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Artificial Vision

By: Suhail More ME-E&TC Rollno-E1109 Under Guidance of: Prof C.V Kulkarni

Contents
Introduction How to create artificial vision Components used & setup Working Pros & Cons Future scope Conclusion References

Introduction
This concept was proposed as there was 10% rise in blindness among the people every year. Retinitis Pigmentosa is the leading cause of inherited blindness.

1.5 million people are affected worldwide

Age-related macular degeneration

Leading cause of vision loss for adults over 65

Creation of Artificial Vision


Artificial vision received a jolt in 1988 by Dr. Mark Humayun. The test proved that the nerves behind the retina still functioned even when the retina had degenerated. Based on this information, scientists set out to create a device that could translate images and electrical pulses that could restore vision.

Structure of Eye

Components Used

Image capturing device This is usually an externally worn camera. Processor Takes the pictures and translates them into electronic signals, which are then sent to the electrode array Electrode Array The microelectrode array is connected to the retina and stimulates any remaining photoreceptors. This is done by electrical impulses. Battery The battery is usually externally worn to charge the electrode.

Component Set up

Set up Procedure

Image acquisition system

Input from camera

ADC

Video Buffer

Color map

Data is sent to electrodes

Working
Image is captured by the camera. This image is processed by the processor. The signal is given to VCSEL array which is a laser. The signal goes to the photo diode & electrode array. Which goes through the retina into the brain.

Pros & Cons


The main advantage is a visually impaired person will be able to see. The process takes considerable time but real vision should be completed in 1/16th of a second. However good the system is, it cant match perfection of the nature The cost may be too much to be afforded by common man. The active electrode is directly implanted into the head, which is to be powered 16 hours a day. Cant be used to people who are born blind.

Futurescope

Change the external glasses mounted camera into a contact lens with a camera incorporated. Changing the wired array to a wireless array, this will eliminate the need to have wires implanted into the patients skull. Incorporate solar cells into the chip to convert the light entering the eye into energy, this would eliminate the need for externally worn batteries Scientists hope to have arrays consisting of thousands of microelectrodes, this would increase the resolution of images.

Possible to see even in dark (Night vision),

Conclusion

The electronic eye is the latest in high-tech gadgets aimed at helping millions of blind and visually impaired people The first useful artificial eye is now helping a blind man walk safely around and read large letters. The system will allow them to read, watch television and lead a nearly normal life.

References

Javaheri, Michael, David S. Hahn, Rohit R. Lakhanpal, and Mark S. Humayun. "Retinal Prostheses for the Blind." Annals Academy of Medicine 35.3 (2006). Web Artificial Vision for the Blind by Connecting a Television Camera to the Brain" ASAIO Journal 2000 www.artificialvision.com www.howstuffworks.com www.wikipedia.org

Thank You
Questions?