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Chapter 30

Plant Diversity II The Evolution of Seed Plants


PowerPoint TextEdit Art Slides for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece

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Figure 30.1 An ancient squash seed

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Figure 30.2 Gametophyte/sporophyte relationships


Sporophyte (2n) Sporophyte (2n)

Gametophyte (n)

Gametophyte (n)

(a) Sporophyte dependent on gametophyte (mosses and other bryophytes).

(b) Large sporophyte and


small, independent gametophyte (ferns and other seedless vascular plants).

Microscopic female gametophytes (n) in ovulate cones (dependent) Microscopic male gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers (dependent)

Microscopic female gametophytes (n) inside these parts of flowers (dependent)

Microscopic male gametophytes (n) in pollen cones (dependent)

Sporophyte (2n) (independent)

Sporophyte (2n), the flowering plant (independent)

(c) Reduced gametophyte dependent on sporophyte (seed plants: gymnosperms and angiosperms).

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Figure 30.3 From ovule to seed

Integument

Female gametophyte (n)

Seed coat (derived from integument)

Spore wall

Egg nucleus (n) Food supply (female gametophyte tissue) (n)

Megasporangium (2n) Megaspore (n)

Male gametophyte (within germinating pollen grain) (n) Micropyle

Discharged sperm nucleus (n) Pollen grain (n) Embryo (2n) (new sporophyte)

(a) Unfertilized ovule. In this sectional view through the ovule of a pine (a gymnosperm), a fleshy megasporangium is surrounded by a protective layer of tissue called an integument. (Angiosperms have two integuments.)

(b) Fertilized ovule. A megaspore develops into a multicellular female gametophyte. The micropyle, the only opening through the integument, allows entry of a pollen grain. The pollen grain contains a male gametophyte, which develops a pollen tube that discharges sperm.

(c) Gymnosperm seed. Fertilization initiates the transformation of the ovule into a seed, which consists of a sporophyte embryo, a food supply, and a protective seed coat derived from the integument.

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Unnumbered figure page 593


Charophyceans Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) Seedless vascular plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms

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Figure 30.4 Gymnosperm Diversity


PHYLUM CYCADOPHYTA PHYLUM GINKGOPHYTA

Cycas revoluta PHYLUM GNETOPHYTA Gnetum

Welwitschia

Ovulate cones Ephedra

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PHYLUM CONIFEROPHYTA

Douglas fir Common juniper

Pacific yew

Wollemia pine

Bristlecone pine

Sequoia

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Figure 30.5 A progymnosperm

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Figure 30.6 The life cycle of a pine (layer 1)


Key Ovule Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)

Ovulate cone Longitudinal section of ovulate cone

Megasporocyte (2n) Integument Micropyle

Pollen cone Mature sporophyte (2n)

Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS Longitudinal section of pollen cone

Pollen grains (n) (containing male gametophytes)

Germinating pollen grain

Megasporangium

Sporophyll Microsporangium

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Figure 30.6 The life cycle of a pine (layer 2)


Key Ovule Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)

Ovulate cone Longitudinal section of ovulate cone

Megasporocyte (2n) Integument Micropyle

Pollen cone Mature sporophyte (2n)

Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS Longitudinal section of pollen cone

Pollen MEIOSIS grains (n) (containing male gametophytes)

Germinating pollen grain

Megasporangium

Surviving Sporophyll megaspore (n) Microsporangium

Germinating pollen grain


Archegonium Egg (n) Integument Female gametophyte Germinating pollen grain (n)

Discharged sperm nucleus (n) Pollen tube

Egg nucleus (n)

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Figure 30.6 The life cycle of a pine (layer 3)


Key Ovule Haploid (n) Diploid (2n)

Ovulate cone Longitudinal section of ovulate cone

Megasporocyte (2n) Integument Micropyle

Pollen cone Mature sporophyte (2n)

Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS Longitudinal section of pollen cone Seedling

Pollen MEIOSIS grains (n) (containing male gametophytes)

Germinating pollen grain

Megasporangium

Surviving Sporophyll megaspore (n) Microsporangium

Germinating pollen grain


Archegonium Egg (n) Integument Seeds on surface of ovulate scale Female gametophyte Germinating pollen grain (n) Food reserves Seed coat (gametophyte (derived from tissue) (n) parent sporophyte) (2n)

Discharged sperm nucleus (n) Pollen tube

Embryo (new sporophyte) (2n)

FERTILIZATION

Egg nucleus (n)

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Unnumbered figure page 598


Bryophytes (nonvascular plants) Seedless vascular plants Charophyceans Gymnosperms Angiosperms

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Figure 30.7 The structure of an idealized flower


Carpel Stigma Stamen

Anther

Style
Ovary

Filament

Petal

Sepal

Receptacle Ovule

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30.7 Sea Urchin Time Lapse

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Figure 30.8 Some variations in fruit structure


(a) Tomato, a fleshy fruit with soft outer and inner layers of pericarp (b) Ruby grapefruit, a fleshy fruit with a hard outer layer and soft inner layer of pericarp

(c) Nectarine, a fleshy fruit with a soft outer layer and hard inner layer (pit) of pericarp

(d) Milkweed, a dry fruit that splits open at maturity

(e) Walnut, a dry fruit that remains closed at maturity

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Figure 30.9 Fruit adaptations that enhance seed dispersal


(a) Wings enable maple fruits to be easily carried by the wind.

