Interkoneksi

Modul-10

Interconnection Billing, Settlement and Clearing House

Interconnection Billing & Settlement

Interconnection Billing
 Interconnect billing is a business function performed between a network operator and its network peers. This billing involves a much smaller 'customer' base (i.e. each connecting network) but with substantially higher transaction volumes and bill values than retail billing. Each interconnect bill exchanged between network operators can represent the aggregated billing for millions or billions of transactions  Interconnect processing costs can be minimized by not processing individual transactions through the 'retail' billing platform.  All transactions performed across the operator's network boundary require interconnect settlement, either to bill another network for transiting or completing their transaction, or to reconcile another network's bill for completing a transaction that originated from the operator's own network.  The activities of billing and reconciliation are complementary, with differences occurring in the direction of cash flow (money paid out versus an outstanding debt) and in the priority of the processing (e.g. performing billing with a higher priority than reconciliation)
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Components of Interconnect Billing
 Where transactions require two or more networks for a successful completion, the participant networks share in the retail revenue stream by charging the retail biller (usually the transaction originator) for completion or transit of the transaction across their networks  Three components involved in interconnect billing :
o Originating network o Terminating network o Transit network

POI A Number Originating network Operator A Transit network (Operator B)
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POI

B Number
Terminating network (Operator C)

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Originating network
 The network upon which the transaction 'starts'. The originator will (usually) bill the retail customer for the transaction. Retail customers perform their transactions (e.g. phone calls) with little consideration for the underlying networks required to complete the transaction  These transactions are sent to retail billing, though they contain details that can support the reconciliation of bills received from the network operator's network peers  Transactions records indicating an off-network (inter-) connection can be used to pre-calculate and match the charges received from external networks

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Terminating network
 Terminating network is the network where the transaction 'ends'.  These network operators may charge (bill) the upstream network(s) for completing their transactions. Terminating transactions can be a substantial revenue source for network operators.  For example, calls that terminate on a mobile phone network are an additional revenue source for mobile phone operators, only enhanced by the move to mobile phones over fixed phone lines

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Transit network
 Where the originating and terminating transactions are routed between separate networks without a common touchpoint, the network(s) upon which transactions 'transit' on their end-to-end path may also charge for their services.  The entire business of some network operators is the transit interconnection between retail end-points, though the margins are low and under pressure due to the commodity nature of the business

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Model Pembebanan
A Number POC A RETAIL CHARGE

INTERCONNECT CHARGE

POI OPERATOR A OPERATOR B
B Number POC B

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Financial Settlement /Accounting
 Each interconnection of each transaction type can be a matter of negotiated or regulated pricing, including the payment direction, and each part of this must be reflected in the billing platform. For example, reverse charge and toll-free phone calls are billed to the recipient, but the same phone call connection performed without the operator or toll-free intermediate number is billed to the originator  Different prices may be charged at a retail level where distinctions between end network types are possible, but where this is not possible, a common rate may be applied. Examples:
o In Australia, there are distinctions between end network types (i.e. mobile/cell phone versus fixed phone) o In US, distinction is not possible due to shared phone number ranges

 The ability to distinguish between end destinations can also affect the ability to differentiate how interconnect charges are calculated  Two types of billing are “Direct Billing” and “Cascade Billing”
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Metode Settlement
Settlement : Hasil Pertukaran billing interkoneksi dan pengakuan hak interkoneksi pada suatu periode bulan takwim dan merupakan kewajiban yang harus diselesaikan oleh salah satu Pihak kepada Pihak lainnya.

