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Soils

Classification, Physical properties and Behaviour

Soil –
• forms a thin layer of earth’s crust is the loose top surface of our planet. • covers a major portion of the earth's land surface. • is an important natural resource that either directly or indirectly supports most of the planet's life even to an extent of balancing the food chain. Formation of soil: happens over a very long period of time. by the interaction of the processes between the rock and the hydrologic cycle with the weathered rocks. Weathering is the process of the breaking down rocks. It refers to the physical and chemical disintegration and decomposition of rocks which are not under equilibrium temperature, pressure and moisture conditions on the earth's surface. • Physical weathering • Chemical weathering.

Soil composition:
Soils are a mixture of rocks, minerals, and dead, decaying plants and animals. Water: • Gravity water • Capillary water • Hydroscopic Air Solid matter- mixture of mineral and organic constituents that are in solid, gaseous and aqueous states. • organic • inorganic matter

It is categorised according to particle size whether the soil formed is SAND, SILT or CLAY. The ratio determines the classification and characteristics of the soil.

Classification of soils:
systematic categorization of soils based on the size of the particles. It is the mineral content and the biological process of the parent rocks which decides the particle size of the soils. Soils are mainly classifies into following types:

Source: Site Planning – Kevin Lynch

Classification of soils: continued Gravel Silt Sand Clay Peat/ Muck Image Source: Wikipedia .

preservearticles.Classification of soils: continued Soils in India 1) Alluvial soils 2) Black soils 3) Red and Yellow soils 4) Laterite soils 5) Arid soils 6) Saline soils 7) Peaty and Organic soils 8) Forest soils Source: http://www.com/a/tges.com/2011101215241/short-essay-on-theclassification-of-soils-in-india.html https://sites.org/geo-jaydeep/std-10-geography/soils-of-india .google.

jogging tracks. Porosity: It is the measure of void spaces in the material. Bulk Density varies with Soil texture and soil organic matter content. It is the contact pressure between the soil and the type of construction within the soil. pathways weathered rock has high bearing capacity.provides a good base for foundations. Porosity of surface soil typically decreases as particle size increases. Bulk Density: It is the mass of dry soil per unit volume.Soil Properties: Soil bearing capacity: It is the capacity of the soil to withstand the loads. This is due to soil aggregate formation in finer textured surface soils when subject to soil biological processes. Sandy Loam and Silty Loam . Bulk Density strongly affects the nutrient and soil water characteristics of a site. Bulk Density of mineral soils is higher than those of organic soils. . expressed in grams per cubic centimeter. Soils with higher soil bearing capacities such as weathered rock and sand provides good base for the foundations.suitable for development of landscape areas.

Sand Porosity Permeability Field capacity Soil particle surface Mostly large pores Rapid Limited Small Silt Predominant small pores Low to moderate Medium Medium Clay Predominant small pores Low Very large Very large . including decomposition and nutrient cycling and loss. affecting rates of weathering and soil development.Soil Properties: continued Permeability: It is the property of the soil pore system that allows the fluid to flow. soil water-holding capacity. The Water Holding capacity of soils helps determine the amount of water available for plant uptake and growth for microbial processes. Organic Matter: This content is a critical component of soils. In addition. Presence of Water: Water in soil systems is held in pore spaces as films of water absorbed to soil particles. soil structure. and nutrient retention. soil organic matter provides the energy and carbon base for heterotrophic soil organisms and is important reservoir of essential nutrients required in plant growth.

Bearing Capacity of Soil Bearing capacity is the ability of foundation soil to hold the forces from the superstructure without undergoing shear failure or excessive settlement. Foundation soil is that portion of ground which is subjected to additional stresses when foundation and superstructure are constructed on the ground.Punching shear failure Eg of Shear failure .General shear failure b. Ground Level Super Structure Foundation Foundation Soil a.Local shear failure c.

