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PRINCIPLES OF INCIDENT PREVENTION
THE Ministry of Labour and National Services (UK) postulated the following six principles of accident prevention in 1956 that are still valid. a) Accident prevention is an essential part of good management and of good workmanship. b) Management and workers must co-operate wholeheartedly in securing freedom from accidents. c) Top management must take the lead in organising safety. d) There must be a definite and known safety policy in each workplace.
e) The organisation and resources necessary to carry out the policy must exist. f) The best available knowledge and methods must be applied. These principles received legislative backing in the OSH Act 1994.
A hazard may be present but there may be little danger because of the control precautions taken.HAZARD IDENTIFICATION RISK ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL IMPORTANCE DEFINATION HAZARDS A hazard is anything that can cause harm (e. working from ladders etc. Risk is the chance or probability (big or small) of harm actually being done. chemicals. They are based on the concept that the workplace should be modified to suit people. not vice versa. Danger is the relative exposure to a hazard. The three steps are: .g. RISK DANGER THE CONCEPT Three basic steps should be taken to ensure a safe and healty workplace. electricity.). (It can also be expressed as a frequency – the number of events in unit time).
Application of quantitative methods is usually restricted to sensitive components of a major hazard installation. .QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT Quantitative analysis uses numerical values (rather than the descriptive scales used in qualitative analysis) for both likelihood and consequences using data from a variety of sources. How much analysis is worthwhile is a function of the consequences of the adverse event and the difficulty in preventing it.
It is important to regularly review the steps. new technology is introduced or standards are changed. Identifying the hazard s – involves recognising things which may cause injury or harm to the health of a person for instance flammable material. especially if there are changes in the work environment. ignition sources or unguarded machinery. Assessing the risk – involves looking at the possibility of injury or harm occurring to a person if exposed to a hazard. Controlling the risk – by introducing measures which will eliminate or reduce the risk of a person being exposed to a hazard. .
members of the public and contractors) and to those using product and services. others affected by activities (e. In the simplest cases.IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS The identification of hazards should involve a critical appraisal of all activities to take account of hazards to employees. in the chemical or nuclear industry) special techniques and systems may be required such as hazard and operability studies (HAZOPS). comparing the circumstances with the relevant information. hazards can be identified by observation .g. In the most complex or high risk. In more complex cases measurements such air sampling or examining the methods of machine operation may be necessary to identify the presence of hazards presented by chemicals or machinery. . cases (for example.
. A combination of the following methods may be the most effective way to identify hazards.Specialist advice may be necessary in choosing and applying the most appropriate techniques. Developing a hazard checklist. Reviewing other published information. Reviewing industry or trade association guidance. Methods of identifying workplace hazards include: Previewing legislation and supporting codes of practice and guidance. Reviewing relevant Malaysian and international standards.
Assessing the adequacy of training or knowledge required to work safely. . Reviewing information from designers or manufacturers. Conducting walk-through surveys (audits) and inspections. and Seeking advice from specialist. Consulting with employees. Examining and considering material safety data sheet and product labels. Analysing work processes. accident and injury data. Observation. Analysing unsafe incident. Job safety analysis.
Some hazards are inherent in the work process such as mechanical hazards. Other hazards result from equipment or machine failure and misuse. The particular form in which that hazard occurs. control or power system failure. . chemical spills and structural failures. The conclusion of hazard identification should result in a list of hazard sources. The areas of the workplace or work process where it occurs and the persons exposed to that hazard. noise or the toxic properties of substances.
Highly unlikely – could happen but probably never will. How likely is it than a hazardous event or situation will occur? Very likely – could happen frequently. Think about how many people are exposed to each hazard and for how long. Use the information to assess the likelihood and consequence of each hazard and produce a qualitative risk table. Likely – could happen occasionally.THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS Gather information about each hazard identified. Unlike – could happen but only rarely. .
Negligible injuries (first aid). .What might be the consequences of a hazardous event or situation? Fatality Major injuries (normally irreversible injury or damage to health). Minor injuries (normally reversible injury or damage to health requiring days off work).
