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PRINCIPLES OF LOSS PREVENTION

PRINCIPLES OF INCIDENT PREVENTION
THE Ministry of Labour and National Services (UK) postulated the following six principles of accident prevention in 1956 that are still valid. a) Accident prevention is an essential part of good management and of good workmanship. b) Management and workers must co-operate wholeheartedly in securing freedom from accidents. c) Top management must take the lead in organising safety. d) There must be a definite and known safety policy in each workplace.

e) The organisation and resources necessary to carry out the policy must exist. f) The best available knowledge and methods must be applied. These principles received legislative backing in the OSH Act 1994.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL IMPORTANCE DEFINATION HAZARDS A hazard is anything that can cause harm (e.). The three steps are: . A hazard may be present but there may be little danger because of the control precautions taken. Risk is the chance or probability (big or small) of harm actually being done. not vice versa. chemicals.g. (It can also be expressed as a frequency – the number of events in unit time). They are based on the concept that the workplace should be modified to suit people. RISK DANGER THE CONCEPT Three basic steps should be taken to ensure a safe and healty workplace. electricity. Danger is the relative exposure to a hazard. working from ladders etc.

. How much analysis is worthwhile is a function of the consequences of the adverse event and the difficulty in preventing it.QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT Quantitative analysis uses numerical values (rather than the descriptive scales used in qualitative analysis) for both likelihood and consequences using data from a variety of sources. Application of quantitative methods is usually restricted to sensitive components of a major hazard installation.

 Identifying the hazard s – involves recognising things which may cause injury or harm to the health of a person for instance flammable material. Assessing the risk – involves looking at the possibility of injury or harm occurring to a person if exposed to a hazard. ignition sources or unguarded machinery. especially if there are changes in the work environment. new technology is introduced or standards are changed. Controlling the risk – by introducing measures which will eliminate or reduce the risk of a person being exposed to a hazard. It is important to regularly review the steps.    .

g. In the most complex or high risk. in the chemical or nuclear industry) special techniques and systems may be required such as hazard and operability studies (HAZOPS). hazards can be identified by observation . In the simplest cases. members of the public and contractors) and to those using product and services. .IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS The identification of hazards should involve a critical appraisal of all activities to take account of hazards to employees. others affected by activities (e. cases (for example. comparing the circumstances with the relevant information. In more complex cases measurements such air sampling or examining the methods of machine operation may be necessary to identify the presence of hazards presented by chemicals or machinery.

Reviewing relevant Malaysian and international standards. Reviewing industry or trade association guidance. Methods of identifying workplace hazards include:      Previewing legislation and supporting codes of practice and guidance. . Developing a hazard checklist.Specialist advice may be necessary in choosing and applying the most appropriate techniques. A combination of the following methods may be the most effective way to identify hazards. Reviewing other published information.

accident and injury data.          Conducting walk-through surveys (audits) and inspections. Consulting with employees. Observation. Analysing work processes. Assessing the adequacy of training or knowledge required to work safely. Job safety analysis. Reviewing information from designers or manufacturers. Analysing unsafe incident. . and Seeking advice from specialist. Examining and considering material safety data sheet and product labels.

control or power system failure. The particular form in which that hazard occurs. noise or the toxic properties of substances. Some hazards are inherent in the work process such as mechanical hazards.  Other hazards result from equipment or machine failure and misuse.    The areas of the workplace or work process where it occurs and the persons exposed to that hazard. . The conclusion of hazard identification should result in a list of hazard sources. chemical spills and structural failures.

Highly unlikely – could happen but probably never will.THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS    Gather information about each hazard identified. Use the information to assess the likelihood and consequence of each hazard and produce a qualitative risk table. How likely is it than a hazardous event or situation will occur?     Very likely – could happen frequently. Think about how many people are exposed to each hazard and for how long. . Likely – could happen occasionally. Unlike – could happen but only rarely.

Negligible injuries (first aid). . Minor injuries (normally reversible injury or damage to health requiring days off work).What might be the consequences of a hazardous event or situation?     Fatality Major injuries (normally irreversible injury or damage to health).

