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STEEL BRIDGE- CONSTRUCTION

EQUIPMENTS AND METHODS

CONSTRUTION TECHNIQUES
Through truss bridge  Composite bridge  Over truss bridge  Stayed bridge

THROUGH TRUSS BRIDGE
The easiest construction technique is in situ during the dry season, over causeway and culverts. We advise too much camber, leaving gaps in the top chord, which close when the causeway is removed

THROUGH TRUSS BRIDGE

Truss built in situ on home bank, then craned to half way. The entire bridge is then lifted into position with large cranes on both banks. Good for small, light bridges when large cranes are also available.

THROUGH TRUSS BRIDGE
Roller launch method. The bridge is constructed in situ and then jacked across the span using rollers and cantilever technique. A temporary nose section is used this is removed once the bridge is in place.

COMPOSITE BRIDGE The easiest construction technique is in situ during the dry season. over causeway and culverts. .

COMPOSITE BRIDGE beams can often be lifted in. by one crane from one side. . single or joined in pairs.

.COMPOSITE BRIDGE beams can be joined in pairs then roller launched or cantilever launched. add rebar and then pour concrete finish and cure. then jacked down into place. Once in position it simply remains to bolt in remainder of diaphragms. add flashings.

over causeway and culverts. .OVER TRUSS BRIDGE The easiest construction technique is in situ during the dry season.

OVER TRUSS BRIDGE 2 -3 beams can often be lifted in. . singly or joined in pairs. by cranes on each bank.

.OVER TRUSS BRIDGE  Roller launch method. The bridge is constructed in situ and then jacked across the span using rollers and cantilever technique.

OVER TRUSS BRIDGE A temporary nose section is used this is removed once the bridge is in position. The bridge is then simply lowered into place. .

rail. transoms. 4. . counter weight and ground struts. Build abutments. 3. 2. Erect deck beam. Erect tower. Erect home stays.STAYED BRIDGE 1.

Erect bridge stays. Extend gantry rails. Erect rail system. . Erect gantry crane. Erect new deck beams using gantry. 9.STAYED BRIDGE 5. 7. 8. 6. with transoms.

STAYED BRIDGE 10. Erect further bridge stays . Extend deck beams and transoms. 11.

.STAYED BRIDGE 12. Erect simple supported link span to far bank or to far bridge. Continue process 13.

STEEL BRIDGE TYPES Steel Beam Bridge  Over truss bridge  Steel bowstring girder bridge  Steel cable stayed bridge  Composite bridges  .

Structurally. the simplest type of bridge  Relatively short span . and are easily widened by simply adding more beams and deck  Frequently used in pedestrian bridges and for highway overpasses and flyovers  Footpaths can be built on both sides  Can be built one or two beams at a time.5m to 30m. making them unsuitable if lots of space is required beneath  . often by direct craneage or by cantilever launch  Longer spans require supporting pillars.STEEL BEAM BRIDGE Beam . although become more expensive after about 15m  Can be any width.

STEEL BEAM BRIDGES .

but the beams are replaced with trusses.OVER TRUSS BRIDGE 20m .100m span  Very similar to simple beam bridges. making them much deeper and lighter  Easily widened with additional trusses  More complex to build  Depth is typically 12% of the span. railways etc.  . so the roadway has to be higher if the bridge is to have sufficient clearance over water.

OVER TRUSS BRIDGES .

except that the truss can be a higher.150m spans  Attractive  Can be constructed on less robust foundations e. deeper segmental curve  Suitable for 50m .g. atop elevated piers/areas of uneven soil  Can be pre-fabricated offsite and hauled or lifted into place  .STEEL BOWSTRING GIRDER BRIDGE Much like a through-truss bridge.

when the span is too big for regular through truss bridges.STEEL CABLE STAYED BRIDGE         Although expensive. And. one-tower bridges are useful if there is no good access to the far bank. Long span (50m . as they can be built from one side only. in particular. when there is no staright level run up to the gap which would permit cantilever launching. on which temporary or permanent piers could be built. but also flexible Economical as allow a slender and lighter structure which is still able to span large distances Light weight is an advantage in earthquake-prone areas Modern and simple design makes attractive and distinct landmarks Easy to build in segments where in-situ construction or cantilever launch on rollers is not possible. stayed bridges may be the only viable alternative when: there is no access to the gap. which may need to be one fifth of the spann for a two tower bridge. But please note: you stll need enough space for the large counterweights.200m) Very strong. This requires substantial piers and large counterweights Less suitable for very windy places due to its lightness .