OPERATOR A

POI

OPERATOR B

POI

OPERATOR C

Bill
Direct Accounting

Bill
Data Exchange Settlement

Bill

A

B
C

MODEL INTERKONEKSI

Payment Data Exchange Settlement Payment

Cascade Accounting

A

B
C

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Direct Billing Model
 A network operator can settle with each network partner directly (Direct Billing) where the originating network is aware of each network involved in the end-to-end completion of its transactions, and can pay each network operator directly for their participation.  This approach requires agreements be established between each involved party before interconnect billing can be performed  Direct billing enables the costs associated with a call to be allocated by the originating operator directly among a number of organizations

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Cascade Billing Model
 An alternative approach is to bill/pay only those networks connected to the originating network directly. Each downstream network then bills its upstream ('originating') network and is billed in turn by their downstream ('terminating') network.  This cascades the revenue (Cascade Billing) to the downstream ('terminating„) networks. The originating and terminating networks do not need to identify or establish direct billing relationships, and the transit networks can route transactions depending on the prevailing prices of alternative routes  An international call is an example of a multi-network transaction that could originate on a mobile phone network (#1), be carried from its originating location to the originating country's international point-of-interconnect (POI) (#2), without a direct network connection between the originating and terminating countries the call is passed through (transits) a third country (#3), on 'arrival' at the terminating country it is carried internally from the terminating country's international POI to the local network in the terminating country (#4), where it terminates on the network of the intended phone (#5), establishing a phone call
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Examples of transactions that can involve 'interconnect' billing
 Long-distance Phone Calls: Domestic and international calls that originate on one (retail) network, are often carried to the destination region / country on another network (transit), and then terminate on the local provider's network associated with the regional / overseas phone number  Mobile Phone Calls: Interconnect processing connects calls between two mobile (cell) phone networks that have no common point-of-interconnection. Without a transit connection between the two isolated networks, calls could not be completed. Interconnect billing charges for the use of an operator's network as an intermediary, and for the terminating network to complete the call  SMS: The exchange of short text messages between mobile phones. Originally these messages could only be exchanged between phones on the same provider's network (no interconnect requirement), but as networks came to peering agreements and inter-connected their networks for SMS, mobile phone customers could send their SMS transactions with a higher confidence the recipient could receive it. Interconnect billing is employed to bill for the carriage (transit) and delivery (termination) of these transactions
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Examples of transactions that can involve 'interconnect' billing
 MMS: Similar to SMS messages, picture / video transactions are exchanged between mobile phones on different networks. Whilst SMS have a fixed length, pictures and videos are variable in size creating an additional dimension that may vary the interconnect pricing model used in their billing  Mobile Phone Video-calls: An extension of the phone call now possible on 3G phone networks, these 'transactions' are performed predominantly between phones on the same network (no interconnection), but will over time become possible between networks using the same technologies, necessitating interconnect billing to allocate the revenue stream between the participants  PTT: Push-to-talk : These are 'phone communications' made between selected mobile phones using an 'always on' walkie-talkie model. Initial deployments have required all selected mobile phones to be on the same provider's network (no interconnection), but long-term the ability to speak (PTT) with any phone will increase PTT's appeal (i.e. just as SMS became more popular when 'any' phone could receive a customer's SMS), establishing the need for interconnect billing
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Aturan dan Parameter Billing
 Aturan dan parameter billing disepakati antar penyelenggara yang berinterkoneksi dan dituangkan dalam perjanjian tertulis, di antaranya :
• Tarif interkoneksi • Format call scenario • Parameter dan format CDR (misal: identifikasi A# dan B#, identifikasi trunk group/final switch identification, tanggal, waktu) • Parameter rating (misal: koordinat titik interkoneksi dan titik pembebanan, faktor koreksi) • Formula perhitungan (misal: metode pembulatan, billable traffic) • Treatment terhadap anomali (misal: A# blank/not complete)

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Mekanisme Settlement
Mekanisme settlement harus disepakati bersama
 Periode settlement : monthly atau quaterly  Siapa yang menagih dan yang ditagih Eksisting : • Domestic --> Terminating bill to originating • IDD --> Domestic bill to IDD for originating & terminating Future (PP 52) : Biaya interkoneksi dibebankan kepada originating  Verifikasi tagihan • dilakukan oleh yang ditagih dengan membandingkan dengan catatan yang dimiliki (outgoing record) misal : billing interkoneksi (incoming dari operator lain) dibandingkan dengan catatan outgoing yang dimiliki oleh pihak yang ditagih • Prosentase toleransi terhadap perbedaan data • Prosedur klaim • Pengakuan tagihan (pengakuan sementara maupun final)  Penelitian perbedaan data • Jangka waktu penelitian • Format/leveling data • Penelitian data & teknis (test call, dsb)  Bill Period Closure --> suatu periode billing ditutup dan tidak dapat dibuka kembali
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Pemisahan Billing Interkoneksi dengan Billing Retail
Perbedaan mendasar antara billing interkoneksi dan billing retail 1. 2. Jumlah lembar tagihan
Billing retail menerbitkan ribuan lembar tagihan sehingga memerlukan sistem khusus (printing, enveloping, mailing) serta memerlukan sistem pembayaran khusus (kerjasama dengan bank)