QUALITATIVE RISK TABLE Consequence Very likely Fatality Major injuries High High Likelihood Likely High High Unlikely Highly unlikely High Medium Medium Medium Minor injuries Negligible injuries High Medium Medium Medium Medium Low Low Low .
When you are developing risk control strategies. Those assessed as highly unlikely with negligible injuries are the least serious (LOW risk). . Note the risk rating for each hazard on a worksheet. Events or situations assessed as very likely with fatal consequences are the most serious (HIGH risk). you should tackle anything with a HIGH rating first.
Industry or trade associations. and Other publications including those by manufacturers and suppliers. MSDS’s. Specialists. This is most effective control measure. The following hierarchy should be used when considering control measures. Most Effective Elimination removing the hazard or hazardous work practice from the workplace.RISK CONTROL Information or ideas on control measures can come from: Codes of practice. .
an engineering control is the next preferred measure. isolation or separating the hazard or hazardous work practice from peoples not involved in the work or the general work areas. substituted or isolated. Engineering Control Least Effective (“back Up” Controls) – safe work practices essential . installing screens or barriers can do this. Marking off hazardous areas.Fairly Effective Substitution Isolation substituting or replacing a hazard or hazardous work practice with a less hazardous one. This may include modifications to tools or equipment providing guarding to machinery or equipment. if the hazard cannot be eliminated.
Administration control includes introducing work practices that reduce the risk. That is. . This could include limiting the amount of time a person is exposed to a particular hazard. there may be circumstances where more than one control measure should be used to reduce exposure to hazards. and should be considered only when other control measures are not practicable or to increase protection. A last resort measure. Personal protective Equipment Control measure are not mutually exclusive.
The control of high-risk activities may require procedures. which ensures close supervision during implementation. for example. followed. . a permit-to-work system. which need to be strictly. interlocking guards have to be kept in working order work procedures have to be monitored to ensure they are being followed and hearing protectors have to be kept clean and checked for damage. maintenance and monitoring procedures to secure continued operation. In order to keep accurate records a recording or reporting systems should be developed implemented and maintained. Maintaining risk control measures requires adequate inspection. Risk control measure must also be maintained – for example.
They attempt to consider all reasonable possibilities and all suffer from the drawback that the probability of future event can only be guessed.MORE SOPHISTICATED RISK IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT (SYSTEMS ENGINEERING) The consideration of healthy and safety aspects at the design and planning stages of new plant and processes is vitally important in order to ensure that health and safety are built in. rather than bolted on. . Many formal techniques have been developed for the systematic analysis of complex system.
especially about new design / processes. The brainstorming technique can be applied to any new project to identify hazards. The end of a HAZOP survey is hazard identification. solution to problem are a separate effort. multi-disciplinary brainstorming session. The HAZOP studies are time consuming and expensive. Hazop Hazard and operability studies as a hazard identification technique. while now the scope usually includes toxic release. The technique was developed in the chemical process industries and essentially it is a structured. . offensive odor and environment end-points.HAZARD IDENTIFICATION 1. At one time HAZOP’s were mainly focused on fire and explosion endpoints.
FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA) The kinds of failure that could happen are examined and their effects – in terms of maximum potential loss – are evaluated. This analysis would from part of an overall Hazop study. System Component Failure Mode Failure Effect Scrubber Water pump Inadequate water flow Increased environmental pollution .
. The FMEA is used to assure that component failure modes and their effects hev been considered and either eliminated or controlled that information for maintenance and operational manuals has been provided and that input to other safety analyses has been generated.FMEAs are performed at the component level to determine possible ways that equipment can fail and to determine the effect of such failure on the system.