QUALITATIVE RISK TABLE Consequence Very likely Fatality Major injuries High High Likelihood Likely High High Unlikely Highly unlikely High Medium Medium Medium Minor injuries Negligible injuries High Medium Medium Medium Medium Low Low Low .

  Events or situations assessed as very likely with fatal consequences are the most serious (HIGH risk). . Those assessed as highly unlikely with negligible injuries are the least serious (LOW risk). you should tackle anything with a HIGH rating first. When you are developing risk control strategies. Note the risk rating for each hazard on a worksheet.

The following hierarchy should be used when considering control measures. Most Effective Elimination removing the hazard or hazardous work practice from the workplace. MSDS’s. Industry or trade associations. . Specialists. This is most effective control measure. and Other publications including those by manufacturers and suppliers.RISK CONTROL Information or ideas on control measures can come from:      Codes of practice.

Fairly Effective Substitution Isolation substituting or replacing a hazard or hazardous work practice with a less hazardous one. an engineering control is the next preferred measure. substituted or isolated. This may include modifications to tools or equipment providing guarding to machinery or equipment. isolation or separating the hazard or hazardous work practice from peoples not involved in the work or the general work areas. installing screens or barriers can do this. Engineering Control Least Effective (“back Up” Controls) – safe work practices essential . if the hazard cannot be eliminated. Marking off hazardous areas.

This could include limiting the amount of time a person is exposed to a particular hazard. That is. . there may be circumstances where more than one control measure should be used to reduce exposure to hazards. A last resort measure. and should be considered only when other control measures are not practicable or to increase protection.Administration control includes introducing work practices that reduce the risk. Personal protective Equipment Control measure are not mutually exclusive.

 Risk control measure must also be maintained – for example. followed. maintenance and monitoring procedures to secure continued operation. interlocking guards have to be kept in working order work procedures have to be monitored to ensure they are being followed and hearing protectors have to be kept clean and checked for damage. which need to be strictly. In order to keep accurate records a recording or reporting systems should be developed implemented and maintained.  . for example. a permit-to-work system.   The control of high-risk activities may require procedures. which ensures close supervision during implementation. Maintaining risk control measures requires adequate inspection.

MORE SOPHISTICATED RISK IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT (SYSTEMS ENGINEERING) The consideration of healthy and safety aspects at the design and planning stages of new plant and processes is vitally important in order to ensure that health and safety are built in. Many formal techniques have been developed for the systematic analysis of complex system. . They attempt to consider all reasonable possibilities and all suffer from the drawback that the probability of future event can only be guessed. rather than bolted on.

At one time HAZOP’s were mainly focused on fire and explosion endpoints. The HAZOP studies are time consuming and expensive. The brainstorming technique can be applied to any new project to identify hazards. solution to problem are a separate effort.HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 1. especially about new design / processes. Hazop Hazard and operability studies as a hazard identification technique. multi-disciplinary brainstorming session. The end of a HAZOP survey is hazard identification. . while now the scope usually includes toxic release. The technique was developed in the chemical process industries and essentially it is a structured. offensive odor and environment end-points.

FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) The kinds of failure that could happen are examined and their effects – in terms of maximum potential loss – are evaluated. System Component Failure Mode Failure Effect Scrubber Water pump Inadequate water flow Increased environmental pollution . This analysis would from part of an overall Hazop study.

. The FMEA is used to assure that component failure modes and their effects hev been considered and either eliminated or controlled that information for maintenance and operational manuals has been provided and that input to other safety analyses has been generated.FMEAs are performed at the component level to determine possible ways that equipment can fail and to determine the effect of such failure on the system.