Some examples of of Shear failure .

cedengineering. Safe or Allowable Bearing Capacity.pdf .com/upload/Bearing%20Capacity%20of%20Soils.Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Ultimate Bearing Capacity. qa = qu /FS FS is often determined to limit settlements to less than 1 inch and it is often in the range of 2 to 4. Source: http://www. the minimum gross pressure intensity at the base of the foundation at which the soil fails in shear. Also defined as. qu The generally accepted method of bearing capacity analysis is to assume that the soil below the foundation along a critical plane of failure (slip path) is on the verge of failure and to calculate the bearing pressure applied by the foundation required to cause this failure condition. The allowable bearing capacity qa is the ultimate bearing capacity qu divided by an appropriate factor of safety FS. This is the Ultimate bearing capacity.

Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Factor of Safety It is the factor of ignorance about the soil under consideration. etc. It depends on many factors such as: • Type of soil • Method of exploration • Level of Uncertainty in Soil Strength • Importance of structure and consequences of failure • Likelihood of design load occurrence. .

wordpress.files.com/2012/03/bearing-capacity.Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Estimating Bearing capacity: • • • • Analytical Methods using Soil parameters Plate load test on the soil Penetration test Presumptive bearing capacity values from codes Analytical Method Determined in the laboratory.doc . Using two important shear parameters of soil : • Angle of internal friction • Cohesion Method examples: • Rankine’s Analysis • Terzaghi’s Analysis For further reading: http://civteam. by conducting shear tests on soil samples collected from bore holes or test pits.

files.doc . Gravity loading platform method For further reading: http://civteam.com/2012/03/bearing-capacity.Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Estimating Bearing capacity: Plate load test • Field test to determine ultimate bearing capacity • Consist of loading a rigid plate at the foundation level and determining the settlements corresponding to each load increment.wordpress. • The ultimate bearing capacity is then taken as the load starts sinking at a rapid rate.

Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Estimating Bearing capacity: For further reading: http://civteam.com/2012/03/bearing-capacity.files.wordpress.doc .

Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Estimating Bearing capacity: Plate load test .wordpress.doc .Reaction truss method For further reading: http://civteam.com/2012/03/bearing-capacity.files.

com/2012/03/bearing-capacity.doc .wordpress. The resistance is empirically correlated with properties of soil like density index.files. a cone or other shaped tool under dynamic or static loadings. bearing capacity etc.Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Estimating Bearing capacity: Standard Penetration test It involve the measurements of the resistance to penetration of a sampling spoon. For further reading: http://civteam. Dutch cone test Used for getting a continuous record of the resistance of soil by penetrating steadily under static pressure a cone with a base of 10sq cm and an angle of 60degree at vertex.

. undrained cohesion. 35 mm ID. 750 Tripod mm • The number of blows required for the next 300 mm penetration into the ground is the standard penetration number N Bore Hole • Apply the desired corrections (such as Split Spoon Sampler corrections for overburden pressure. density etc.8 mm OD.Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Estimating Bearing capacity: • It consists of a split spoon sampler 50. • Split spoon sampler is placed vertically in the hole. • Test is performed on a clean hole 50 mm to 150 mm in diameter. min 600 mm long and 63. allowed to freely settle under its own weight or with blows for first 150 mm which is called 65 kg Hammer seating drive.5 kg hammer freely dropped from a height of 750 mm. saturated fine silt and energy) • N is correlated with most properties of soil such as friction angle.

Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods to Improve SBC When foundations become uneconomical it becomes essential to improve SBC. Vibroflotation – commercial method using vibroflot . especially after flooding. Compacting the soil Ramming moist soil Rubble compaction into the soil Flooding the soil – very effective with sands Vibration – granular soils to a depth of 1-3m is compacted. Increasing depth of foundation When better bearing stratum is encountered at greater depth.

