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Joint Spalling Punch outs Cracking Faulting Slab failures Riding Quality
Models From USA Chile
Types of Deterministic Models
• Absolute (Concrete HDM-4)
the future condition
CONDITION = f(a0, a1, a2)
to conditions model developed for Problems with calibration
• Incremental (Asphalt HDM-4)
the change in condition from the current condition:
CONDITION = f(a0, a1, a2)
use any start point so much more flexible
without load transfer dowels Jointed Plain concrete pavement .with load transfer dowels Jointed Reinforced concrete pavement Continuously Reinforced concrete pavement 4 .Concrete Roads Surface Types Surface types upon which the concrete RD models are based Surface type JP JP JR CR Description Jointed Plain concrete pavement .
Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement without Dowels Joint spacing 3 .6 m Aggregate Interlock Slab Base Figure 2.1 Jointed plain concrete pavements without dowels 5 .
Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement with Dowels Joint spacing 3 .6 m Dowels Figure 2.2 Jointed plain concrete pavements with dowels 6 .
3 Jointed reinforced concrete pavements 7 .1 – 0.20 m Slab Base Welded wire fabric (0.2%) Dowels Figure 2.Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement Joint spacing 10 .
0.8 % of area Figure 2.6 .Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Cracks separation Slab Base Reinforcement steel 0.4 Continuously reinforced concrete pavements 8 .
1 Distress mode Cracking Units of measurement Percent of slabs cracked Number per mile JP JR Pavement surface type 2 3 4 5 6 Faulting Spalling Failures Serviceability loss Roughness inches Percent of spalled joints Number per mile Dimensionless Inches per mile (or m/km) JP and JR JP and JR CR JR and CR JP. JR and CR 9 .Distress Modes Distress modes modelled in HDM-4 No.
Structural Characteristics • The principal data for predicting the deterioration of concrete pavements: Properties of materials Percentage of reinforcement steel Drainage conditions Load transfer efficiency (across joints. and between slabs and shoulder) Widened outside lanes 10 .
moisture-induced curling and traffic loading 11 .Cracking • • Transverse cracking occur due to high stress levels in the slabs or defects originating from material fatigue The stresses are caused by the combined effect of thermal curling.
Joint D Transv. Joint A B Traffic Slab Shoulder 12 .Transverse Cracking Distress width Distress width A B C D Longitudinal Joint C L C Transv.
Cracking in JP Pavements • Transverse cracking (% of slabs cracked) is modelled as a function of cumulative fatigue damage in the slabs and: Cumulative ESALs Temperature gradient Material properties Slab thickness Joint spacing 13 .
PSTEEL Base type Climate/environment (FI.Cracking in JR Pavements • The number of deteriorated transverse cracks per km is predicted as a function of: Cumulative ESALs Pavement age Slab thickness and Ec Percentage of reinforcement steel. MI) 14 .
Curling 15 .
Curling 16 .
Curling and Traffic Loading 17 .
Curling and Corner Distresses 18 .
Faulting • • • Faulting is caused by the loss of fine material under a slab and the increase in fine material under nearby slabs This flow of fine material is called pumping. and is caused by the presence of high levels of free moisture under a slab carrying heavy traffic loading The effects of thermal and moisture-induced curling and lack of load transfer between slabs increase pumping 19 .
Faulting A faulting Longitudinal Joint B Transv. Joint Transv. Joint C L A B Slab Traffic 20 .
Faulting • The average transverse joint faulting is predicted as a function of: Cumulative ESALs Slab thickness Joint spacing and opening Properties of material Load transfer efficiency Climate/environment (FI. PRECIP. DAYS90) Base type Widened outside lanes 21 .
Faulting Temperatura + Humedad + Secado de Construcción Agua Carga en Losa de Aproximación Movimiento Lento del Agua 22 .
Faulting 23 .
