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Basic Motivation Concepts
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E D I T I O N PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS
Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
schools. As we begin to meet expectations created by our families. and often our desire to learn suffers. and environment. the motivation of our early years shifts from our goals to pleasing others. we have a great ability to learn and to see past setbacks. Are you learning for yourself? How can you motivate yourself to learn? .As young children.
competence. and autonomy recognize that "failure" is success face your fears learning what doesn't work is on the same path as learning what does work celebrate your achievement in meeting your goals . recognize your sense of discovery take responsibility for your learning accept the risks inherent in learning with confidence.
and self-actualization. All rights reserved. 6–5 . safety. esteem. social. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. the next need becomes dominant. as each need is substantially satisfied. Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) Hierarchy of Needs Theory There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological.
seek responsibility.Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work. avoid responsibility. Theory Y Assumes that employees like work. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal. and must be directed and coerced to perform. are capable of making decisions. 6–6 . lack ambition.
supervision.Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. people will not be dissatisfied. while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. When factors are adequate. 6–7 . and salary—that. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration. All rights reserved. when adequate in a job. placate workers.
and growth.ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence. the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases. relatedness. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 6–8 . If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. All rights reserved.
Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. 6–9 . Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. All rights reserved. to achieve in relation to a set of standards.David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel. to strive to succeed. nPow nAch nAff © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
High need for affiliation . High need for power .Implications for Management People with different needs are motivated differently. All rights reserved. 6–10 . While money is not an important motivator. training programs can be used to modify one's need profile. High need for achievement . They should be provided frequent feedback. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Employees with a high affiliation need perform best in a cooperative environment.High achievers should be given challenging projects with reachable goals. Note that McClelland's theory allows for the shaping of a person's needs. it is an effective form of feedback.Management should provide power seekers the opportunity to manage others.
Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship: Goal commitment. task characteristics. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. lead to higher performance. adequate self-efficacy.Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Goal-Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals. 6–11 . and national culture. Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. with feedback.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 6–12 . Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. All rights reserved.Reinforcement Theory The assumption that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Feedback 6–13 .Job Design Theory Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes. Skill variety 2. Characteristics: 1. Task significance 4. Autonomy 5. All rights reserved. Task identity 3. Exercise: Make your JCM as a student/ intern/employee/TA © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
All rights reserved. 6–14 . © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. directly affect three psychological states of employees: • Knowledge of results • Meaningfulness of work • Personal feelings of responsibility for results – Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation. task identity. performance. autonomy.Job Design Theory (cont’d) Job Characteristics Model – Jobs with skill variety. task significance. and job satisfaction. and for which feedback of results is given.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 6–15 . All rights reserved. Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work. Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.Job Design Theory (cont’d) Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities.
All rights reserved. Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. 6–16 .Job Design Theory (cont’d) Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 6–17 . Concept: Employee attitudes and behaviors are responses to social cues by others.Job Design Theory (cont’d) Social Information Processing (SIP) Model The fact that people respond to their jobs as they perceive them rather than to the objective jobs themselves. All rights reserved.
Helps us to remember prominent features. – E. 6–18 .Social Information Processing Model (SIP) Concepts of the SIP Model – Employees adopt attitudes and behaviors in response to the social cues provided by others (e.. – Schematic Processing: memory consistent with incoming sensory information. birthday party. predjudice. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. extrovert.g. – Also produce biases. it is rapid and automatic. – Employees’ perception of the characteristics of their jobs is as important as the actual characteristics of their jobs.g. math teacher. All rights reserved. coworkers) with whom they have contact.
All rights reserved. Referent Comparisons: Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.Equity Theory Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. 6–19 .
All rights reserved. Inputs are the contributions made by the employee for the organization. this includes the work done by the employees and the behavior brought by the employee as well as their skills and other useful experiences the employee may contribute for the good of the company. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. The belief is that people value fair treatment which causes them to be motivated to keep the fairness maintained within the relationships of their coworkers and the organization. The structure of equity in the workplace is based on the ratio of inputs to outcomes. 6–20 .
Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. Leave the field (quit the job) © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. 6–21 . Change inputs (slack off) 2. Distort/change perceptions of self 4. Choose a different referent person 6. All rights reserved. Change outcomes (increase output) 3.
3. 4. but do higher quality piece work. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. 6–22 . Overrewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 2.Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay: 1. All rights reserved. Overrewarded piece-work employees produce less.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards. 6–23 .Equity Theory (cont’d) Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. All rights reserved.
or promotion. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as bonus. and that rewards will satisfy employees personal goals.Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) Expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when he or she believes that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. 6–24 . All rights reserved. salary increase.
Performance–Reward Relationship – The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.Expectancy Theory Relationships Effort–Performance Relationship – The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. All rights reserved. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. 6–25 . Rewards–Personal Goals Relationship – The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.
It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. 6–26 . such as an increase in salary or benefits • these predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee in question. In organizational behavior study. • "This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients."  • Emphasizes self interest in the alignment of rewards with employee's wants.Emphasizes the connections among expected behaviors. Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that: • putting in more effort will yield better job performance • better job performance will lead to organizational rewards. expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management. All rights reserved. rewards and organizational goals © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. or choosing. Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice. .
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