It is a good technique for summating individual probabilities to obtain the overall probability of the event occurring. It is a graphical technique that starts with the end event which is the accident or disaster (e. nuclear fuel melt-down) and works backward to find the initiating event or combination of event is known or can be estimated the probability of the end or “top” event can be calculated. The fault-tree is a logic diagram based on the principle of multicausality that traces all the branches of event that could contribute to an accident or failure. Data on individual components may be obtained from manufacturers’ reliability statistic or quality assurance information.FAULT TREE ANALYSIS       Fault tree analysis is a logical method of analysing how and why a disaster could occur. .g.

explosive or flammable substance in the installation constitute a major hazard. reactive. plant. To analyse the safety of a major hazard installation as well as its potential hazards. . process and the public.HAZAN Hazard analysis (Hazan) is undertaken to ascertain the magnitude of the potential problem and its potential for harm to the people. A subsequent analysis will then go on to examine the actual consequences worst possible case considerations and express them in quantifiable terms. a hazard analysis should be carried out covering the following areas: (a) Which toxic.

(b) Which failures or errors could cause abnormal conditions leading to a major accident. (c) The consequences of a major accident for the workers. (e) Mitigation of the consequences of an accident. (b) The route to those worst events. people living or working outside the installation or the environment. The analysis should indicate: (a) The worst events considered. (d) Prevention measures for accident. .

(e) The relative likelihood of events. (f) The consequences of each event.(c) The time-scale to lesser events which might lead to the worst events. . (d) The size of lesser events if their development is halted.

Human behaviour must be factored into reliability analysis for it to be accurate in the increasing number of systems where errors in man-machine interaction can be an initiating event in a disaster. This procedure involves the following steps:  . The most commonly used quantitative method for the measurement and assessment of personnel-induced errors is the Technique for Human Error Prediction (THERP).HUMAN ERROR ANALYSIS At Three Mile Island.   Human error analysis adds considerations of human performance to the hazard evaluation process. the operator’s misunderstanding of the cooling water status led to several actions or inaction which resulted in the accident.

.   Identification of human activities which create a hazard Estimation of failure rates Effect of human failures on the system The output of THERP is an input to fault tree or other methods of hazard analysis.

A good occupational business and an accurate system of evaluation are a part of such a program.EVALUATING INJURIES AND ILLNESSES   Organisations should know the value of a good safety record. Work-related injuries and illnesses are expensive in terms of both decreased productivity and increased premiums for any compensation insurance and related costs.    . which can compare overall performance of an organisation’s existing safety record to the previous year’s record. They become especially costly in human terms when they lead to the permanent Loss of a skilled worker or when they destroy employees’ morale. An accurate evaluation is done by the use of incidence and severity rates.

in relation to the total number of employees at risk during the period under examination. In order to monitor the progress in accident prevention it is necessary to keep records. Management and employees need to know the following: 1. Thus. when the injury data for a particular unit are higher than for other units.  Using these rates. comparisons can also be made between different plants in a particular industry or departments within a particular plant. . the Safety professional must decide what action to take for applying corrective measures. The number of accidents occurring during each month and each year.

The types of accidents which are occurring. a plant employing 850 employees worked 1. How the current period compares with past periods. For example. It incurred seven lost-time accidents during that period of time.750. and where they occur. 3. so that trends and long-term performance can be observed.000-work hour.000 work hours last year.2. The incidence rate for the plant last year is computed as follows: . COMPUTING THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY RATES Disabling-injury incidence rate is defined as the Number of lost-time days away from work for every 200.

000 hours per year (40 hours per week per worker.000 = 8 175.000 hours in the formula was established by the BUREAU OF LABOUR STATISTICS. It is assumed that a base of 100 full-time employees would work 200. 50 weeks per year). the computation for the above plant is: INCIDENCE RATE = 7 x 200.INCIDENT RATE = NUMBER OF LOST TIME ACCIDENTS X 200. .000 The eight in the computation represent eight lost-time accidents per every 200.000-work hour. The 200.000 EMPLOYEE HOURS WORKED Thus.

COMPUTING THE SEVERITY RATE Severity rate is the number of lost-time days charged for disabling injuries per every 200. The severity rate for that period of time is computed as follows: SEVERITY RATE = NUMBER OF LOST-TIME DAYS X 200.000 = 25 600.000 work hours. a plant employing 50 employees clocked 600. the computation is as follows: SEVERITY RATE = 75 X 200.000 Employee hours worked THUS.000-work hour.000 . It experienced 75 lost-time workdays during this year. For example.