It is a graphical technique that starts with the end event which is the accident or disaster (e. nuclear fuel melt-down) and works backward to find the initiating event or combination of event is known or can be estimated the probability of the end or “top” event can be calculated. .FAULT TREE ANALYSIS Fault tree analysis is a logical method of analysing how and why a disaster could occur. It is a good technique for summating individual probabilities to obtain the overall probability of the event occurring.g. Data on individual components may be obtained from manufacturers’ reliability statistic or quality assurance information. The fault-tree is a logic diagram based on the principle of multicausality that traces all the branches of event that could contribute to an accident or failure.
To analyse the safety of a major hazard installation as well as its potential hazards. A subsequent analysis will then go on to examine the actual consequences worst possible case considerations and express them in quantifiable terms.HAZAN Hazard analysis (Hazan) is undertaken to ascertain the magnitude of the potential problem and its potential for harm to the people. plant. explosive or flammable substance in the installation constitute a major hazard. reactive. process and the public. a hazard analysis should be carried out covering the following areas: (a) Which toxic. .
The analysis should indicate: (a) The worst events considered.(b) Which failures or errors could cause abnormal conditions leading to a major accident. . (d) Prevention measures for accident. (c) The consequences of a major accident for the workers. people living or working outside the installation or the environment. (e) Mitigation of the consequences of an accident. (b) The route to those worst events.
(d) The size of lesser events if their development is halted. (e) The relative likelihood of events. .(c) The time-scale to lesser events which might lead to the worst events. (f) The consequences of each event.
This procedure involves the following steps: . The most commonly used quantitative method for the measurement and assessment of personnel-induced errors is the Technique for Human Error Prediction (THERP). Human error analysis adds considerations of human performance to the hazard evaluation process. Human behaviour must be factored into reliability analysis for it to be accurate in the increasing number of systems where errors in man-machine interaction can be an initiating event in a disaster.HUMAN ERROR ANALYSIS At Three Mile Island. the operator’s misunderstanding of the cooling water status led to several actions or inaction which resulted in the accident.
. Identification of human activities which create a hazard Estimation of failure rates Effect of human failures on the system The output of THERP is an input to fault tree or other methods of hazard analysis.
A good occupational business and an accurate system of evaluation are a part of such a program. Work-related injuries and illnesses are expensive in terms of both decreased productivity and increased premiums for any compensation insurance and related costs. . They become especially costly in human terms when they lead to the permanent Loss of a skilled worker or when they destroy employees’ morale. An accurate evaluation is done by the use of incidence and severity rates. which can compare overall performance of an organisation’s existing safety record to the previous year’s record.EVALUATING INJURIES AND ILLNESSES Organisations should know the value of a good safety record.
Thus. the Safety professional must decide what action to take for applying corrective measures. . The number of accidents occurring during each month and each year. In order to monitor the progress in accident prevention it is necessary to keep records. Using these rates. when the injury data for a particular unit are higher than for other units. comparisons can also be made between different plants in a particular industry or departments within a particular plant. in relation to the total number of employees at risk during the period under examination. Management and employees need to know the following: 1.
and where they occur.750.000 work hours last year. How the current period compares with past periods. so that trends and long-term performance can be observed. It incurred seven lost-time accidents during that period of time. The incidence rate for the plant last year is computed as follows: . The types of accidents which are occurring.2. a plant employing 850 employees worked 1.000-work hour. COMPUTING THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY RATES Disabling-injury incidence rate is defined as the Number of lost-time days away from work for every 200. For example. 3.
000 hours per year (40 hours per week per worker.000 The eight in the computation represent eight lost-time accidents per every 200.000-work hour. . 50 weeks per year). The 200.000 = 8 175.000 EMPLOYEE HOURS WORKED Thus. the computation for the above plant is: INCIDENCE RATE = 7 x 200. It is assumed that a base of 100 full-time employees would work 200.INCIDENT RATE = NUMBER OF LOST TIME ACCIDENTS X 200.000 hours in the formula was established by the BUREAU OF LABOUR STATISTICS.