Draining the soil results in decrease in voids ratio and improvement of bearing power. .Bearing Capacity of Soil continued…… Methods of Improve SBC Compaction by pre loading – useful in clayey soils. Pipes are removed and sand is filled & rammed into the holes. Grouting for loose gravels and fissured rock. Confining the soil reducing the lateral movement of soil by driving sheet piles and forming an enclosure.bore holes and cement grout is forced through them. pre loading results in accelerated consolidation and settlements are achieved before actual footing is laid. Chemical treatment instead of grout specific chemicals are used. Using sand piles – Hollow pipes are driven at close intervals resulting in compaction.

• Pit sand consists of sharp angular grains. c. a.Sand Sources of Sand: Sand particles consist of small grains of silica (Si02). which are free from salts b. It is formed by the decomposition of sand stones due to various effects of weather. River Sand: • from beds of rivers. Pit Sand: • obtained by forming pits to a depth of about 1m to 2m from ground level. • Sea sand consists of salts sea sand & is not recommendable . The following are the natural sources of sand. • widely used for all purposes. • Colour of river sand is almost white. • consists of rounded grains in light brown colour. • fine rounded grains. Sea Sand: • obtained from sea shores.

continued Characteristics of sand: 1. It should be free from organic matter.) should contain particles of various sizes in suitable proportions. • Sand passing through a screen with clear opening of 3.e. • Sand passing through a screen with clear openings of 7.5875mm is known as fine sand.62mm is known as gravely sand. 4. It should be chemically inert 2. It should be well graded (i. which attract the moisture from atmosphere. It should contain sharp. Grading • Sand passing through a screen with clear opening of 1.. angular and durable grains. It should be clean and coarse.Sand………. It should not contain salts. 3. . 5.175mm is known as coarse sand. It is generally used for plastering.

Sand………. • Finer the material.. the more will be the increase in volume for a given moisture content. This phenomenon is known as bulking of sand. then bulking of sand = (20 – 16)/16 = 4/16 or 25% . • the dry sand and the sand completely flooded with water have practically the same volume.moisture causes film of water around the sand particles which result in the increase of volume of sand.continued Bulking of Sand • The presence of moisture in sand increases the volume of sand. depending upon the grading of sand. the increase in volume may be about 5 to 8 %. • For a moisture content of 5 to 8 %. Test The height of sand is measured say 16cm.

penetrate wall by 10cm • Cleats.nailed directly to the wall plate • Bracing • Sole plate – feet of rakers connected to inclined sole plate. Types: • Raking shores • Flying shores • Dead shores In raking shores. They render lateral support.5cm thk • Needles. rakers are used to give lateral support. Components • Wall plate 20-25cm wide & 7.Shoring Construction of a temporary structure to support temporarily an unsafe structure. .

Shoring…continued Flying or horizontal shores give horizontal support to two adjacent parallel walls which became unsafe due to removal/collapse of the intermediate building. • Spaced at 3-4. struts and walls should meet at floor lvls of the building. . • Struts preferably at 45 degrees. • Upto 9m distance – single flying shore • Above 9m – double flying shore • Centre lines of flying shore.5m centres and horizontal braces introduced between adjacent shores.

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Min. Needles transfer the load to dead shores.Shoring…continued Dead or vertical shores consists of dead shores supporting horizontal members known as needles. • Needles are spaced at 1-2 m. • Dead shores are supported on sole plates. • Section of needles and dead shores should be adequate to transfer the load. of 3 needles/opening. . Folding wedges should be inserted between two. To rebuild the defective lower part of a wall. to rebuild or deepen the existing foundation or make a large opening in the existing wall.

. Tangent or Secant) (iii) Soldier pile with wooden lagging walls (iv) Sheet pile walls (v) Composite supporting systems Diaphragm walling is a technique of constructing a continuous underground wall from the ground level. provide structural support and water tightness. also called Slurry trench walls due to the the construction technique applications: earth retention walls for deep excavations. High capacity vertical foundation elements. water control. (i) Diaphragm walls (ii) Pile walls (Contiguous.Shoring…continued Several in-situ support systems have been deployed for containing deep excavations. and tunnels. Retaining wall foundations. basements. Following types of deep support systems are commonly used in metropolitan cities.