A plant may have a high incidence rate. . AND DO ON SEVERITY TOO. and the injuries may be minor.The 25 in the formula represent 25 lost-time days for every 200.000 hours worked. or a plant may have a low incidence rate. but the injuries are severe. THIS IS FOR INCIDENT. – ELABORATE.

mostly and for a variety of reasons.  Sometimes employees are careless. .  Sometimes machines are not properly guarded but there is always a person who could have prevented the accident by taking proper protective or control action.  Sometimes the boss has not given proper instructions. MUST KNOW THE LAW REGARDING SAFETY  Sometimes the supervisor has not helped employees to understand the dangers involved in their work.  Sometimes employee attitudes are to be blame.ACCIDENTS – WHY DO THEY HAPPEN? Accident and hazards to health represent costly factors in the work environment and must be guarded against constantly.  People do. – NOT EDUCATED.  Sometimes equipment fails. MUST SENT TRAINING.

Management is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the working environment and tasks. Management can control both of these unsafe practices.      .   This is not to remove the responsibility for the company. institution. Control of workers and their behaviours is not easy. into which workers must fit into and react. or agency involved. Accident which are undesired and costly events are the direct result of unsafe activities / acts and conditions. This often means a sizeable investment in protective equipment and time consuming safety and health measures. Ownership and management must be committed to the principles of accident and health protection. They have to be educated and trained that accidents are not inevitable but caused and that they must also be trained to recognise the need to comply and develop systems of work.

not many employers.PENTING! FAILURE TO MAINTAIN COMPLIANCE WITH ADEQUATE STANDARDS FOR: Leadership & Administration  Management Training  Planned Inspections  Task Analysis & Procedures  Accident / Incident Investigation  Task Observations  Emergency Preparedness  Organisational Rules  Accident / Incident Analysis / Employee Training  Personal Protective Equipment  Health Control and Services  Programme Evaluation System  Engineering Controls  Personal Communications  Group Meetings  General Promotion  Hiring & Placement  Purchasing Controls  Off-the Job salary  . Unfortunately. managers and workers had been educated about workplace safety and health..

PERSONAL FACTORS  JOB FACTORS Inadequate Capability Physical / Physiological  Mental / Psychological  Lack of Knowledge  Lack of Skill  Stress  Physical / Physiological  Mental / Psychological   Improper Motivation Inadequate Leadership or Supervision  Inadequate Engineering  Inadequate Purchasing  Inadequate Maintenance  Inadequate Tools. Materials  Inadequate Work Standards  Abuse or Misuse  Wear and Tear  . Equipment.

Equipment or Materials  Congestion or Restricted Action  Inadequate Warning System  Fire & Explosion Hazards  Poor Housekeeping : Disorder  Noise Exposure  Radiation Exposure  Temperature Extremes  Inadequate or Excess Illumination LIGHTING  Inadequate Ventilation . Detective Tools.SUBSTANDARD PRACTICES Operating Equipment Without Authority  Failure to Warn  Failure to Secure  Operating at Improper Speed  Making Safety Devices Inoperable  Removing Safety Devices  Using Defective Equipment  Failing to Use PPE Property  Improper Loading  Improper Placement  Improper Lifting   SUBSTANDARD CONDITIONS Inadequate Guards or Barriers  Inadequate or Improper Protective Equipment.

SUBSTANDARD PRACTICES Improper Position for Task  Servicing Equipment in Operations  Horseplay .BERGURAU  Under Influence of Alcohol and / or Other Drugs  .

Tip Over)  Caught In (Punch)  Caught On (Snagged. Overexertion)  . Toxic)  Over-stress.CONTACTS Struck Against (Running or Bumping Into)  Struck By (Met By Moving Object)  Fall to Lower Level  Fall on Same Level (Slip and Fall. Hung)  Caught Between (Crushed)  Contact With (Electricity. Radiation.

