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# To accompany Quantitative Analysis

for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-1
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 14

Waiting Lines and
Queuing Theory
Models
Prepared by Lee Revere and John Large
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-2
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Learning Objectives
Students will be able to:
1. Describe the trade-off curves for cost-
of-waiting time and cost-of-service.
2. Understand the three parts of a queuing
system: the calling population, the
queue itself, and the service facility.
3. Describe the basic queuing system
configurations.
4. Understand the assumptions of the
common models dealt with in this
chapter.
5. Analyze a variety of operating
characteristics of waiting lines.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-3
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Chapter Outline
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Waiting Line Costs
14.3 Characteristics of a Queuing
System
14.4 Single-Channel Queuing Model
with Poisson Arrivals and
Exponential Service Times
14.5 Multiple-Channel Queuing Model
with Poisson Arrivals and
Exponential service Times

To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-4
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Chapter Outline
(continued)
14.6 Constant Service Time Model
14.7 Finite Population Model
14.8 Some General Operating
Characteristics Relationships
14.9 More Complex Queuing Models
and the Use of Simulation
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-5
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Introduction
Arrivals
Service facilities
Actual waiting line
Queuing theory is one of the most
widely used quantitative analysis
techniques. The three basic components
are:
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-6
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Waiting Line Costs
Determining the best level of service
for an organization.
of providing service and cost of
waiting time.
Finding the service level that
minimizes the total expected cost.
Queuing analysis includes:
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-7
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Queuing Costs and
Service Levels
C
o
s
t

o
f

O
p
e
r
a
t
i
n
g

S
e
r
v
i
c
e

F
a
c
i
l
i
t
y

Service Level
Total
Expected
Cost
Cost of
Providing
Service
Cost of
Waiting
Time
Optimal
Service
Level
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-8
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Three Rivers Shipping:
Waiting Line Cost Analysis
Number of Stevedore Teams
1 2 3 4
5 5 5 5
7 4 3 2
35 20 15 10
\$1,000 \$1,000 \$1,000 \$1,000
35,000 20,000 \$15,000 \$10,000
\$6,000 \$12,000 18,000 \$24,000
\$41,000 \$32,000 \$33,000 \$34,000
Average waiting
time per ship
Total ship hours
lost
Est. cost per hour of
idle ship time
Value of ships'
lost time
Stevedore teams
salary
Total Expected
Cost
Avg. number of
ships arriving per
shift
The superintendent at Three Rivers Shipping
Company wants to determine the optimal number
of stevedores to employ each shift.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-9
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Characteristics of a
Queuing System
Arrival Characteristics
Size of the calling population
Pattern of arrivals
Behavior of arrivals
Waiting Line Characteristics
Queue length
Queue discipline
Service Facility Characteristics
Configuration of the queuing system
Service time distribution

To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-10
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Arrival Characteristics
of a Queuing System
Calling Population:
Unlimited (infinite)
Limited (finite)

Arrival Pattern
Randomly
Poisson Distribution
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-11
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Arrival Characteristics:
Poisson Distribution
!
P(X)
X
e
x

=
.00
.05
.10
.15
.20
.25
.30
.35
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
1
X
P
(
X
)

P(X), = 2
.00
.05
.10
.15
.20
.25
.30
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1
1
X
P
(
X
)

