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IEEE 12th International Conference on BioInformatics and BioEngineering

TOWARDS A GRAPH THEORETICAL APPROACH TO STUDY GENDER LATERALIZATION EFFECT IN MATHEMATICAL THINKING
BIBE 2012
Manousos A. Klados, Chrysa Lithari, Ioannis Antoniou, Anastasia Semertzidou Charalambos Bratsas, Sifis Micheloyannis and Panagiotis D. Bamidis

Gender differences in mathematical abilities

Gender differences in mathematical abilities, still concern the scientists who are trying to investigate the females underrepresentationat difficult mathematics [1-2]. Both parents and teachers report that males seem to perform better in complex mathematics compared to females. What’s going on the brain?

BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus

they tend to create more synapses between them  BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.Anatomical Differences  Males have larger cerebra compared to females of the same age and health status [6]. bilaterally [7]   Males’ brain have a thicker right hemisphere Females have larger corpus callosum in contrast to males [8-10] The larger corpus callosum allows more information to flow between the left and the right hemisphere.  This difference is most prominent in the frontal and the occipital lobes. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .  women use their both hemispheres.

2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .Hypothesis   It is generally accepted that females use their both hemispheres to accomplish a certain task. where we are not expected to find differences amongBIBE 2012 | 11-13hemispheres. while males use mostly the hemisphere which is properly suited. the two Nov. The dominant hemisphere for the mathematical processing is the left one. So… We assume that males will exhibit more dense connections only in the left hemisphere compared to females.

Graph is a mathematical representation of a set of objects where some of them are connected by links. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus . BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.Graph Theory   We have used Graph Theory to check the aforementioned assumption. These interconnected objects are called vertices or nodes while the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges.

They were also asked to sleep as adequately and comfortably as possibly achievable the night before the experiment. They also signed an informed consent form. while the experimental protocol was approved by the ethics committee of the medical department.Participants      11 Males & 11 Females Normal or corrected to normal vision They were refrained from any alcohol or caffeine consumption the day before the experiment. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus . BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.

They were lying in a comfortable chair and the stimuli were given with a laptop about 80 cm in front of the individual.Experimental Design (1/2)     The EEG recordings were performed in dark electrical and sound attenuated room. The signals were amplified and then digitized at 500 Hz and online filtered (1-200 Hz) BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. The EEG signals were recorded with 31 electrodes placed on the scalp according to 10/20 International System). 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .

which was served as the control one.Experimental Design (2/2)  In order to examine the cerebral responses to mathematical stimuli. without any visible artifacts were chosen for further analysis. two different tasks were used during the EEG recordings.31x24)  10 secs segments. appears a white cross to a black screen for thirty seconds (CTRL)  The second one included eight trials of twodigit multiplications (MULT) (e.  The first one. BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.g. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .

loni.edu/ICBM/)   The four different compartments of the head model (scalp.Cortical Activity  Cortical Activity was computed by using an average head model from the reconstruction of 152 normal MRI scans (http://www.ucla. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus BIBE 2012 | signals . resulting to a transition kernel from our 28 scalp signals to 258 cortical11-13 Nov. we have used the column-norm normalization. cortex) were extracted using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). outer and inner skull. BEM is implemented in the Brainstorm toolbox Regarding the regularized solution of the linear inverse problem.

2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .Our Cortex Model BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.

In order to setup the graph we have to clarify the connections among the nodes. Y )    p( x. y) : The joint probabilit y distribution function p(x) : The marginal probabilit y distribution function BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus . y ) I ( X . y ) log p ( x) p ( y ) yY xX p( x.More Graph Theory (1/5)   The 258 dipoles are the nodes of our graph.  The functional connectivity of the cortical sources was computed using the Mutual Information p ( x.

BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .More Graph Theory (2/5)   For every subject we have formed a 258x258 adjacency matrix.  Undirected means that we have not any information about the direction of the connection among two nodes. In the current analysis we used binary and undirected graphs. using the mutual information index.  Binary means that two nodes will be connected or not.

2012 | Larnaca Cyprus . BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.More Graph Theory (3/5)  In order to pass from the AMs to binary and undirected graphs. we have employed a method proposed by [19]. having a representation of the population’s behaviour.

2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .More Graph Theory (4/5)  Then we split the hemispheres taking the graph of each hemisphere separately BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.