PERSONAL HARM PROPERTY DAMAGE Major Injury or Illness  Serious Injury or Illness  Minor Injury or Illness  PROCESS PROBLEMS Catastrophic  Major  Serious  Minor  Catastrophic  Major  Serious  Minor  .

WHY MUST WE INVESTIGATE THEM?     Work place accidents or dangerous occurrences debilitate the worker’s environment leading to his loss of working morale.ACCIDENTS STATISTICS – A CHALLENGE TO REDUCE 1. WHAT ARE ACCIDENTS?  Accidents are the consequences of unplanned events. 2. . It is therefore important that accidents are investigated promptly and objectively so that worker confidence is restored in the organisation. This can give rise to work place stress thereby leading to high absenteeism and high staff turnover. Workers then look to management for restitution.

3 and resituate worker morale Once the accident has occurred it is the earnest desire to profit from the losses of the accident that motivates the investigator to keep the tempo of accident investigation going. .Dangerous accidents and dangerous occurrences have to be investigated in order to: 2.1 find out why it happened 2.2 ensure that it does not occur again 2.

3. WHAT IS THE BASIS OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION? There is an ancient proverb. there is a corollary when it comes to accident prevention – prevent unsafe acts and accidents will be prevented. In parallel to this proverb. which says that “look after the cents and the dollars will look after it”. The relationship between unsafe acts and fatal / disabling injuries was established Heinrich and it is illustrated as follows: .

1 Fatal or disabling Injury 30 minor injuries 300 material damages 3000 unsafe acts .

1 5.1. THE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCESS There are 3 stages in the investigation process: 5.1 Gathering Information (First Stage of Investigation) 5. MONITOR AND ELIMINATE UNSAFE ACTS? Practising safe systems of working can eliminate unsafe acts.1. 5. THEN.4. HOW CAN ONE.2 An Incident Statement Interviewing Witness .

the report must be written up.4 Corrective Action – Recommendation to Prevent Recurrent False (Third Stage) 5.3 Causes of the Accident (Third Stage) 5. .2 Discussion On Section of Accident (Second Stage) 5.5 Managing For Results (Writing and Reporting) Once the cause and remedial action have been established.5.

powered industrial trucks. In all circumstances. the safety of the equipment can be effected by the safety of operating conditions.HAZARDS AND RISKS IN ALL WORKPLACES There are different types of hazards at various work places. workplace hazards and the operator. Mechanical Handling Hazards include use of cranes. Whatever hazards can be eliminated should be done so. forklift or conveyor. impact. c) the provision of protective clothing or equipment. . contact entanglement or ejection of part of and by the machine or failure of components. Machinery safety can be achieved by: a) eliminating the cause of the danger (intrinsic safety). if not substitute them wherever possible and the rest would have to be controlled. Machinery Hazards includes traps. b) reducing the need for people to approach the dangerous part or providing safety devices as control.

fuses. narcotic or oxidising chemical incident. vibration hazards. circuit breaks. electric bruises and electrical files. Electrical Hazards are due to electric shock. temperature hazards. lightning hazards.Chemical Hazards are dangerous substance. irritant corrosive toxic carcinogens. miscalculation. ergonomic hazards and other miscellaneous hazards due to stress or fatigue. radiation hazards. which can cause harm after a single exposure or repeated exposure.  They are classified according to the type of harm such as exposure / flammable. . isolation and competency. safe system of work. maintenance. Other Hazards include noise hazards. Electrical safety includes everything. biological hazards.

steel. Either type may use sand.PROCESS OF OPERATION: NATURE AND DESCRIPTION OF HAZARDS Abrasive blasting Abrasive blasting equipment may be automatic. Assembly Operation Improper positioning of equipment and handling of work parts may present ergonomic hazards due to repeated awkward motion and resulting in excessive stresses. shot or artificial abrasives. The work piece material is removed in the form of small particles and. Abrasive-machining An abrasive machining operation is characterised by the removal of material from a work piece by the cutting action of abrasive particles contained in or on a machine tool. The dust levels of workroom air should be examined to make sure that the operators are not over exposed. . or it may be manually operated. whenever the operation is performed dry. these particles are projected into the air near the operation.