Shoring…continued Steps involved in the construction of diaphragm wall can be broadly listed as follows: (i) Guide wall construction along alignment (ii) Trenching by crane operated Grab/ hydraulic grab (iii) Bentonite flushing (iv) Lowering reinforcement cage (v) Concreting using tremie .

Secant bored piles are formed by keeping this spacing of piles less than the diameter. center to center spacing of piles is kept slightly greater than the pile diameter. Secant pile shoring . Tangent piles are used when secant piling or diaphragm walling equipment is not available.Shoring…continued Piled Retaining Systems There are different types of pile walls In Contiguous bored pile construction.

0m.Shoring…continued • . Contiguous piling . These piles are connected with a Capping beams at the top.6. Common pile diameters adopted are 0. • • Considered more economical than diaphragm wall in small to medium scale excavations due to reduction in cost of site operations. 0.8 and 1.

In recent times.Shoring…continued Soldier Pile with Wooden Lagging System Soldier pile and lagging walls are some of the oldest forms of retaining systems used in deep excavations. This type of retaining system involves the following broad based activities: (i) Constructing soldier piles at regular intervals (1 to 3m on center typically) (ii) Excavating in small stages and installing wooden lagging. precast concrete slabs are adopted for the lagging. (iii) Backfilling and compacting the void space behind the lagging. .

wharfs etc. . Also used for enclosing a part of site and reducing the lose of sub soil. to construct retaining walls in docks.Shoring…continued Sheet piles Thin piles made of plates of concrete. timber or steel are driven into the ground with suitable pile drivers and successive instalments of sheets are added. to form water tight enclosure.

vertical wales and horizontal struts are used. Box Sheeting For excavation not exceeding 4m and in loose soils Box like structure – vertical sheets placed very near. hold in position using longitudinal rows of wales and with struts across the wales. Stay bracing For excavation not exceeding 2m and in fairly firm soil Consist s of placing vertical sheets (polling boards) opposite each other and holding them in position by 1 or 2 rows of struts. For very loose soils – longitudinal sheeting. to avoid sides caving in timbering is done. .Timbering When the excavation depth is large or when the sub soil is loose.

. runners. Similar to box sheeting .continued Vertical sheeting For deep trenches upto 10m depth. Runners are hammer driven 30cm in advance of excavation. Large width of trench. but instead of vertical sheeting. but excavation in stages and the the end of each stage an offset is provided. Large excavation depth. Each stage limited to 3m height. Similar to vertical box sheeting. Presence of sub soil water.Timbering…………. Runner system For extremely loose soils which need immediate support as excavation progress. Sheet piling Soil is soft or loose.thick wooden sheets with iron shoe at the ends are used.

Source:Building Construction (BC Punmia) http://www.itdcem.co.pdf .in/itdcem.

• Strip footing – wall simple footing when wall carries light loads or when sbc is very high wall directly rests on concrete base and no masonry offsets width of concrete base not less than twice wall width stepped footing when wider footing required masonry offsets provided width to height of offset important (1/2 hori.Shallow Foundations Terzaghi – ‘depth is equal to or less than its width’. to 1 vertical) . Also known as open foundation. Spread footing – supports either one wall or column.

qs. . shape of footing generally same as that of the column.Shallow Foundations….continued • Pad footing or Isolated footing – for a single column A = P/qs. base dimension should not be less than twice the appropriate lateral dimension of the column in that direction.. P-total load.sbc of the soil simple pad footing simple concrete block projecting out from the column face on all sides.

when wider footing required masonry offsets provided width to height of offset important (1/2hori..continued • Pad footing or Isolated footing – for a single column stepped pad footing simple concrete block projecting out from the column face on all sides. To 1 vertical) footings for RCC columns .Shallow Foundations….