Besaran tagihan
Tagihan interkoneksi hanya diterbitkan beberapa lembar sesuai jumlah operator sebagai customer namun besaran yang ditagihkan sangat besar, sehingga memerlukan tingkat audit dan data integrity yang bagus dalam sistem billing interkoneksi

3. 4.

Karakter customer
Pemahaman customer interkoneksi terhadap operasionalisasi bisnis telekomunikasi sangat baik dan mampu memverifikasi tagihan

Kebutuhan settlement
Customer retail diharapkan membayar penuh tagihannya dan komplain ditangani dengan menerbitkan „credit note‟. Interkoneksi membutuhkan proses rekonsiliasi tagihan yang harus didukung sistem khusus untuk dapat menyajikan informasi serinci mungkin

5. 6.

Hubungan dengan customer
Kunci dalam hubungan dalam interkoneksi adalah trust, verify, dan integritas sistem yang bagus, mengingat potensi dispute sangat besar dan memerlukan effort

Aliran kas
Pembayaran interkoneksi seringkali tertunda, karena mementingkan akurasi tagihan

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Pemisahan Billing Interkoneksi dengan Billing Retail
Pada level yang lebih teknis, perbedaan tersebut di antaranya : 1. Kebutuhan informasi tentang konfigurasi network
Billing interkoneksi membutuhkan informasi yang lebih spesifik dan lengkap mengenai konfigurasi network maupun ruting panggilan untuk dapat merating scr akurat

2. Audit dan Integrity
Terkait dengan perlunya rekonsiliasi tagihan, sistem billing interkoneksi harus mampu untuk audit-trail dan integritasnya terjaga (rule dan parameter konsisten)

3. Konflik prioritas dengan billing retail
Bila sistem billing interkoneksi dan retail menyatu, akan ada konflik prioritas pemrosesan. Biasanya lebih mendahulukan billing retail.

4. Karakter trafik
Karakter trafik interkoneksi lebih beragam, dapat terminasi, originasi, maupun transit, sementara trafik retail bersifat outgoing. Hal ini mempengaruhi sumber data.

5. Berkembangnya sistem pembebanan interkoneksi
Seiring dengan kompetisi dan perkembangan regulasi, skema tarif interkoneksi dan pembebanannya akan bervariasi. Memerlukan antisipasi pada sistem billing untuk lebih fleksibel beradaptasi.

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Billing Retail dan Interkoneksi
KONFIGURASI-1 Kombinasi billing retail dan interkoneksi

CDRs

MEDIATION

RETAIL

INTERCONNECT

CDR = Call Data Record

BILL PRODUCTION GENERAL LEDGER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

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Billing Retail dan Interkoneksi
KONFIGURASI-2 Separasi billing retail dan interkoneksi di sisi proses CDR menyatu

CDRs

MEDIATION

INTERCONNECT

RETAIL

BILL PRODUCTION GENERAL LEDGER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

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Billing Retail dan Interkoneksi
KONFIGURASI-3 Separasi proses billing retail dan interkoneksi CDR dipisahkan berdasarkan karakter incoming/outgoing CDRs incoming
Data interkoneksi

CDRs outgoing
Data Retail dan interkoneksi

INTERCONNECT
MEDIATION

RETAIL

BILL PRODUCTION GENERAL LEDGER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

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Billing Retail dan Interkoneksi
KONFIGURASI-4 Separasi billing retail dan interkoneksi baik sisi CDR maupun proses