plus hazards of heat stress from the furnaces and hot ware. Coating Operations Whenever substance containing volatile constituents is applied to a surface in an industrial environment. Ceramic coating Ceramic coating may present the hazard of airborne dispersion of toxic pigments. pesticides. there is potential for any vapours evolved to enter the breeding zones of workers. paint pigments. The bagging of powdered materials (such as plastic resins.Bagging and handling of dry materials. cement and the like) is generally accompanied by the generation of airborne dusts. .

. Fabric and paper coating The coating and impregnating of fabric and paper with plastic or rubber solution may involve evaporation into the workroom air of large quantities of solvents. Electron-beam welding Any process involving an electric discharge in a vacuum may be a source of ionising radiation. Such process involves the use of electronbeam equipment and similar devices.Dry Mixing Mixing of dry materials may present a dust hazard and should take place in completely enclosed mixers whenever air-sampling indicates excessive amount of airborne dust are present.

unlegged steam pipes. skin contact with the lubricant. crushing or commenting of any material may contaminate workroom air because of the dust produced from the material being processed or from the grinding wheel. heat stress (including radiant heat).Forming and forging Hot bending. process equipment and so on. noise and dust. . or cutting of metals or non-metals may involve hazards of lubricant mist. Grinding Operations Grinding. decomposition products of the lubricant. forming. High temperatures from hot castings.

radiant heat load (globe temperature).Any process or operation involving high ambient temperatures (dry-bulb temperature). or excessive humanity (wet-bulb temperature) should be examined to determine the magnitude of the physical stresses that may be present. Metalizing Uncontrolled coating of parts with molten metals present hazards of dust and fumes of metals and fluxes in addition to heat and nonionising radiation. forklift operations. Material handling. Warehousing Work areas should be checked for levels of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen arising from internal combustion engine. . Operations should also be evaluated for ergonomic hazards.

electroplating. An open-surface tank operation is defined as “any operation involving the .Microwave and radio frequency-heating operations Any process or operation involving microwaves or induction heating should be examined to determine the magnitude of heating effects and. Molten metals Any process involving the melting and pouring of molten metals should be examined to determine the level of air contaminants of any toxic gas. metal fume. in some cases. or dust produced in the operation. noise exposure to the employees. Among their applications can be included the common operations of degreasing. fur and leather finishing. metal stripping. dyeing and pickling. Open-surface tanks Open-surface tanks are used by industry for numerous purposes.

and Robots Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace . Automation.HAZARD ASSESSMENT. Acceleration. Lifting. Impact. PREVENTION. and Vision Hazards Hazards of Temperature Extremes Pressure Hazards Electrical Hazards Fire Hazards and Life Safety Industrial Hygiene and Confined Spaces Radiation Hazards Noise and Vibration Hazards Computers. AND CONTROL 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Mechanical Hazards and Machine Safeguarding Falling.

MECHANICAL HAZARDS AND MACHINE SAFEGUARDING Major Topics            Common Mechanical Injuries Safeguarding Defined OSHA’s Requirements for Machine Guarding Risk Assessment in Machine Operation Requirements for All Safeguards Point-of-Operation Guards Point-of-Operation Devices Machine Guarding Self-Assessment Feeding and Ejection Systems Robot Safeguards Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout / Tagout Systems) .

   General Precautions Basic Program Content Taking Corrective Action .

AND VISION HAZARDS Major Topics          Causes of Falls Kinds of Falls Walking and Slipping Slip and Fall Prevention Programs OSHA Fall Protection Standards Ladder Safety Impact and Acceleration Hazards (head. and feet protection) Lifting Hazards Standing Hazards .FALLING. LIFTING. face. IMPACT. eyes. ACCELERATION.