It experienced 75 lost-time workdays during this year.000-work hour.000 = 25 600. The severity rate for that period of time is computed as follows: SEVERITY RATE = NUMBER OF LOST-TIME DAYS X 200. the computation is as follows: SEVERITY RATE = 75 X 200.COMPUTING THE SEVERITY RATE Severity rate is the number of lost-time days charged for disabling injuries per every 200. a plant employing 50 employees clocked 600.000 Employee hours worked THUS.000 work hours.000 . For example.
and the injuries may be minor. THIS IS FOR INCIDENT.000 hours worked. or a plant may have a low incidence rate. A plant may have a high incidence rate. AND DO ON SEVERITY TOO. – ELABORATE. .The 25 in the formula represent 25 lost-time days for every 200. but the injuries are severe.
ACCIDENTS – WHY DO THEY HAPPEN? Accident and hazards to health represent costly factors in the work environment and must be guarded against constantly. Sometimes employees are careless. Sometimes equipment fails. Sometimes employee attitudes are to be blame. People do. MUST SENT TRAINING. mostly and for a variety of reasons. MUST KNOW THE LAW REGARDING SAFETY Sometimes the supervisor has not helped employees to understand the dangers involved in their work. – NOT EDUCATED. Sometimes machines are not properly guarded but there is always a person who could have prevented the accident by taking proper protective or control action. . Sometimes the boss has not given proper instructions.
or agency involved. Management is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the working environment and tasks. Management can control both of these unsafe practices. into which workers must fit into and react. This is not to remove the responsibility for the company. Ownership and management must be committed to the principles of accident and health protection. . institution. This often means a sizeable investment in protective equipment and time consuming safety and health measures. They have to be educated and trained that accidents are not inevitable but caused and that they must also be trained to recognise the need to comply and develop systems of work. Control of workers and their behaviours is not easy. Accident which are undesired and costly events are the direct result of unsafe activities / acts and conditions.
. managers and workers had been educated about workplace safety and health. Unfortunately.PENTING! FAILURE TO MAINTAIN COMPLIANCE WITH ADEQUATE STANDARDS FOR: Leadership & Administration Management Training Planned Inspections Task Analysis & Procedures Accident / Incident Investigation Task Observations Emergency Preparedness Organisational Rules Accident / Incident Analysis / Employee Training Personal Protective Equipment Health Control and Services Programme Evaluation System Engineering Controls Personal Communications Group Meetings General Promotion Hiring & Placement Purchasing Controls Off-the Job salary . not many employers.
Equipment.PERSONAL FACTORS JOB FACTORS Inadequate Capability Physical / Physiological Mental / Psychological Lack of Knowledge Lack of Skill Stress Physical / Physiological Mental / Psychological Improper Motivation Inadequate Leadership or Supervision Inadequate Engineering Inadequate Purchasing Inadequate Maintenance Inadequate Tools. Materials Inadequate Work Standards Abuse or Misuse Wear and Tear .
SUBSTANDARD PRACTICES Operating Equipment Without Authority Failure to Warn Failure to Secure Operating at Improper Speed Making Safety Devices Inoperable Removing Safety Devices Using Defective Equipment Failing to Use PPE Property Improper Loading Improper Placement Improper Lifting SUBSTANDARD CONDITIONS Inadequate Guards or Barriers Inadequate or Improper Protective Equipment. Detective Tools. Equipment or Materials Congestion or Restricted Action Inadequate Warning System Fire & Explosion Hazards Poor Housekeeping : Disorder Noise Exposure Radiation Exposure Temperature Extremes Inadequate or Excess Illumination LIGHTING Inadequate Ventilation .
SUBSTANDARD PRACTICES Improper Position for Task Servicing Equipment in Operations Horseplay .BERGURAU Under Influence of Alcohol and / or Other Drugs .
Toxic) Over-stress.CONTACTS Struck Against (Running or Bumping Into) Struck By (Met By Moving Object) Fall to Lower Level Fall on Same Level (Slip and Fall. Overexertion) . Tip Over) Caught In (Punch) Caught On (Snagged. Radiation. Hung) Caught Between (Crushed) Contact With (Electricity.