P(X), = 4
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-12
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Arrival Characteristics of a
Queuing System (continued)
Behavior of arrivals:
Join the queue, and wait till
served.
Balk; refuse to join the line.
Renege; leave the line.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-13
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Waiting Line Characteristics
of a Queuing System
Waiting Line Characteristics:
Length of the queue
Limited
Unlimited (assumed)
Service priority/Queue discipline
FIFO (assumed)
Other
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-14
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Waiting Line Characteristics
of a Queuing System (continued)
Service Facility Characteristics
Number of channels (servers)
Single
Multiple
Number of phases in service
system (customer stations)
Single (1 stop)
Multiple (2+ stops)
Service time distribution
Negative exponential
Other
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-15
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Service Characteristics:
Queuing System Configurations
Single Channel, Single Phase
Queue
Service
facility
Facility
1
Facility
2
Single Channel, Multi-Phase
Queue
Service Facility
arrivals
arrivals
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-16
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Service
facility
1
Service
facility
2
Service
facility
3
Multi-Channel,
Single Phase
Queue
Multi-Channel,
Multiphase Phase
Queue
Type 1
Service
Facility
Type 1
Service
Facility
Type 2
Service
Facility
Type 2
Service
Facility
arrivals
arrivals
Service Characteristics:
Queuing System Configurations
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-17
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Service Characteristics
of a Queuing System
Service Time Patterns:
Negative exponential probability
distribution
Other distribution
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-18
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Service Time Characteristics:
Exponential Distribution
P
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
y

(
f
o
r

I
n
t
e
r
v
a
l
s

o
f

1

M
i
n
u
t
e
)

30 60 90 120 150 180
Average Service Time of 1 Hour
Average Service Time of 20 Minutes
X
Minute Per Served Number Average
0 0, for x e f(x)
x
=
> > =

To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-19
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Kendall Notation for
Queuing Models
Kendall notation consists of a
basic three-symbol form.
Arrival Service Time Number of Service
Distribution Distribution Channels Open
Where,

M = Poisson distribution for the number of occurrences
(or exponential times)
D = Constant (deterministic rate)
G = General distribution with mean and variance known
M/M/2
Single channel with Poisson
arrivals and exponential service
times and two channels
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-20
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Assumptions: M/M/1
Model
1. Queue discipline: FIFO
2. No balking or reneging
3. Independent arrivals; constant rate
over time
4. Arrivals: Poisson distributed
5. Service times: average known
6. Service times: negative exponential
7. Average service rate > average
arrival rate

To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-21
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristics
of Queuing Systems
Average time each customer spends
in the queue
Average length of the queue
Average time each customer spends
in the system
Average number of customers in the
system
Probability that the service facility
will be idle
Utilization factor for the system
Probability of a specific number of
customers in the system
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-22
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/M/1
u

-
L system, in number Average =
u -
1
W system, in time Average =
( ) u u

-
L queue, in number Average
2
q
=
( ) u u

-
W waiting, time Average
q
=
u

p = Factor, n Utilizatio
u

=1 P Idle, Percent
0
1 +
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
k
k n
P
u

## Probability the number

of customers is > k,
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-23
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Car Wash Example:
M/M/1
Assume you are planning a car wash to
raise money for a local charity.
You anticipate the cars arriving in a
single line and being serviced by one
team of washers.
Based on historical data, you believe
cars will arrive every 30 minutes, and
the team can wash a car in about 20
minutes.
The arrival rates follow a Poisson
distribution and the service rates are
exponentially distributed.
What are the operating characteristics
for this system?

To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-24
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Car Wash Example:
Operating Characteristics
= 2 cars arriving per hour
u = 3 cars serviced per hour
L => ? cars in the system on average
W => ? hour that an average car
spends in the system
Lq => ? cars waiting on average
Wq => ? hours is average wait
Pw => ? percent of time car washers
are busy
Po => ? probability that there are 0
cars in the system
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-25
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Car Wash Example: Operating
Characteristics Solution

= 2 cars arriving per hour
u = 3 cars serviced per hour
L = 2/(3-2) => 2 cars in the
system on average
W = 1/(3-2) => 1 hour that an average
car spends in the system
Lq = 2^2/3(3-2) => 1.33 cars waiting
on average
Wq = 2/3(3-2) => .67 hours is average wait
Pw = 2/3 => .67 percent of time
washers are busy
P(0) = 1 (2/3) => .33 probability that there
are 0 cars in the system
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-26
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/M/m