STEEL CABLE STAYED BRIDGE .

STEEL PEDESTRIAN FOOT BRIDGE Designed for pedestrians and cyclists rather than vehicular traffic  Useful for crossing water/railways where there are no road bridges  Allow safe crossing of busy roads  Can also be used for walkways between buildings or in car parks  Must be at least 1. but can be as wide as needed  Can be the simplest beam type with hand rails.2m wide (unless designed for maintenance work only). or a throughtruss with hand rails fixed to the two trusses  Through-trusses useful if the bridge is to have overhead cover and sides with cladding or mesh (essential for road or rail crossings)  Usually require stairways and ramps  .

STEEL PEDESTRIAN FOOT BRIDGE .

This composite bridge design can be used in the following ways: . perhaps using a 'stud welder'. so reducing deflections and increasing strength. correctly spaced to resist the loads. seismic loads) are shared by the steel/concrete composite.COMPOSITE BRIDGE     'Composite' means that the steel structure of a bridge is fixed to the concrete structure of the deck so that the steel and concrete act together. by fixing nuts and bolts. or better still on export work. water. make the concrete work 'compositely' with the steel. But when the concrete is 'cured' and has acquired its full strength. This is done using 'shear connectors' fixed to the steel beams and then embedded in the concrete. then all future loads (traffic. surfacing. while the steel is good in tension and compression. Usually the steel carries its own weight and that of the wet concrete. Shear connectors can be welded on. wind. The concrete is good in compression. Shear connectors. pressure.

COMPOSITE BRIDGE .

This is usually on 'open top' through truss bridges or 'closed-top' through truss bridges.Transoms go from side to side across a bridge and carry the deck loads to strong steel frames on either side. 15m and then more expensively up to 24m).  . so goes into compression when deflected.On short spans (8m. 10m.  Transoms on any type of bridge . The deck is still on top of the steel structure. The bridges benefit the most from composite action. from say 18m up to approx 100m.  Over Truss Bridges . bridges can be made from a number of beams under the roadway straight across the gap.These are similar to simple beam bridges but for longer spans.COMPOSITE BRIDGE Simple Beam Bridges .

COMPOSITE BRIDGE .

the underside of the decking is liable to corrode over time.COMPOSITE BRIDGE  Decking .In a normal steel building the concrete can act together with steel decking. the steel decking taking the place of the regular steel reinforcing bars within the concrete. . However in a bridge. It is just used as 'lost formwork'. so is not counted as part of the reinforcement.

EQUIPMENTS USED        launching equipment straddle carriers and low bed carriers gantry cranes over head cranes form travelers movable scaffolding systems special equipment for post tensioning .

GANTRY CRANES .

usually on the parallel side walls of a factory or similar large industrial building. while the hoist can be moved to and from across the width of the building. An overhead travelling crane. and overhead cranes. A gantry crane or portal crane has a similar mechanism supported by uprights. usually with wheels at the foot of the uprights allowing the whole crane to traverse.GANTRY CRANES:  Gantry cranes.bridge cranes. so that the whole crane can move the length of the building. has the ends of the supporting beam resting on wheels running on rails at high level. are all types of cranes which lift objects by a hoist which is fitted in a hoist trolley and can move horizontally on a rail or pair of rails fitted under a beam. Overhead crane and gantry crane are particularly suited to lifting very heavy objects . also known as an overhead crane or as a suspended crane.