CDRs PoI

MEDIATION

CDRs outgoing

MEDIATION

INTERCONNECT I/n,transit & o/g

RETAIL

BILL PRODUCTION GENERAL LEDGER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION

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Kliring trafik telekomunikasi (clearing house)

Kompleksitas Interkoneksi
 Pada level nasional kompleksitas interkoneksi dapat terjadi dalam hubungan antara sekian banyak operator dengan jenis layanan yang berbeda.  Pada level global kompleksitas akan bertambah dengan adanya perbedaan bahasa, kultur, market, regulasi, serta faktor-faktor teknis.  Dengan situasi seperti di atas, teknik-teknik untuk pelaksanaan interkoneksi merupakan suatu hal yang penting.  Dalam kenyataannya teknik-teknik tersebut dapat menjadi fasilitator, tetapi dapat pula menjadi penghambat kompetisi dan tersebarnya layanan telekomunikasi di dunia.
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Complexity of Interconnection
Trading Partner-1 Trading Partner-2 Trading Partner-3 Trading Partner-4

Trading Partner-5

Trading Partner-6

Trading Partner-7

Trading Partner-8

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Scenario of Interconnection
ILDO 1 BSO 1 BSO 2 BSO 3 BSO 4 CEL 1
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ILDO 2

ILDO 3

ILDO 4

NLDO 1
NLDO 2 NLDO 3 NLDO 4 CEL 2 CEL 3 CEL 4
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New Scenario of Interconnection
(With Interconnect Exchange / Inter-carrier Billing Clearing House)
ILDO 1 BSO 1 BSO 2 BSO 3 BSO 4 CEL 1
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ILDO 2

ILDO 3

ILDO 4

NLDO 1
NLDO 2 NLDO 3 NLDO 4 CEL 2 CEL 3 CEL 4
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Interconnect Exchange (Clearing House)

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Features of Interconnect Exchange
 Interconnect Exchange could be connected to each operator at POIs preferably through a duplicated interconnect link  As all the operators would be connected to only one interconnect operator, uniform terms of interconnect could be applicable  Interconnect Exchange could be flexible enough to accommodate all type of interconnect links as per licensing/ regulatory requirements  Interconnect Exchange operator could work as a mediator and the Clearing House for the bills between service providers. In the first instance, incumbent operator could offer these services. In case he declines, one of the new operators could provide such interconnect exchange for all type of interconnections at designated POIs  In the scenario with 16 operators in a typical POI Area, with the introduction of an Interconnect Exchange the number of Interconnect links could be reduced to as little as 16 from staggering number of 240 links needed based on the present recommended interconnection architecture
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Problems in the absence of an Interconnect Exchange
In the existing multi operator multi service environment, without an Interconnect Exchange the following problems are generally faced by the service providers:
           Inter carrier billing Complexity in settlement of interconnect usage charges Sharing of Intelligent Network Platform Implementation of Number Portability Implementation of carrier selection Higher range of interconnection cost and Port Charges. Longer waiting period for provision of interconnection capacities. Higher cost of service Inefficient handling of call Sub-optimal utilization of network Serious increase of CAPEX and OPEX making operation unavailable

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Advantages of Interconnect Exchange
         Network Simplicity Optimization of number of Interconnect links Simplicity in Digit analysis/ Route selection Simplicity of Operation Simplification of Carrier selection function Simple, Cost effective and reliable POIs Efficient handling of New and Traditional Interconnects Better utilization of Interconnect links Equality in Terms of Interconnect

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Interconnect Exchanges Responsibility
 As the Interconnect Exchanges will handle all inter operator calls, it is in a unique position to work for
o o o o o o Inter Operator bill settlement (Clearing House function) Reconciliation and MIS generation Tariff based/ Time based route selection Route related announcements Carrier selection Promotion handling in coordination with operators, etc

 These functions could be controlled by Financial Institutions in case the traditional or upcoming service operators are not in a position to offer such facilities

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Pengaturan Kliring Trafik Telekomunikasi di Indonesia
 KM 21/2001 tentang Penyelenggaraan Jasa Telekomunikasi
Pasal 84 ayat 1 dinyatakan Dalam rangka menjamin tingkat pelayanan, transparansi trafik dan efisiensi penyelenggaraan jasa telekomunikasi, Direktur Jenderal melaksanakan fungsi kliring trafik telekomunikasi

