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Introduction to Flare System

Presentation by: Yogesh Rahate

WHAT IS FLARE EQUIPMENT?
 A device or system used to safely dispose of relief gases in an environmentally compliant manner through the use of combustion.

BASIS OF FLARE DESIGN
 Reduce ground level concentrations of hazardous materials.  Provide the safe disposal of flammable materials.  Reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) and hydrocarbon emissions.

FLARE TYPES
VERTICAL: Vertical flares generally oriented to fire upward. There are several types of Support methods for the vertical flares. They include:     Self supported Guyed supported Derrick supported Demountable derrick

TYPES OF VERTICAL FLARES DERRICK SUPPORTED SELF SUPPORTED GUY WIRE ROPE .

TYPES OF VERTICAL FLARES Demountable single section riser Demountable multiple section riser .

TYPICAL ELEVATED FLARE .

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FLARE TYPES HORIZONTAL: The flared liquids and gases are piped to a horizontal flare burner that discharges into a pit or excavation. .

TYPES OF ENCLOSED FLARES     Single point flares Multi-burner Staged flares Smokeless & Non smokeless flares Endothermic (Fuel gas assisted) Flares .

FLARE TYPES  ENCLOSED FLAME FLARES: Enclosed flares are constructed to conceal the flame from direct view. . Multiple stages within the enclosed flares are sometimes used. They can reduce noise and minimize radiation.

ENCLOSED FLAME FLARES .

FLARE TYPES  SMOKELESS FLARES : Smokeless flares eliminate any noticeable smoke over a specified range of flows. Air-assist system utilizes fans to provide mixing energy at the tip. Smokeless flares can be provided with a steam-assist or airassist system to improve combustion. .

hydrogen. clean coke oven gas. methane.) to improve combustion. Non-smokeless flares are used for hydrocarbon or vapor streams that do not cause smoking (i. ammonia. This sometimes results in the presence of smoke at certain operating conditions. etc.FLARE TYPES  NON-SMOKELESS FLARES: Non-smokeless flares utilize no outside methods ( air. hydrogen sulfide) or when smoke is not concern. steam. . carbon monoxide.e.

FLARE TYPES  ENDOTHERMIC ( FUEL GAS ASSISTED) FLARES: Endothermic (fuel gas assisted) flares require supplemental heat when flaring low heating value waste streams (such as tail gas) .

gauges. valves. etc. relays. Combustion air blower Louvers Rain shields Water seal drum Flame front generator panel Knock out drum . for proper operation & interlocking of the system + interface signals from / to purchasers control + safeguarding systems ) Silencers.e. All PLC’s with operator stations / local panels with controllers. PLC including flare logic (i. indicators.MAJOR COMPONENTS                   Flare stacks Flare burners Pilot (s) Pilot igniters Pilot flame detectors (UV Sensor) Support structure Flame / detonation arrestor Control Cabinet Interconnecting piping / wiring / cabling between stack & control cabinet All field instruments including transmitters.

Refractory. etc. • With or without assistance (Steam / Air / Fuel) • Design based on relief gas characteristics & exit velocities.FLARE BURNER • This mechanical device mixes fuel and air at required velocities to establish and maintain proper ignition and stable combustion without exceeding the system allowable pressure drop. . • Attachments like Wind Shields.

PILOTS & PILOT IGNITER • The primary purpose of pilot is to ignite the relief gas. • Always on • Mostly premixed (Fuel + Air) • 4 types of pilot ignition • • • • FFG Conventional FFG Self Inspiriting Spark probe igniter Direct spark .

PILOTS & PILOT IGNITER .

SEALS • The main function is to restrict the atmospheric air from entering the flare riser.Molecular seal and Dynamic / Velocity Seal . However to reduce the consumption of purge gas. • Usually an inactive purge gas is used. seal is used. • 2 types .

. • The knock-out drum’s purpose is to eliminate all liquid droplets from riser gas.LIQUID SEALS & KNOCK-OUT DRUM • The liquid seal works here as a flame arrestor and also prevents air from entering pipe header.

LIQUID SEALS & KNOCK-OUT DRUM .

Acoustics  Control panel & instruments for pilot fuel line.  Flow (Mainly for staging)  Pressure (Mainly for staging) .Optical .Flame ionization .Thermocouple .INSTRUMENTATION  Flame detection .

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availability & cost of utilities. pressure & temperature)  Neighborhood Relationships.  Gas flow rates & characteristics (composition.  Initial capital cost.  Function of the overall plant design & location. operating & maintenance expenses. . space availability.SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS  Safety Requirements and Environmental Regulations.

COMPARISION OF ENCLOSED FLARES OVER ELEVATED FLRES  Very low noise  Very low & controlled emissions  Very simple. . accessible controls & convenient service at grade level  No thermal radiation  Stable burning of waste gas is assured even in a strong wind.

the height of the flare stack shall be selected to meet the following conditions: 1) The sterile area radius should be 60m.THERMAL RADIATION  The acceptability of heat radiation levels is dependant on 1) the effect on humans. the heat radiation level shall be 6. The calculation method to determine the heat radiation levels of burning flares is given in API RP 521. 3) At the property limit the heat radiation level shall be 3.3 kW/m2 maximum (excluding the effect of solar radiation). 2) the effect on equipments.   Taking into account topographical & meteorological conditions. 2) At the boundary of the sterile area.15 kW/m2 maximum (excluding the effect of solar radiation.) .

CODES USED FOR FLARES  1) API 537  2) API RP 521 .

GROUND FLARE PACKAGE BY C-NOX .

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10Sm3/h  Design Pressure – 10barg .45 Sm3/h (Min) 4510 Sm3/h (Max.)  Pilot Gas – (Natural Gas)  Pilot Gas consumption rate .)  Design pressure – 5 mbarg (Min) -16 mbag (Max.PROCESS DATA  Process Gas – (Vent Gas)  Capacity .

) .20oC (Min.500oC (Min.) - .)  For flame affected parts only  Design Temperature – 1300oC (Max.) .PROCESS DATA  For non flame affected parts only  Design Temperature – 90oC (Max.

ELEVATED FLARE PACKAGE BY AIROIL .

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STACK DRAWING .

FLARE TIP DRAWING .

FFG PANEL DRAWING .

1.) Design pressure – 3.PROCESS DATA        Process Gas – Hydrocarbon Capacity .8000 Kg/hr .84 Kg/hr Steam consumption rate .5 Kg/cm2 g Design Temperature – 100oC Pilot Gas – (LPG Gas) Pilot Gas consumption rate .50 Kg/hr (Min) 40000 Kg/h (Max.

THANK YOU .