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Topics to Be Discussed

Definition, purpose, and limitation of correlational research Correlation coefficients and their significance Process of conducting correlational research Relationship studies Prediction studies

Correlational Research

Definition

Whether and to what degree variables are related Determine relationships Make predictions Cannot indicate cause and effect

Objectives 1.1, 1.2, & 1.3

Purpose

Limitation

The Process

Problem selection

Math attitudes and math achievement Teachers sense of efficacy and their effectiveness

Objective 2.1

The Process

Higher validity and reliability requires smaller samples Lower validity and reliability requires larger samples

Collect data on two or more variables for each subject Compute the appropriate correlation coefficient

Objectives 2.2 & 2.3

Data analysis

Correlation Coefficients

Size/magnitude

Direction

Correlation Coefficients

General rule

Less than .35 is a low correlation Between .36 and .65 is a moderate correlation Above .66 is a high correlation Between .60 and .70 are adequate for group predictions Above .80 is adequate for individual predictions

Objective 3.5

Predictions

Correlation Coefficients

Criterion-related validity

Above .60 for affective scales is adequate Above .80 for tests is minimally acceptable Above .90 is very good Between .80 and .89 is acceptable Between .70 and .79 is minimally acceptable Lower than .69 is problematic

Objective 3.5

Inter-rater reliability

Correlation Coefficients

Direction

Positive

High scores on the predictor are associated with high scores on the criterion Low scores on the predictor are associated with low scores on the criterion High scores on the predictor are associated with low scores on the criterion Low scores on the predictor are associated with high scores on the criterion

Negative

Objective 3.3

Correlation Coefficients

Interpreting the size and direction of correlations using the general rule

+.95 is a strong positive correlation +.50 is a moderate positive correlation +.20 is a low positive correlation -.26 is a low negative correlation -.49 is a moderate negative correlation -.95 is a strong negative correlation

Objective 3.3 & 3.5

Correlation Coefficients

Scatterplots

Graphical presentations of correlations Example of predicting from an attitude scale EX 1 to an achievement test EX 2

Predictor variable - EX1 - is on the horizontal axis Criterion variable - EX 2 - is on the vertical axis

Objective 3.4

An Example of a Scatterplot

50.00

Linear Regression

45.00

ex2

40.00

35.00

30.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

ex 1

Objective 3.4

Correlation Coefficients

Common variance

Definition

The extent to which variables vary in a systematic manner Interpreted as the percentage of variance in the criterion variable explained by the predictor variable The squared correlation coefficient - r2 Examples 2 If r = .50 then r = .25 25% of the variance in the criterion can be explained by the predictor 2 If r = .70 then r = .49 49% of the variance in the criterion can be explained by the predictor

Objectives 3.6 & 3.7

Computation

Statistical Significance

Statistical significance

Does the correlation represent a true relationship? Is the correlation only the result of chance? Consult a table of the critical values of r See Table A.2 in Appendix A .01 (1 chance out of 100) .05 (5 chances out of 100) .10 (10 chances out of 100)

Objectives 4.1 & 4.3

Statistical Significance

Small samples require higher correlations for significance Large samples require lower correlations for significance

Small correlation coefficients can be statistically significant even though they have little practical significance +.20

Statistically significant at the .05 level if the sample is about 100 Little or no practical significance because it is very low and predicts only .04 of the variation in the criterion scores Statistically significant at the .05 level if the sample is about 40 Little or no practical significance because it is low and predicts only .09 of the variation in the criterion scores

Objectives 4.2 & 4.4

-.30

Relationship Studies

General purpose

Gain insight into variables that are related to other variables relevant to educators

Suggest subsequent interest in establishing cause and effect between variables found to be related Control for variables related to the dependent variable in experimental studies

Objectives 5.1 & 5.2

Limit to those variables logically related to the criterion Avoid the shotgun approach Possibility of erroneous relationships Issues related to determining statistical significance

Identify a population and select a sample Identify appropriate instruments for measuring each variable Collect data for each instrument from each subject Compute the appropriate correlation coefficient

Objective 6.1

The type of correlation coefficient depends on the measurement level of the variables

Objectives 7.1, 7.2, & 7.3

Linear relationships

Plots of the scores on two variables are best described by a straight line

Math scores and science scores Teacher efficacy and teacher effectiveness

Curvilinear relationships

Objectives 8.1, 8.2, & 8.3

1.0000

Linear Regression

0.9000

fp

0.8000

0.7000

30.00

40.00

50.00

ex 1

Objective 8.4

100.00

LLR Smoother

75.00

score

50.00

25.00

0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

study

Objective 8.4

Sample size

The larger the sample the higher the likelihood of a high correlation Analysis of subgroups

If the total sample consists of males and females each gender represents a subgroup Results across subgroups can be different because they are being obscured by the analysis of the data for the total sample Reduces the size of the sample Potentially reduces variation in the scores

Objective 9.1

Variation

The greater the variation in scores the higher the likelihood of a strong correlation The lower the variation in scores the higher the likelihood of a weak correlation

Attenuation

Correlation coefficients are lower when the instruments being used have low reliability A correction for attenuation is available

Objectives 9.2 & 9.3

Prediction Studies

The predictor variable is the variable from which the researcher is predicting The criterion variable is the variable to which the researcher is predicting

Objectives 10.1 & 10.2

Prediction Studies

Three purposes

Facilitates decisions about individuals to help a selection decision Tests variables believed to be good predictors of a criterion Determines the predictive validity of an instrument

Objective 11.1

Prediction Studies

Y = a + bX

r2

Objective 11.4

Identify a population and select a sample Identify appropriate instruments for measuring each variable

Typically data is collected at different points in time

Compute the results The multiple regression coefficient The multiple regression equation (i.e., the prediction equation)

Issues of concern

Shrinkage the tendency of a prediction equation to become less accurate when used with a group other than the one on which the equation was originally developed Cross validation validation of a prediction equation with another group of subjects to identify problematic variables

Objective 11.3

Errors of measurement (e.g., low validity or reliability) diminish the accuracy of the prediction Intervening variables can influence the predictive process if there is too much time between collecting the predictor and criterion variables Criterion variables defined in general terms (e.g., teacher effectiveness, success in school) tend to have lower prediction accuracy than those defined very narrowly (e.g., overall GPA, test scores)

Objective 11.5

Correlational research is a general category that is usually discussed in terms of two variables Relationship studies develop insight into the relationships between several variables

The predictor variables are collected long before the criterion variable

Objectives 11.2 & 11.3

Path analysis

Investigates the patterns of relationships among a number of variables Results in a diagram that indicates the specific manner by which variables are related (i.e., paths) and the strength of those relationships An extension of this analysis is structural equation modeling (SEM)

Clarifies the direct and indirect relationships among variables based on underlying theoretical constructs More precise than path analysis Often known as LISREL for the first computer program used to conduct this analysis

Objective 13.1

Similar to multiple regression except that the criterion variable is categorical Typically used to predict group membership

Objective 13.2

Cannonical correlation

An extension of multiple regression in which more than one predictor variable and more than one criterion variable are used A correlational analysis used to take a large number of variables and group them into a smaller number of clusters of similar variables called

Factor analysis

factors

A Checklist of Questions

Was the correct correlation coefficient used? Is the validity and reliability of the instruments acceptable? Is there a restricted range of scores? How large is the sample?

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