(b) Seeds within berries and other edible fruits are often dispersed in animal feces.

(c) The barbs of cockleburs facilitate seed dispersal by allowing the fruits to hitchhike on animals.

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Figure 30.10 The life cycle of an angiosperm (layer 1)


Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Anther Mature flower on sporophyte plant (2n) Microsporangium Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS

Microspore (n) Ovule with megasporangium (2n) Male gametophyte (in pollen grain) Ovary MEIOSIS

Generative cell

Tube cell

Megasporangium (n)

Surviving megaspore (n) Female gametophyte (embryo sac) Antipodal cells Polar nuclei Synergids Egg (n)

Pollen tube

Sperm (n)

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Figure 30.10 The life cycle of an angiosperm (layer 2)


Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Anther Mature flower on sporophyte plant (2n) Microsporangium Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS

Microspore (n) Ovule with megasporangium (2n) Male gametophyte (in pollen grain) Ovary MEIOSIS Stigma Pollen tube Sperm Surviving megaspore (n) Female gametophyte (embryo sac) Antipodal cells Polar nuclei Synergids Egg (n) Pollen tube Style

Generative cell

Tube cell

Pollen grains

Megasporangium (n)

Pollen tube

Egg nucleus (n)

Sperm (n)

Discharged sperm nuclei (n)

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Figure 30.10 The life cycle of an angiosperm (layer 3)


Key Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) Anther Mature flower on sporophyte plant (2n) Microsporangium Microsporocytes (2n)

MEIOSIS

Microspore (n) Ovule with megasporangium (2n) Male gametophyte (in pollen grain) Ovary Germinating seed MEIOSIS Stigma Pollen tube Sperm Seed Surviving megaspore (n) Antipodal cells Polar nuclei Synergids Egg (n) Pollen tube Style

Generative cell

Tube cell

Pollen grains

Embryo (2n) Endosperm (food supply) (3n) Seed coat (2n) Female gametophyte (embryo sac)

Megasporangium (n)

Pollen tube

Nucleus of developing endosperm (3n)

Zygote (2n) Egg nucleus (n)

Sperm (n)

FERTILIZATION

Discharged sperm nuclei (n)

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Figure 30.11 A primitive flowering plant?


Carpel

Stamen

5 cm (a) Archaefructus sinensis, a 125-million-yearold fossil.

(b) Artists reconstruction of Archaefructus sinensis

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Figure 30.12 Angiosperm Diversity


BASAL ANGIOSPERMS

Amborella trichopoda

Water lily (Nymphaea Rene Gerard) Monocots

Star anise (Illicium floridanum)

HYPOTHETICAL TREE OF FLOWERING PLANTS Star anise and relatives

Water lilies

Magnoliids

Amborella

MAGNOLIIDS

Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora) Copyright 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Eudicots

MONOCOTS Orchid (Lemboglossum rossii) Monocot Characteristics Eudicot Characteristics

EUDICOTS California poppy (Eschscholzia californica)

Embryos

One cotyledon

Two cotyledons

Leaf venation Veins usually parallel Pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii) Lily (Lilium Enchantment) Veins usually netlike

Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica)

Stems Vascular tissue usually arranged in ring Root Root system Usually fibrous (no main root) Dog rose (Rosa canina), a wild rose Taproot (main root) usually present

Vascular tissue scattered

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a grass

Pollen Pollen grain with one opening Pollen grain with three openings

Pea (Lathyrus nervosus, Lord Ansons blue pea), a legume

Flowers Anther Zucchini (Cucurbita Pepo), female (left) and male flowers

Filament

Stigma Floral organs usually in Ovary multiples of three

Floral organs usually in multiples of four or five

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Figure 30.13 Flower-pollinator relationships

(a) A flower pollinated by honeybees. (b) A flower pollinated by hummingbirds. This honeybee is harvesting pollen The long, thin beak and tongue of this and Nectar (a sugary solution secreted rufous hummingbird enable the animal by flower glands) from a Scottish to probe flowers that secrete nectar broom flower. The flower has a tripping deep within floral tubes. Before the Mechanism that arches the stamens hummer leaves, anthers will dust its over the bee and dusts it with pollen, beak and head feathers with pollen. some of which will rub off onto the Many flowers that are pollinated by stigma of the next flower the bee visits. birds are red or pink, colors to which bird eyes are especially sensitive.

(c) A flower pollinated by nocturnal animals. Some angiosperms, such as this cactus, depend mainly on nocturnal pollinators, including bats. Common adaptations of such plants include large, light-colored, highly fragrant flowers that nighttime pollinators can locate.

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30.13 Bat Pollinating

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Table 30.1 A Sampling of Medicines Derived from Seed Plants

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Unnumbered figure page 607

Green algae

Mosses

Fems

Gymnosperms

Angiosperms 10.

9.

8.

7.

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