for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
141
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter 14
Waiting Lines and
Queuing Theory
Models
Prepared by Lee Revere and John Large
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
142
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. Describe the tradeoff curves for cost
ofwaiting time and costofservice.
2. Understand the three parts of a queuing
system: the calling population, the
queue itself, and the service facility.
3. Describe the basic queuing system
configurations.
4. Understand the assumptions of the
common models dealt with in this
chapter.
5. Analyze a variety of operating
characteristics of waiting lines.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
143
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter Outline
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Waiting Line Costs
14.3 Characteristics of a Queuing
System
14.4 SingleChannel Queuing Model
with Poisson Arrivals and
Exponential Service Times
14.5 MultipleChannel Queuing Model
with Poisson Arrivals and
Exponential service Times
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
144
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Chapter Outline
(continued)
14.6 Constant Service Time Model
14.7 Finite Population Model
14.8 Some General Operating
Characteristics Relationships
14.9 More Complex Queuing Models
and the Use of Simulation
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
145
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Introduction
Arrivals
Service facilities
Actual waiting line
Queuing theory is one of the most
widely used quantitative analysis
techniques. The three basic components
are:
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
146
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Waiting Line Costs
Determining the best level of service
for an organization.
Analyzing the tradeoff between cost
of providing service and cost of
waiting time.
Finding the service level that
minimizes the total expected cost.
Queuing analysis includes:
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
147
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Queuing Costs and
Service Levels
C
o
s
t
o
f
O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g
S
e
r
v
i
c
e
F
a
c
i
l
i
t
y
Service Level
Total
Expected
Cost
Cost of
Providing
Service
Cost of
Waiting
Time
Optimal
Service
Level
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
148
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Three Rivers Shipping:
Waiting Line Cost Analysis
Number of Stevedore Teams
1 2 3 4
5 5 5 5
7 4 3 2
35 20 15 10
$1,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000
35,000 20,000 $15,000 $10,000
$6,000 $12,000 18,000 $24,000
$41,000 $32,000 $33,000 $34,000
Average waiting
time per ship
Total ship hours
lost
Est. cost per hour of
idle ship time
Value of ships'
lost time
Stevedore teams
salary
Total Expected
Cost
Avg. number of
ships arriving per
shift
The superintendent at Three Rivers Shipping
Company wants to determine the optimal number
of stevedores to employ each shift.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
149
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Characteristics of a
Queuing System
Arrival Characteristics
Size of the calling population
Pattern of arrivals
Behavior of arrivals
Waiting Line Characteristics
Queue length
Queue discipline
Service Facility Characteristics
Configuration of the queuing system
Service time distribution
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1410
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Arrival Characteristics
of a Queuing System
Calling Population:
Unlimited (infinite)
Limited (finite)
Arrival Pattern
Randomly
Poisson Distribution
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1411
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Arrival Characteristics:
Poisson Distribution
!
P(X)
X
e
x
=
.00
.05
.10
.15
.20
.25
.30
.35
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
1
X
P
(
X
)
P(X), = 2
.00
.05
.10
.15
.20
.25
.30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
1
X
P
(
X
)
P(X), = 4
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1412
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Arrival Characteristics of a
Queuing System (continued)
Behavior of arrivals:
Join the queue, and wait till
served.
Balk; refuse to join the line.
Renege; leave the line.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1413
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Waiting Line Characteristics
of a Queuing System
Waiting Line Characteristics:
Length of the queue
Limited
Unlimited (assumed)
Service priority/Queue discipline
FIFO (assumed)
Other
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1414
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Waiting Line Characteristics
of a Queuing System (continued)
Service Facility Characteristics
Number of channels (servers)
Single
Multiple
Number of phases in service
system (customer stations)
Single (1 stop)
Multiple (2+ stops)
Service time distribution
Negative exponential
Other
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1415
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Service Characteristics:
Queuing System Configurations
Single Channel, Single Phase
Queue
Service
facility
Facility
1
Facility
2
Single Channel, MultiPhase
Queue
Service Facility
arrivals
arrivals
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1416
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Service
facility
1
Service
facility
2
Service
facility
3
MultiChannel,
Single Phase
Queue
MultiChannel,
Multiphase Phase
Queue
Type 1
Service
Facility
Type 1
Service
Facility
Type 2
Service
Facility
Type 2
Service
Facility
arrivals
arrivals
Service Characteristics:
Queuing System Configurations
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1417
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Service Characteristics
of a Queuing System
Service Time Patterns:
Negative exponential probability
distribution
Other distribution
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1418
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Service Time Characteristics:
Exponential Distribution
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y
(
f
o
r
I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l
s
o
f
1
M
i
n
u
t
e
)
30 60 90 120 150 180
Average Service Time of 1 Hour
Average Service Time of 20 Minutes
X
Minute Per Served Number Average
0 0, for x e f(x)
x
=
> > =
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1419
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Kendall Notation for
Queuing Models
Kendall notation consists of a
basic threesymbol form.
Arrival Service Time Number of Service
Distribution Distribution Channels Open
Where,
M = Poisson distribution for the number of occurrences
(or exponential times)
D = Constant (deterministic rate)
G = General distribution with mean and variance known
M/M/2
Single channel with Poisson
arrivals and exponential service
times and two channels
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1420
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Assumptions: M/M/1
Model
1. Queue discipline: FIFO
2. No balking or reneging
3. Independent arrivals; constant rate
over time
4. Arrivals: Poisson distributed
5. Service times: average known
6. Service times: negative exponential
7. Average service rate > average
arrival rate
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1421
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Operating Characteristics
of Queuing Systems
Average time each customer spends
in the queue
Average length of the queue
Average time each customer spends
in the system
Average number of customers in the
system
Probability that the service facility
will be idle
Utilization factor for the system
Probability of a specific number of
customers in the system
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1422
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/M/1
u

L system, in number Average =
u 
1
W system, in time Average =
( ) u u

L queue, in number Average
2
q
=
( ) u u

W waiting, time Average
q
=
u
p = Factor, n Utilizatio
u
=1 P Idle, Percent
0
1 +
>


.

\

=
k
k n
P
u
L
(or W W L
)
L
(or W W L
: Equations Flow s Little'
q
q
q q q
+ =
= =
= =
After reaching a steady state, certain
relationships exist among specific
operating characteristics.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
1437
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
Complex Queuing
Models and Simulation
Computer simulation is
used to handle many real
world queuing applications
that are complex.
Simulation allows:
Analysis of controllable factors
Approximation of the actual service
system