Transverse joint spalling can be caused by: Presence of incompressible materials Disintegration of concrete under high traffic loading Improper consolidation of the concrete in the joint Wrongly designed or built load transfer system 24 .Spalling • • • • • • Transverse joint spalling is the cracking or breaking of the edge of the slab up to a maximum of 0.6 m from the joint.
Spalling • Transverse joint spalling is predicted as a function of: Pavement age Joint spacing Type of seal Dowel corrosion protection Base type Climate/environment (FI. DAYS90) 25 .
: 1.: 2. Joint D Joint Transv.5 m Traffic A B Shoulder 26 .: 1.5 m High Sev.8 m B C Crack Transv.6 m A Joint Transv.: 2m C D Moder. Joint Low Sev. Joint Low Sev. Sev.Spalling Distress width < 0.
Spalling 27 .
Failures in CR Pavements • Localised failures include loosening and breaking of reinforcement steel and transverse crack spalling These are caused by high tensile stresses induced in the concrete and reinforcement steel by traffic loading and changes in environmental factors The number of failures is predicted as a function of: Slab thickness Percentage of reinforcement steel Cumulative ESALs Base type • • 28 .
the change in PSR is calculated as a function of cracking.Present Serviceability Index • • • This is a subjective user rating of the existing ride quality of a pavement (ranging from 0 extremely poor to 5 extremely good) For JR pavements. spalling and faulting For CR pavements. cumulative ESALs and pavement age 29 . the change in PSR is calculated as a function of slab thickness.
roughness is calculated as a function of PSR 30 .Roughness • • For JP concrete pavements. spalling and cracking For JR and CR concrete pavements. roughness is calculated as a function of faulting.
Roughness on JPCP IRI = f • IRIo • Transversal Cracks • Faulting • Spalling IRI IRIo ESAL 31 .
Es Modulus of elasticity of bases. Poisson’s ratio for concrete. KSTAT 32 . Modulus of elasticity of dowel bars. Drying shrinkage coefficient of concrete.Property of Materials • • • • • • • • Modulus of elasticity of concrete. Ec Modulus of rupture of concrete. Ebase Modulus of subgrade reaction. MR28 Thermal coefficient of concrete.
drain cleaning. Load transfer dowels retrofit Preventive treatment Tied concrete shoulders retrofit Longitudinal edge drains retrofit Joint sealing Slab replacement Periodic Restoration Full depth repair Partial depth repair Diamond grinding Bonded concrete overlay Rehabilitation Unbonded concrete overlay Reconstruction Pavement reconstruction 33 . line marking.Maintenance Works (1) Maintenance works for concrete pavements Works class Routine Works type Works activities Pavement surface type JP JR CR Routine maintenance Vegetation control. etc.
Maintenance Works (2) Maintenance works applicable to JP concrete carriageway Works type Reconstruction Rehabilitation Bonded concrete overlay Slab replacement Restoration Partial depth repair Diamond grinding* Load transfer dowels retrofit* Preventive treatment Tied concrete shoulders retrofit* Longitudinal edge drains retrofit* Joint sealing* Note: * Works activity can be applied together with slab replacement or partial depth repair in the same analysis year 34 Works activity / operation Pavement reconstruction Unbonded concrete overlay ID code REC UOL BOL SLR PDR DGR DWL TCS RED SLJ Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 per m per m per m per m Unit cost 2 2 2 2 per m (joint length) per m 2 per m (joint length) per km per km per m (joint length) .
Maintenance Works (3) Maintenance works applicable to JR concrete carriageway Works type Reconstruction Rehabilitation Works activity / operation Pavement reconstruction Unbonded concrete overlay Bonded concrete overlay Full depth repair ID code REC UOL BOL FDR DGR TCS RED SLJ Ranking 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 Unit cost per m per m per m per m per m 2 2 2 2 2 Restoration Diamond grinding* Tied concrete shoulders retrofit* Preventive treatment Longitudinal edge drains retrofit* Joint sealing* per km per km per m (joint length) 35 .
HDM Series – Volume 4 36 .