 KM 84/2002 tentang Kliring Trafik Telekomunikasi
• Fungsi :
o Pengawasan pelaksanaan pelayanan interkoneksi o Pemantauan terlaksananya interkoneksi scr adil dan transparan o Mengolah, menghitung, menyimpan, menyajikan data trafik interkoneksi dari rekaman data panggilan o Melakukan settlement trafik interkoneksi dengan menyiapkan tagihan hak masing-masing penyelenggara o Menyiapkan data penyelesaian perselisihan settlement o Melakukan penghitungan dan penyiapan data dan tagihan USO dari penylenggara karena kegiatan interkoneksi

• Operator wajib ikut serta dan wajib memberikan CDR interkoneksinya • Fungsi kliring trafik diselenggarakan oleh Direktur Jenderal dan dilakukan secara nasional
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Kliring Interkoneksi di Indonesia

Sistem Otomatisasi Kliring Interkoneksi (SOKI)

Sistem Kliring Trafik Telekomunikasi (SKTT)

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SOKI
 Dibentuk oleh para operator telekomunikasi di Indonesia yang melakukan interkoneksi  Sistem ini mulai digunakan pada tahun 2003, dan dioperasikan oleh salah satu operator besar (incumbent)  Alasan digunakan SOKI
o Belum ada badan atau lembaga yang mengatur tentang perhitungan trafik dan bebannya dalam interkoneksi o Dapat menjamin efisiensi biaya dan kerahasiaan data
• Efisiensi biaya dalam arti tidak ada biaya yang harus dikeluarkan oleh operator apabila terdapat badan atau lembaga yang mengatur tentang kliring interkoneksi • Kerahasiaan data, artinya data tentang trafik dan perhitungan biaya interkoneksi operator kerahasiaannya dapat dipegang penuh oleh kedua operator yang saling berinterkoneksi

 Keuntungan
Biaya rendah apabila interkoneksi dilakukan dengan sedikit operator
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Kelemahan SOKI
 Kesulitan dalam perhitungan trafik apabila interkoneksi dilakukan dengan banyak operator  memerlukan waktu dan biaya besar  Penyelesaian perbedaan data trafik diantara operator yang melakukan interkoneksi akan memakan waktu dan biaya yang cukup besar  Dioperasikan oleh salah satu operator besar (incumbent):
o Penyelesaian perbedaan data trafik seringkali menguntungkan operator incumbent, karena memiliki posisi tawar yang kuat. o Dapat menimbulkan pertanyaan-pertanyaan dalam aspek independensi dan kerahasiaan data

 Pengembangan sistem SOKI juga terbukti memakan waktu panjang untuk mencermati dan mengejar perubahan-perubahan yang banyak di sektor telekomunikasi yang dinamis.  Proses SOKI pada saat ini hanya bersifat rekonsiliasi satu arah dengan input summary data yang telah diproses oleh operator
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SKTT
 Dibentuk oleh pemerintah melalui BRTI (Badan Regulasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia) dengan Keputusan Menteri (KM) Perhubungan Nomor 2 tahun 2004 tentang Pelaksanaan Restrukturisasi Sektor Telekomunikasi  Tujuan pembentukan SKTT
o Sebagai sarana pendukung bagi BRTI untuk mengatur kegiatan telekomunikasi di Indonesia . o Menciptakan transparansi kegiatan interkoneksi telekomunikasi di Indonesia. o Mewujudkan kompetisi yang adil bagi kegiatan bisnis telekomunikasi di Indonesia, khususnya dalam hal interkoneksi.