   Hand Protection Personal Protective Equipment Forklift Safety (Powered Industrial Trucks) .

This chapter provides the information that professionals need to know to overcome the hazards associated with extreme temperatures. Extremes of either heat or cold can be more than uncomfortable – they can be dangerous.HAZARDS OF TEMPERATURE EXTREMES Major Topics      Thermal Comfort Heat Stress and Strain Cold Stress Burns and Their Effects Chemical Burns Part of providing a safe and healthy workplace is appropriately controlling the temperature. cold stress. humidity. Heat stress. and air distribution in work areas. A work environment in which the temperature is not properly controlled can be uncomfortable. . and burns are major concerns of modern safety and health professionals.

PRESSURE HAZARDS Major Topics             Pressure Hazards Defined Sources of Pressure Hazards Boilers and Pressure Hazards High-Temperature Water Hazards Hazards of Unfired Pressure Vessels Hazards of High-Pressure Systems Cracking Hazards in Pressure Vessels Nondestructive Testing of Pressure Vessels Pressure Dangers to Humans Decompression Procedures Measurement of Pressure Hazards Reduction of Pressure Hazards .

OSHA defines high-pressure cylinders as those designated with a service pressure of 900 pounds psi or greater.PRESSURE HAZARDS DEFINED Pressure is defined in physics as the force exerted against an opposing fluid or thrust distributed over a surface. a pressure hazard is a hazard caused by a dangerous condition involving pressure. such as psi (pounds per square inch). This may be expressed in force or weight per unit of area. Critical injury and damage can occur with relatively little pressure. loss of material. A hazard is a condition with the potential of causing injury to personnel. Thus. damage to equipment or structures. or lessening of the ability to perform a prescribed function. .

ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
Major Topics
        

Electrical Hazards Defined Sources of Electrical Hazards Electrical Hazards to Humans Detection of Electrical Hazards Reduction of Electrical Hazards OSHA’s Electrical Standards Electrical Safety Program Electrical Hazards Self-Assessment Prevention of Arc Flash Injuries (NFPA 70E)

Consider the following scenario: A textile mill in Massachusetts was fined $66,375 when an employee contacts OSHA and complains about unsafe conditions at the mill. The Region 1 Office of OSHA conducted an investigation in response to the complaint that uncovered the following willful violation: allowing employees to perform live electrical work without safe work procedures or appropriate personal protective equipment. In addition, the investigation uncovered several serious violations including storage of flammable materials near emergency exits, improper storage of oxygen and acetylene cylinders, failure to post load ratings, and exposed live electrical source and unsuitable electrical outlets for wet or damp locations.

FIRE HAZARDS AND LIFE SAFETY
Major Topics
            

Fire Hazards Defined Sources of Fire Hazards Fire Dangers to Humans Detection of Fire Hazards Reduction of Fire Hazards Development of Fire Safety Standards OSHA Fire Standards Life Safety Flame-Resistant Clothing Fire Safety Programs Explosive Hazards OSHA’s Firefighting Options Self-Assessment in Fire Protection

Soon after the manager entered the area. . According to the NFPA Journal. a violent explosion occurred. The NFPA Journal stated. which captures gasoline vapors displaced from tank trucks being filled with product.The assistant manager of a fuel storage plant was killed while trying to repair a broken-down piece of equipment. It was suspected that the facility’s vapor-recovery system. facility damage was held to a minimum and human injury was avoided when a sprinkler system suppressed a fire that broke out on the second floor of a polyurethane foam manufacturing plant in North Carolina. had malfunctioned. The victim had been called to investigate a strong odor of gasoline that had been detected by a gasoline tank driver. The victim’s severely burned body and repair tools were found near the damaged equipment. In other recent example.

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND CONFINED SPACES Major Topics             Overview of Industrial Hygiene Industrial Hygiene Standards OSH Act and Industrial Hygiene Hazards in the Workplace Toxic Substances Defined Entry Points for Toxic Agents Effects of Toxic Substances Relationship of Doses and Responses Airborne Contaminants Effects of Airborne Toxics Effects of Carcinogens Asbestos Hazards .