Straddles pick and carry containers while straddling their load and connecting to the top lifting points via a container spreader.STRADDLE CARRIER  A straddle carrier is a non road going vehicle for use in port terminals and intermodal yards used for stacking and moving ISO standard containers. These are capable of relatively low speeds (up to 30 km/h) with a laden container. These machines have the ability to stack containers up to 4 high. The workers that use this machinery sit at the very top seated facing the middle as they can see behind them and in front of them. . Straddle carriers can lift up to 60 tons which equals up to 2 full containers.

STRADDLE CARRIER .

FORM TRAVELER .

FORM TRAVELER .

a new deck area is poured in front of it. but it is as simple as the traveler locking onto the completed deck area. The process can be complex. will allow the bridge deck to be built over the inlet. It could not be used for another project.  . and the traveler moves to that edge to begin the process again. This continues until both sides meet in the middle. the form traveler will be disassembled and recycled. When the bridge is complete.  The form traveler that is going to be used on the bridge was designed and built specifically for this project. once assembled and attached to the edge of the bridge deck.FORM TRAVELER The form traveler is a large piece of equipment that.

MOVING SCAFFOLDING SYSTEMS .

This system is most suitable for bridges over waterways. A rebar trolley and portal crane can be integrated onto the MSS system for prefabricated reinforcement cages. Bracket moving system.MOVING SCAFFOLDING SYSTEMS        Both the overhead and the underslung MSS consist of a self supporting structure combined with a project specific exterior formwork. Placement of concrete PVMPS and cranes onto the MSS system. Special design solutions from some of our most challenging projects: Separation of the Main structure into three sections ( Front Nose – Main Girder – Rear Nose ) and design of a unique hinged connection between the parts has made it possible to build superstructures with a horizontal radius as small as 250m. The MSS is easily adaptable to cross sections ranging from double T to single box and span lengths from 20m to 70m. bridges with high piers as well as for site conditions where access for external cranes is difficult or impossible. .

STEEL BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION  PLEASE DOUBLE CLICK ON THE VIDEO TO PLAY .

The following are some of the advantages that steel can offer. but also from its broad architectural possibilities. not only from the material itself.ADVANTAGES OF STEEL BRIDGE  Steel offers many advantages to the bridge builder.  High quality material  Speed of construction  Versatility  Modification and repair  Recycling  Durability  Aesthetics .

and minimises the length of approach ramps.HIGH STRENGTH TO WEIGHT RATIO The high strength to weight ratio of steel minimises substructures costs. which overcome problems with headroom and flood clearances.  This bridge was the first UK steel bridge to be designed for the next generation of 225 Km/hr trains  . which is particularly beneficial in poor ground conditions. Minimum self-weight is also an important factor in trasnporting and handling components. The low selfweight also minimised foundation works adjacent to the existing rail line. The selection of steel was made because of its high strength to weight ratio. In addition.  The Newark Dyke rail bridge. shown on the left. it facilitates very shallow construction depths. which permitted a shallow construction depth and minimised the total weight to be slid into position. comprises a 77m span bowstring truss with 820 tonnes of S355 steel.

shapes and sizes. fit-up and painting. The quality control extends from the material itself and follows on through the processes of cutting.  Prefabrication in controlled shop conditions leads to high quality work at minimum cost. welding. . The testing regime carried out at the steel mills should give confidence to all clients and engineers who specify steel for their project. which is readily available worldwide in various certified grades. drilling.HIGH QUALITY MATERIAL  Steel is a high quality material.

The whole structure was then transported into position using multi-wheeled „Econofreight‟ vehicles during an overnight closure of the M5. and in special circumstances complete bridges may be installed overnight.SPEED OF CONSTRUCTION The prefabrication of components means that construction time on site in hostile environments is minimised. Sections were shop-fabricated and transported to site where the bridge was fully assembled off line. is a 500T truss bridge that carries a single-track railway over the M5 near Bristol.  . The light-weight nature of steel permits the erection of large components. The speed of steel bridge construction reduces the durations of rail possessions and road closures. which minimises disruption to the public using those networks. the Hallen Bridge.  For example.