 Semula SKTT dijadwalkan sudah dapat digunakan pada bulan januari 2005, namun karena masih adanya kendala-kendala, sampai sekarang belum dapat digunakan

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Ketentuan-ketentuan SKTT
 Untuk perkuatan regulator dalam menjalankan fungsinya, dibentuk Sistem Kliring Trafik Telekomunikasi (SKTT) yang keberadaannya telah dibahas bersama dengan penyelenggara telekomunikasi, dimaksudkan sebagai tool utama dalam penanganan seluruh persoalan interkoneksi  Melalui SKTT, Regulator mendapat data akurat mengenai profil trafik interkoneksi antar penyelenggara dan dapat melakukan perhitungan trafik interkoneksi sehingga menjamin transparansi pembebanan biaya  Kewenangan dan tanggung jawab fungsional pengaturan, pengawasan dan pengendalian SKTT sepenuhnya di bawah kendali Regulator  Dibentuk komite pengawasan operasional pelaksana SKTT yang beranggotakan unsur-unsur Regulator dan operator  Investasi dan pengoperasian SKTT dilakukan dengan cara out-sourcing yang dituangkan dalam kontrak kerjasama  Pemilihan pelaksana SKTT dilaksanakan melalui seleksi secara terbuka

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Kewajiban SKTT
 Menyiapkan data perhitungan trafik telekomunikasi (statement of account) dan penyelesaian pembayaran (settlement of account) antar penyelenggara jaringan dan atau jasa telekomunikasi berdasarkan CDR yang diberikan oleh penyelenggara jaringan dan atau jasa telekomunikasi  Mengirimkan data perhitungan trafik telekomunikasi (statement of account) dan penyelesaian pembayaran (settlement of account) kepada seluruh penyelenggara jaringan dan atau jasa telekomunikasi  Menyiapkan data kewajiban layanan universal untuk setiap penyelenggara jaringan dan atau jasa telekomunikasi  Menyiapkan sistem keamanan yang memadai untuk menjaga kerahasiaan data kliring trafik telekomunikasi  Menyampaikan laporan kegiatan operasional penyelenggaraan Kliring Trafik Telekomunikasi secara periodik setiap bulan kepada Direktur Jenderal
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Benchmark penerapan di USA
Diselenggarakan NECA (National Exchange Carrier Association) yang memperoleh mandat dari FCC, untuk small and medium providers 1. Dibentuk untuk memfasilitasi US Tel Act 1996 for Rate of Return incentive regulation. 2. Terdapat 1200 anggota yang melakukan cost sharing calculation untuk network access cost berdasarkan traffic carried. 3. Provider memperoleh hasil rekonsiliasi RoR yang lebih besar dan mentransfer cost karena ada provider yang mendapat RoR yang lebih kecil 4. Merupakan alat regulator untuk mengontrol tarif dan formula 5. Dilakukan secara periodik 6. Tidak ada cash transaction di NECA

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Benchmark penerapan di Eropa
Diselenggarakan oleh CEPT (Clearing Europeen des Post et des Telecommunications) at Berne ,Suisse 1963 dengan 47 anggota 1. Organisasi non profit 2. Fasilitas payment melalui : - Centralized account - Reduction of cash movement - Payment acceleration - Payment rationalization 3. Metode rekonsiliasi :
no precondition settlement, such discrepancy carried and resolved to the next settlement period.

4. Notifikasi kliring dilakukan oleh kreditor 5. Tidak ada cash yang dikirim ke CEPT, CEPT hanya menerbitkan payment order. 6. Beban bunga untuk keterlambatan pembayaran (6% untuk keterlambatan 20 hari )
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Prinsip Kliring Trafik Telekomunikasi
Beberapa prinsip yang dapat diterapkan di Indonesia :
       Agreed by operators Settlement data only (no cash transaction) Centre of file control and standarization Non precondition data settlement Centre of disputes filing Operation cost sharing Independent

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References
 “Interconnect Billing and Reconciliation” - Column - 23 January 2006 (http://www.purebill.com/column)  http://www.carrieraccessbilling.com/interconnectmodel.asp  “The Globalization of Interconnection Tutorial” (http://www.iec.org)  Bhatnagar - “New Interconnection Option : Interconnect Exchange cum Intercarrier Billing Clearing House” (http://www.itu.int/ITUD/treg/Interconnection_Prices)  Noorhayati Candrasuci - “Billing dan Settlement Interkoneksi” - Tutorial Interkoneksi, Holiday Inn, 18-19 November 2003

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