. more than 2 columns – continuous footing some conditionscolumns are very near so that footings overlap. bearing capacity is less. may be rectangular or trapezoidal in shape..continued Combined footing – supports two columns.Shallow Foundations…. require more area under individual footing a column is near property line so that its footing can’t spread in that direction.

Shallow Foundations…. some conditionsallowable soil pressure being low and spread footings may cover more than half the area. . If the column spacing is large – thickened bands may be provided along the columns lines in both directions. True raft – flat concrete slab with uniform thickness When column loads are heavy – slab under columns are thickened.continued Raft foundation– a combined footing that covers the entire area beneath a structure and supports all the walls and columns. erratic soil leading to differential settlement..

box like structure – round or rectangular sunk from the surface of land or water to desired depth. RCC or steel • Used where bearing stratum is available at shallow depth.Deep Foundations Caissons caisse – french word for chest or box. • Box caissons • Open caissons • Pneumatic caissons Box Caisson • Open at top and closed at bottom • Made of timber. • Used for breakwaters and sea walls .

o Bottom plug – bowl shaped PCC plug . twin hexagonal & twin octagonal. open excavations become uneconomical. in concrete wrapped with 12mm steel plates o Steining – thickness to sink the well by its own self weight. • When depth is more than 5-7m. dumbbell. • In well foundation the shell is sunk by dredging inside of it. twin circular.continued Open Caisson (Well foundation) • Open at both top and bottom • Made of timber. • Components of well foundation o Well curb – designed to support the weight of the well o Cutting edge – as sharp an edge without making it weak.Deep Foundations ……. RCC or steel • Most common bridge foundation in India. double-D. rectangular.. • Shapes of well can be single circular.

Masonry in well steining To be built in initial short height of about 2m only.1.2. Not to allowed to build more than 5m at a time. When there is water in the river.00m After each stage of sinking . Concreting to be done in one continuous operation..75m for 5m dia wall .20m for 7m dia wall . Inside shuttering – brick. suitable coffer dams are constructed around the site of the well and island of suitable size to accommodate working space is made.0. all damaged portion on top should be repaired. All reinforcement for curb placed and vertical steining bars to project 2m beyond the top of curb. .construction Laying the well curb On dry river bed excavation upto half a meter above subsoil water lvl is carried out and well curb is laid. Steining thickness for 3m dia wall . outside shuttering – steel lined timber.Deep Foundations …….continued Open Caisson (Well foundation)…. Well masonry is cured for atleast 48 hours before starting the sinking operation.

As the well sinks deeper and skin friction and buoyancy increase.. the interior space is some times filled with water or sand and capped with RCC slab. further sinking is stopped. Radius of the curb should be 2-4cm larger than the steining radius. Tilts and shifts should be avoided Outer surface of curb and steinings should be regular and smooth.Deep Foundations ……. Cutting edge of the curb should be of uniform thickness and sharpness. Excavation done initially manually and later mechanically.construction sinking Sinking or ‘set in’ starts after casting the curb and building the 1st masonry stage Done by excavating material from inside under the curb. Bowl shaped bottom concrete seal is provided.is applied.continued Open Caisson (Well foundation)…. . After plugging. Completion When the well reach the desired strata. additional loading – kentledge.

two airlocks are used – one for sending laborers inside and other for removing excavated material. On reaching the cottom. Sinking Caisson is sunk like other caisson in shallow water. When presence of water pose problems. Subsoil is not allowed inside this pressurised chamber. . Can be used for depths of water ranging from 12-35m. After placing airlock. Excavation is carried out in the working chamber by the laborers sent down through air lock and excavated material is sent up through muck bucket and hoist rope.continued Pneumatic Caissons Closed at top and open at bottom during construction Compressed air is used to remove water from the working chamber at bottom. air locks removed and void filled with water or sand. concrete bottom seal is placed. water is pumped out from the bottom and air pressure is gradually increased so that fresh water doesn’t enter the working chamber.Deep Foundations ……..

Deep Foundations ……..continued .