PERSONAL HARM PROPERTY DAMAGE Major Injury or Illness Serious Injury or Illness Minor Injury or Illness PROCESS PROBLEMS Catastrophic Major Serious Minor Catastrophic Major Serious Minor .
WHAT ARE ACCIDENTS? Accidents are the consequences of unplanned events. Workers then look to management for restitution. . This can give rise to work place stress thereby leading to high absenteeism and high staff turnover. It is therefore important that accidents are investigated promptly and objectively so that worker confidence is restored in the organisation.ACCIDENTS STATISTICS – A CHALLENGE TO REDUCE 1. WHY MUST WE INVESTIGATE THEM? Work place accidents or dangerous occurrences debilitate the worker’s environment leading to his loss of working morale. 2.
Dangerous accidents and dangerous occurrences have to be investigated in order to: 2. .2 ensure that it does not occur again 2.3 and resituate worker morale Once the accident has occurred it is the earnest desire to profit from the losses of the accident that motivates the investigator to keep the tempo of accident investigation going.1 find out why it happened 2.
3. WHAT IS THE BASIS OF ACCIDENT PREVENTION? There is an ancient proverb. The relationship between unsafe acts and fatal / disabling injuries was established Heinrich and it is illustrated as follows: . which says that “look after the cents and the dollars will look after it”. there is a corollary when it comes to accident prevention – prevent unsafe acts and accidents will be prevented. In parallel to this proverb.
1 Fatal or disabling Injury 30 minor injuries 300 material damages 3000 unsafe acts .
1.1. MONITOR AND ELIMINATE UNSAFE ACTS? Practising safe systems of working can eliminate unsafe acts. THE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION PROCESS There are 3 stages in the investigation process: 5. THEN. HOW CAN ONE.2 An Incident Statement Interviewing Witness .4. 5.1 Gathering Information (First Stage of Investigation) 5.1 5.
2 Discussion On Section of Accident (Second Stage) 5. . the report must be written up.5.3 Causes of the Accident (Third Stage) 5.4 Corrective Action – Recommendation to Prevent Recurrent False (Third Stage) 5.5 Managing For Results (Writing and Reporting) Once the cause and remedial action have been established.
. Whatever hazards can be eliminated should be done so. impact.HAZARDS AND RISKS IN ALL WORKPLACES There are different types of hazards at various work places. forklift or conveyor. c) the provision of protective clothing or equipment. workplace hazards and the operator. powered industrial trucks. Machinery safety can be achieved by: a) eliminating the cause of the danger (intrinsic safety). b) reducing the need for people to approach the dangerous part or providing safety devices as control. Mechanical Handling Hazards include use of cranes. Machinery Hazards includes traps. contact entanglement or ejection of part of and by the machine or failure of components. In all circumstances. if not substitute them wherever possible and the rest would have to be controlled. the safety of the equipment can be effected by the safety of operating conditions.
electric bruises and electrical files. irritant corrosive toxic carcinogens. miscalculation. lightning hazards. fuses. Other Hazards include noise hazards. safe system of work. narcotic or oxidising chemical incident.Chemical Hazards are dangerous substance. temperature hazards. ergonomic hazards and other miscellaneous hazards due to stress or fatigue. radiation hazards. which can cause harm after a single exposure or repeated exposure. biological hazards. vibration hazards. . They are classified according to the type of harm such as exposure / flammable. circuit breaks. Electrical safety includes everything. isolation and competency. maintenance. Electrical Hazards are due to electric shock.
whenever the operation is performed dry. Either type may use sand. Assembly Operation Improper positioning of equipment and handling of work parts may present ergonomic hazards due to repeated awkward motion and resulting in excessive stresses.PROCESS OF OPERATION: NATURE AND DESCRIPTION OF HAZARDS Abrasive blasting Abrasive blasting equipment may be automatic. steel. The work piece material is removed in the form of small particles and. these particles are projected into the air near the operation. The dust levels of workroom air should be examined to make sure that the operators are not over exposed. or it may be manually operated. . Abrasive-machining An abrasive machining operation is characterised by the removal of material from a work piece by the cutting action of abrasive particles contained in or on a machine tool. shot or artificial abrasives.