             Indoor Air Quality and “Sick-Building” Syndrome Toxic Mold and Indoor Air Quality Threshold Limit Values Hazard Recognition and Evaluation Prevention and Control NIOSH and Industrial Hygiene NIOSH Guidelines for Respirators Standards and Regulations General Safety Precautions Confined Space Hazards OSHA Confined Space Standard OSHA Standards for Toxic and Hazardous Materials OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard .

This chapter provides prospective and practicing safety and health professionals with the information they need to know about this area of specialization. .Industrial hygiene is an area of specialization within the broader field of industrial safety and health.

RADIATION HAZARDS Major Topics            Ionizing Radiation: Terms and Concepts Exposure of Employees to Radiation Precautions and Personal Monitoring Caution Signs and Labels Evacuation Warning Signal Instructing and Informing Personnel Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Material Notification of Incidents Reports and Records of Overexposure Notice to Employees Nonionizing Radiation .

the victim received a total cumulative dose of almost 52 millisieverts of radiation. BNF compensated the victim’s wife and the families of 20 additional workers who died from causes related to radiation.  Electromagnetic Fields in the Workplace OSHA Standards for Health and Environmental Controls The widow of a construction worker who helped build the British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) Sellafield plant was awarded $286. Sellafield was constructed for the purpose of separating uranium from used fuel rods. which exceeded the established limit for an entire 12-month period. . Working at the plant for approximately nine months.500 when it was determined that his death from chronic myeloid leukemia was the result of overexposure to radiation.

Radiation hazards in the workplace fall into one of two categories: ionizing or nonionizing. . This chapter provides prospective and practicing safety and health professionals with the information they need concerning radiation hazards in both categories.

NOISE AND VIBRATION HAZARDS Major Topics            Hearing Loss Prevention Terms Characteristics of Sound Hazard Levels and Risks Standards and Regulations Workers’ Compensation and Noise Hazards Identifying and Assessing Hazardous Noise Conditions Noise Control Strategies Vibration Hazards Other Effects of Noise Hazards Corporate Policy Evaluating Hearing Loss Prevention Programs .

The modern workplace can be noisy. Modern safety and health professionals need to understand the hazards associated with noise and vibration. there is the problem of hearing loss. This poses two safety. Second. Exposure to noise that exceeds prescribed levels can result in permanent hearing loss. Noise can distract workers and disrupt their concentration. there is the problem of distraction. how to identify and assess these hazards. First. which can lead to accidents. . You may find the definitions in this section helpful when trying to understand the content of this chapter. This chapter provides the necessary information for prospective and practicing safety and health professionals to do so. and how to prevent injuries related to them. HEARING LOSS PREVENTION TERMS There are certain terms common to hearing loss prevention that must be understood by safety and health professionals.and health-related problems.

AUTOMATION.COMPUTERS. AND ROBOTS Major Topics          Impact of Automation on the Workplace VDTs in Offices and Factories Human-Robot Interaction Safety and Health Problems Associated with Robots Safety and Health in Office Automation Industrial Medicine and Robots Technological Alienation in the Automated Workplace Minimizing the Problems of Automation Challenge for the Future .

how work is done. The introduction of automated processes that involve computers and robots has changed the environment of the modern workplace and what is needed to succeed in it. It was eventually superseded by the age of mechanization during the Industrial Revolution. This continuum began when humans first developed simple tools to assist them in doing work. and competitiveness. . This was the age of hand tools and manual work. IMPACT OF AUTOMATION ON THE WORKPLACE The advent of automation on the workplace was the next logical step on a continuum of developments intended to enhance productivity.Automation of the workplace has changed. Quality. and continues to change.

. The 1960s saw the beginnings of broad-based efforts at automating mechanical processes and systems.During the age of mechanization. or individual automated systems lacking electronic communication with other related systems. Examples of islands of automation are a stand-alone computer. These early attempts at automation resulted in islands of automation. machines were developed to do work previously done by humans using hand tools.