( ) ( )
u

u
u

u
M M
M
+

|
.
|

\
|
=
P
! 1
L
0
2
u
u
u

u

M
M
M n
P
M
M n
n
n

|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

=
=
!
1
!
1
1
1
0
0
Probability there are no customers in the system,
Average number of customers in the system,
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-27
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/M/m
q
u
L
W
= =

1
W
q

L
=
W
The average time a customer
spends in the system,
The average number of
customers in line waiting,
u

L
=
L
q
The average time a
customer spends in the
queue waiting for service,
u

p
M
=
The utilization rate,
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-28
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Car Wash Example:
M/M/2
= 2 cars/ hr u = 3 cars/ hr
P(0) = 1

1 + 2 + 1 4 6
3 2 9 6-2
= = 0.5
1
2
L = 2 3 2/3 1 2
1! 2 3 -2 2 3
+ 2
2
= 3 = 0.75
4
W = 0.75 = 3 = 22.5 minutes
2 4
Lq = 0.75 2 = 1 = 0.083
3 12
Wq = 0.083 = 0.0415 hour = 2.5 minutes
2
Should you have 2 teams of car washers???

To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-29
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/D/1
Average length of the
queue,

Average waiting time
in the queue,

Average number of
customers in the
queue,

Average time in the
system,
( )
( )
u
u

u u

u u

1
W
L
2
W
2
L
q
2
q
+ =
+ =

=

=
q
q
W
L
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-30
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Car Wash Example:
M/D/1
system.
Cars will continue to arrive according
to a Poisson distribution, with 2 cars
arriving every hour.
However, the service time will now be
constant with a rate of 3 cars per hour.

Compare the operating characteristics
of this model with your previous
models.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-31
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Car Wash Example: Operating
Characteristics M/D/1
Lq = 4
2(3) (3-2)
= 2
3
Wq = 2
2(3)(3-2)
= 1
3
L = 4 + 2
6 3
= 8
6
W = 1 + 1
3 3
= 2
6
M/D/1 M/M/1
4 cars
3

2 hour
3

2 cars

1 hour
Both Lq and Wq
are reduced by
50%!
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-32
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/M/1 - Finite Source
( )
0 q
1 L P N

|
.
|

\
|
+
=

u
0
0
)! (
!
1
P
n N
N
N
n
n
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

=
u

The probability that the system is empty,
The average length of the queue,
( )
0
1 L P L
q
+ =
The average number of customers in the system,
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-33
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristic
Equations: M/M/1 - Finite Source
( )
0 n
!
!
P N) n P(n, P
n N
N
n
|
|
.
|

\
|

= = s
u

1
W W
q
+ =
u
( )
q
W
L N
L
q

=

The average waiting time in the queue,
The average waiting time in the system,
Probability of n units in the system,
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-34
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Department of
Commerce Example:
M/M/1 finite source
The Department of Commerce has
5 printers that each need repair
after about 20 hours of work.
distribution.
The technician can service a
printer in an average of about 2
hours, following an exponential
distribution.
Determine the operating
characteristics for this model.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-35
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
Operating Characteristics
M/M/1 Finite source
Po = 1
5! 0.05
(5-n)! 0.5
= 1/20 = 0.05 printer/ hr.
u = = 0.50 printer/ hr.

n
n=0
5
= 0.564
Lq = 0.05 + 0.5
0.05
5 -
(1-Po) = 5 4.8 = 0.2
L = 0.2 + (1-0.564) = 0.64 printer
Wq = 0.2
(5-0.64)(0.05)
= 0.91 hour
W = 0.91 + 1 = 2.91 hours
0.50
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-36
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
General Operating
Characteristic Relationships
u
1
W W
)

L
(or W W L
)

L
(or W W L
: Equations Flow s Little'
q
q
q q q
+ =
= =
= =
After reaching a steady state, certain
relationships exist among specific
operating characteristics.
To accompany Quantitative Analysis
for Management, 9e
by Render/Stair/Hanna
14-37
2003 by Prentice Hall, Inc.