Electrons included in noble gas bracket are sometimes called core electrons and can generally be ignored when considering all the chemistry of an element

AKA they are not the valence electrons (which are the most important)

CLASS FACE OFF

WRITE THE ABBREVIATED ELECTRON


CONFIGURATIONS FOR THE FOLLOWING:

N ____________________________________________________ S
_____________________________________________________

K
_____________________________________________________

Ba ________________________________________________ Zn __________________________________________________

UNUSUAL ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS

Some of the elements have electron configurations that differ slightly from what our general procedure would lead us to predict. Because a few of these elements are important ones, it is useful to know their actual electron configurations.

UNUSUAL ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS


Element Predicted Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d 9 4s 2 [Kr] 4d 9 5s 2 [Xe] 4f 14 5d 9 6s 2 [Kr] 4d 8 5s 2 [Ar] 3d 4 4s 2 [Kr] 4d 4 5s 2 Actual Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d 10 4s 1 [Kr] 4d 10 5s 1 [Xe] 4f 14 5d 10 6s 1 [Kr] 4d 10 [Ar] 3d 5 4s 1 [Kr] 4d 5 5s 1

copper, Cu silver, Ag gold, Au palladium, Pd chromium, C r molybdenum, Mo

ORBITAL DIAGRAMS
Yet another way to represent electrons and the orbitals that they are in As always we go in order of increasing energy

Arrows (up or down) represent electrons Lines represent places for electrons in orbitals What is it telling me?

9 electrons total 2 in the 1s, 2 in the 2s, and 5 in the 2p orbital

NOTICE ANYTHING?

Followed the Aufbau diagram (lowest to highest energy) Singled up electrons in 2p orbital first First three electrons that went into the 2p orbital all had same spin, next two had opposite spins; same spin before opposite spin

1.

Why single up electrons before doubling them up?

Hunds rule

2.

Why were the first three electrons placed in the p orbital all of the same spin (all up)?

Hunds rule: every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin Atom has lower energy when electrons are all of the same spin

3.

Why in each orbital with two electrons is one arrow up and one arrow down?

Pauli exclusion principle: no two electrons can have the same four quantum numbers No two electrons can be at the same place at the same time

Visually showing me the Pauli exclusion principle

Visually showing me Hunds rule; same spin and singled before doubled

HOW DO I FILL IN AN ORBITAL DIAGRAM?


Fill lowest energy orbits first One electron in each orbital before pairing up (Hunds Rule) Fill in all electrons with the same spin at first, all up or all down (Hunds Rule) When pairing up make sure each electron in the pair has opposite spins (Pauli Exclusion Principle)

MN

WHATS WRONG?

Violates Hunds rule.

WHATS WRONG?

Electrons in 2p are not all same spin (violates Hunds rule)

WHATS WRONG?

Violates Pauli exclusion principle.

HOW DO I MAKE AN ORBITAL DIAGRAM?

Same thing as before but now we have to write in the orbitals in order of increasing energy (Hello Aufbau diagram)