Steel gives the Contractor flexibility in terms of erection sequence and programme. . Installation may be by cranes. launching. Components can be sized to suit access restrictions at the site.VERSATILITY  Steel suits a range of construction methods and sequences. and once erected the steel girders provide a platform for subsequent operations. slide-in techniques or transporters.

MODIFICATION & REPAIR Steel bridges are adaptable and can readily be altered for a change in use.  . The solution was to replace the concrete deck with a new lightweight steel one. and strengthened to carry heavier traffic loads. and was able to accommodate 44 Tonne trucks. They can be widened to accommodate extra lanes of traffic. The result was that the widened 5-lane bridge was only 25 Tonnes heavier than the old 3-lane structure. the Tamar suspension bridge in Plymouth needed widening and strengthening due to increased traffic loads and volumes.  For example. and add steel cantilever sections.

and the contract was completed for considerably less than the beam replacement option. A costly beam replacement scheme would have taken many months and caused severe disruption to the motorway. was proposed by a UK fabricator as a more economic and less disruptive solution. a heat treatment technique. No external forces were applied to bring the girder back on line. and initially considered “Beyond repair”. The outer girder was deformed by 400mm over a length of 2.5m.MODIFICATION & REPAIR Steel bridges can readily be repaired after accidental damage. based on the theory of restrained expansion. and over a period of only two days the girder was straightened to within 18mm of its original line. Heat was applied locally in a carefully controlled manner.  . The photograph (opposite) shows a steel composite bridge over the M5 near Weston that was struck by an over-height lorry.  However.

The potential durability of steel may be summarised in the following quote by a Mr J.Waddell in 1921: . DURABILITY Steel bridges now have a proven life span extending to well over 100 years.RECYCLING  Steel is a „sustainable‟ material. When a steel bridge reaches the end of its useful life.A. and returned to steelworks for recycling. the girders can be cut into manageable sizes to facilitate demolition.

 An alternative form of corrosion protection is the use of weathering steel. if properly maintained. without the need for extensive investigations. as the structural elements are visible and accessible.”  Steel has a predictable life. honestly and carefully built. the latest coatings are anticipated to last well beyond 30 years before requiring major maintenance.DURABILITY (CONTD) “The life of a metal bridge that is scientifically designed. as shown above left.  . which rarely compromises the structural integrity of a bridge. Corrosion is a surface effect. Any signs of deterioration are readily apparent. as on the Westgate bridges in Gloucester. and not seriously overloaded. In addition. is indefinitely long. and any problems may be swiftly addressed by repainting the affected areas.

and repainting can change or refresh the appearance of the bridge to appear as new.  This arch-truss bridge connects Incheon international airport to Seoul in Korea (opposite). Steel was considered the only option for such a high profile site AESTHETICS .  Bridges are an essential feature of a countries infrastructure and landscape. Few man made structures combine the technical with the aesthetics in such an evocative way. Steel bridges can be made to look light or heavy. The painting of steelwork introduces colour and contrast. The high surface quality of steel creates clean sharp lines and allows attention to detail. and can be sculptured to any shape or form. Modern fabrication methods have removed restrictions on curvature in both plan and elevation. Steel has broad architectural possibilities. and has a main span of 540m.

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION VALUE OF MONEY Steel is aneconomic construction material Continuous development in steel frame technology Built in a short construction period Savings throughout the project FLEXIBILITY In design SPEED Pre-engineered structural steel solutions SAFETY During design and fabrication During Construction Short construction period During construction In use .

ADVANTAGES OF STEEL CONSTRUCITON QUALITY AND RELIABILITY During the design process PROFESSIONAL APPROACH Competent and responsible steel contractors SUSTAINABILITY PRESTIGE At the construction stage Aesthetically pleasing During construction Advice and support After completion A structure that reflects the clients Relating to cost Integrated electronic transfer of information Environmentally friendly After occupation .