Coating Operations Whenever substance containing volatile constituents is applied to a surface in an industrial environment.Bagging and handling of dry materials. Ceramic coating Ceramic coating may present the hazard of airborne dispersion of toxic pigments. pesticides. there is potential for any vapours evolved to enter the breeding zones of workers. . cement and the like) is generally accompanied by the generation of airborne dusts. plus hazards of heat stress from the furnaces and hot ware. paint pigments. The bagging of powdered materials (such as plastic resins.
Dry Mixing Mixing of dry materials may present a dust hazard and should take place in completely enclosed mixers whenever air-sampling indicates excessive amount of airborne dust are present. Electron-beam welding Any process involving an electric discharge in a vacuum may be a source of ionising radiation. Such process involves the use of electronbeam equipment and similar devices. . Fabric and paper coating The coating and impregnating of fabric and paper with plastic or rubber solution may involve evaporation into the workroom air of large quantities of solvents.
decomposition products of the lubricant.Forming and forging Hot bending. High temperatures from hot castings. unlegged steam pipes. noise and dust. forming. heat stress (including radiant heat). crushing or commenting of any material may contaminate workroom air because of the dust produced from the material being processed or from the grinding wheel. or cutting of metals or non-metals may involve hazards of lubricant mist. Grinding Operations Grinding. skin contact with the lubricant. . process equipment and so on.
Material handling. forklift operations.Any process or operation involving high ambient temperatures (dry-bulb temperature). Warehousing Work areas should be checked for levels of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen arising from internal combustion engine. . Metalizing Uncontrolled coating of parts with molten metals present hazards of dust and fumes of metals and fluxes in addition to heat and nonionising radiation. radiant heat load (globe temperature). or excessive humanity (wet-bulb temperature) should be examined to determine the magnitude of the physical stresses that may be present. Operations should also be evaluated for ergonomic hazards.
Molten metals Any process involving the melting and pouring of molten metals should be examined to determine the level of air contaminants of any toxic gas. noise exposure to the employees. Among their applications can be included the common operations of degreasing. metal stripping.Microwave and radio frequency-heating operations Any process or operation involving microwaves or induction heating should be examined to determine the magnitude of heating effects and. in some cases. electroplating. Open-surface tanks Open-surface tanks are used by industry for numerous purposes. metal fume. dyeing and pickling. An open-surface tank operation is defined as “any operation involving the . or dust produced in the operation. fur and leather finishing.
HAZARD ASSESSMENT. Impact. PREVENTION. AND CONTROL 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Mechanical Hazards and Machine Safeguarding Falling. and Robots Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace . Automation. Acceleration. and Vision Hazards Hazards of Temperature Extremes Pressure Hazards Electrical Hazards Fire Hazards and Life Safety Industrial Hygiene and Confined Spaces Radiation Hazards Noise and Vibration Hazards Computers. Lifting.
MECHANICAL HAZARDS AND MACHINE SAFEGUARDING Major Topics Common Mechanical Injuries Safeguarding Defined OSHA’s Requirements for Machine Guarding Risk Assessment in Machine Operation Requirements for All Safeguards Point-of-Operation Guards Point-of-Operation Devices Machine Guarding Self-Assessment Feeding and Ejection Systems Robot Safeguards Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout / Tagout Systems) .
General Precautions Basic Program Content Taking Corrective Action .
LIFTING.FALLING. ACCELERATION. and feet protection) Lifting Hazards Standing Hazards . IMPACT. eyes. face. AND VISION HAZARDS Major Topics Causes of Falls Kinds of Falls Walking and Slipping Slip and Fall Prevention Programs OSHA Fall Protection Standards Ladder Safety Impact and Acceleration Hazards (head.
Hand Protection Personal Protective Equipment Forklift Safety (Powered Industrial Trucks) .
Extremes of either heat or cold can be more than uncomfortable – they can be dangerous. A work environment in which the temperature is not properly controlled can be uncomfortable. This chapter provides the information that professionals need to know to overcome the hazards associated with extreme temperatures. humidity. cold stress. . and burns are major concerns of modern safety and health professionals.HAZARDS OF TEMPERATURE EXTREMES Major Topics Thermal Comfort Heat Stress and Strain Cold Stress Burns and Their Effects Chemical Burns Part of providing a safe and healthy workplace is appropriately controlling the temperature. Heat stress. and air distribution in work areas.
PRESSURE HAZARDS Major Topics Pressure Hazards Defined Sources of Pressure Hazards Boilers and Pressure Hazards High-Temperature Water Hazards Hazards of Unfired Pressure Vessels Hazards of High-Pressure Systems Cracking Hazards in Pressure Vessels Nondestructive Testing of Pressure Vessels Pressure Dangers to Humans Decompression Procedures Measurement of Pressure Hazards Reduction of Pressure Hazards .
This may be expressed in force or weight per unit of area. OSHA defines high-pressure cylinders as those designated with a service pressure of 900 pounds psi or greater. damage to equipment or structures. Critical injury and damage can occur with relatively little pressure.PRESSURE HAZARDS DEFINED Pressure is defined in physics as the force exerted against an opposing fluid or thrust distributed over a surface. loss of material. A hazard is a condition with the potential of causing injury to personnel. a pressure hazard is a hazard caused by a dangerous condition involving pressure. Thus. such as psi (pounds per square inch). or lessening of the ability to perform a prescribed function. .
Electrical Hazards Defined Sources of Electrical Hazards Electrical Hazards to Humans Detection of Electrical Hazards Reduction of Electrical Hazards OSHA’s Electrical Standards Electrical Safety Program Electrical Hazards Self-Assessment Prevention of Arc Flash Injuries (NFPA 70E)
Consider the following scenario: A textile mill in Massachusetts was fined $66,375 when an employee contacts OSHA and complains about unsafe conditions at the mill. The Region 1 Office of OSHA conducted an investigation in response to the complaint that uncovered the following willful violation: allowing employees to perform live electrical work without safe work procedures or appropriate personal protective equipment. In addition, the investigation uncovered several serious violations including storage of flammable materials near emergency exits, improper storage of oxygen and acetylene cylinders, failure to post load ratings, and exposed live electrical source and unsuitable electrical outlets for wet or damp locations.
FIRE HAZARDS AND LIFE SAFETY
Fire Hazards Defined Sources of Fire Hazards Fire Dangers to Humans Detection of Fire Hazards Reduction of Fire Hazards Development of Fire Safety Standards OSHA Fire Standards Life Safety Flame-Resistant Clothing Fire Safety Programs Explosive Hazards OSHA’s Firefighting Options Self-Assessment in Fire Protection
In other recent example. had malfunctioned. a violent explosion occurred. which captures gasoline vapors displaced from tank trucks being filled with product. According to the NFPA Journal. It was suspected that the facility’s vapor-recovery system. The victim’s severely burned body and repair tools were found near the damaged equipment. The NFPA Journal stated.The assistant manager of a fuel storage plant was killed while trying to repair a broken-down piece of equipment. The victim had been called to investigate a strong odor of gasoline that had been detected by a gasoline tank driver. facility damage was held to a minimum and human injury was avoided when a sprinkler system suppressed a fire that broke out on the second floor of a polyurethane foam manufacturing plant in North Carolina. . Soon after the manager entered the area.
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE AND CONFINED SPACES Major Topics Overview of Industrial Hygiene Industrial Hygiene Standards OSH Act and Industrial Hygiene Hazards in the Workplace Toxic Substances Defined Entry Points for Toxic Agents Effects of Toxic Substances Relationship of Doses and Responses Airborne Contaminants Effects of Airborne Toxics Effects of Carcinogens Asbestos Hazards .
Indoor Air Quality and “Sick-Building” Syndrome Toxic Mold and Indoor Air Quality Threshold Limit Values Hazard Recognition and Evaluation Prevention and Control NIOSH and Industrial Hygiene NIOSH Guidelines for Respirators Standards and Regulations General Safety Precautions Confined Space Hazards OSHA Confined Space Standard OSHA Standards for Toxic and Hazardous Materials OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard .
This chapter provides prospective and practicing safety and health professionals with the information they need to know about this area of specialization. .Industrial hygiene is an area of specialization within the broader field of industrial safety and health.
RADIATION HAZARDS Major Topics Ionizing Radiation: Terms and Concepts Exposure of Employees to Radiation Precautions and Personal Monitoring Caution Signs and Labels Evacuation Warning Signal Instructing and Informing Personnel Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Material Notification of Incidents Reports and Records of Overexposure Notice to Employees Nonionizing Radiation .
500 when it was determined that his death from chronic myeloid leukemia was the result of overexposure to radiation. Working at the plant for approximately nine months. the victim received a total cumulative dose of almost 52 millisieverts of radiation. Sellafield was constructed for the purpose of separating uranium from used fuel rods. Electromagnetic Fields in the Workplace OSHA Standards for Health and Environmental Controls The widow of a construction worker who helped build the British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) Sellafield plant was awarded $286. BNF compensated the victim’s wife and the families of 20 additional workers who died from causes related to radiation. . which exceeded the established limit for an entire 12-month period.
Radiation hazards in the workplace fall into one of two categories: ionizing or nonionizing. This chapter provides prospective and practicing safety and health professionals with the information they need concerning radiation hazards in both categories. .
NOISE AND VIBRATION HAZARDS Major Topics Hearing Loss Prevention Terms Characteristics of Sound Hazard Levels and Risks Standards and Regulations Workers’ Compensation and Noise Hazards Identifying and Assessing Hazardous Noise Conditions Noise Control Strategies Vibration Hazards Other Effects of Noise Hazards Corporate Policy Evaluating Hearing Loss Prevention Programs .
First. Exposure to noise that exceeds prescribed levels can result in permanent hearing loss. This chapter provides the necessary information for prospective and practicing safety and health professionals to do so. there is the problem of distraction. You may find the definitions in this section helpful when trying to understand the content of this chapter.The modern workplace can be noisy. Noise can distract workers and disrupt their concentration.and health-related problems. This poses two safety. . there is the problem of hearing loss. and how to prevent injuries related to them. which can lead to accidents. Second. how to identify and assess these hazards. Modern safety and health professionals need to understand the hazards associated with noise and vibration. HEARING LOSS PREVENTION TERMS There are certain terms common to hearing loss prevention that must be understood by safety and health professionals.
AUTOMATION.COMPUTERS. AND ROBOTS Major Topics Impact of Automation on the Workplace VDTs in Offices and Factories Human-Robot Interaction Safety and Health Problems Associated with Robots Safety and Health in Office Automation Industrial Medicine and Robots Technological Alienation in the Automated Workplace Minimizing the Problems of Automation Challenge for the Future .
and competitiveness. IMPACT OF AUTOMATION ON THE WORKPLACE The advent of automation on the workplace was the next logical step on a continuum of developments intended to enhance productivity. Quality.Automation of the workplace has changed. The introduction of automated processes that involve computers and robots has changed the environment of the modern workplace and what is needed to succeed in it. This continuum began when humans first developed simple tools to assist them in doing work. It was eventually superseded by the age of mechanization during the Industrial Revolution. and continues to change. This was the age of hand tools and manual work. how work is done. .
During the age of mechanization. . The 1960s saw the beginnings of broad-based efforts at automating mechanical processes and systems. Examples of islands of automation are a stand-alone computer. machines were developed to do work previously done by humans using hand tools. These early attempts at automation resulted in islands of automation. or individual automated systems lacking electronic communication with other related systems.
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