The subgraphs are formed by removing the ith node. Nov.  Local efficiency: Local efficiency of a graph is the average of the global efficiencies of each subgraph. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus  . So the Global Efficiency is the mean of the efficiencies of all paths. and taking the rest nodes which were connected to BIBE 2012 11-13 the removed |one.More Graph Theory (5/5)  Graph Parameters: Density: The density (K) of a graph is the ratio of the number of edges across the number of possible edges.  Global Efficiency: Latora and Marchiori [22] defined the efficiency of the path between two vertices as the inverse of their shortest distance.

2012 | Larnaca Cyprus TO HAVE ANY .Results (1/8) HYPOTHESI S CONFIRMED MALES’ GRAPH OF THE LEFT HEMISPHERE IS MORE DENSE COMPARED TO THE RIGHT ONE FEMALES’ GRAPHS OF BOTH HEMISPHERES DOESN’T SEEM BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.

HOWEVER THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE GE BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus AMONG THE .Results (2/8) REGARDING THE GE WE OBSERVE THAT BOTH MALES AND FEMALES SEEM TO HAVE MORE EFFICIENT GRAPHS IN THE LEFT HEMISPHERE COMPARED TO THE RIGHT ONE.

Results (3/8) THIS GIVES US A FURTHER EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THAT FEMALES USE THEIR BOTH HEMISPHER ES TO BEAR ON TWODIGIT MULTIPLICA TIONS. THAT’S WHY BOTH BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .

WE CAN CONCLUDE FOR MALES THAT THEIR RIGHT HEMISPHER E’S GLOBAL EFFICIENCY IS TOO LOW. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus . COMPARED TO THE LEFT’S ONE. BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT BASED ON THEIR RIGHT HEMISPHER E TO SOLVE DIFFICULT ARITHMETIC BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.Results (4/8) SAMELY.

2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .Results (5/8)  HIGHER VALUES OF LOCAL EFFICIENCY SUGGEST A LARGER LEVEL OF INTERNAL ORGANIZATION AND FAULT TOLERANCE. BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.

BECAUSE THE RIGHT HEMISPHER E IS NOT THE BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov.Results (6/8) SO IT SEEMS THAT FOR BOTH MALES AND FEMALES RIGHT HEMISPHER E IS MORE FAULTS TOLERANT IN CONTRAST TO THE LEFT ONE. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .

WHICH IS EXPLAINED BY THE FACT THAT MALES USE MORE THEIR BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus LEFT .Results (7/8) WE ALSO OBSERVE THAT MALES SEEM TO HAVE GREATER DIFFERENCE OF THEIR LOCAL EFFICIENCY AMONG THE TWO HEMISPHERES COMPARED TO FEMALES.

BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. SO THE RIGHT HEMISPHER E IS LESS FAULTS TOLERANT COMPARED TO THE RIGHT ONE.Results (8/8) THE FEMALES USE BOTH HEMISPHER ES. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .

4. Hum.37-55 ER Sowell. 3. Efficient Behavior of Small-World Networks Phys. Cereb Cortex 2007 17. S Towler. Sex differences in the human corpus callosum: myth or reality? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1997 21(5). CM Leonard. pp. and MA Gernsbacher The Science of Sex Differences in Science and Mathematics. August 2007 8. PM Thompson. et al. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus .314-324 V Latora and M Marchiori. pp. BG Peterson. pp. 2001 87. KL Narr. 2920-2931 KM Bishop. DC Geary. Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Brain Mapp 2006 27(4). Washington DC. National Academies Press. et al. E Luders. 6. DF Halpern.References 1. ZF Zaidi. 2010 2. Cereb Cortex 2008 18(12). 198701 BIBE 2012 | 11-13 Nov. RC Gur. Sex differences in cortical thickness mapped in 176 healthy individuals between 7 and 87 years of age. Gender Differences in Human Brain: A Review. 7.1550-1560.pp. et al. Gender effects on cortical thickness and the influence of scaling. 8. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. National Academy of Sciences. 2.58. JS Hyde. Lett. pp. The Open Anatomy Journal. pp. Size matters: cerebral volume influences sex differences in neuroanatomy. S Welcome. 2006. D Wahlsten. CP Benbow.60. 5. Rev.E Kan.1-51.

Thank You Very Much  Any Questions? Manousos Klados PhD Candidate -.auth. 2012 | Larnaca Cyprus BIBE 2012 | . eu/ 11-13 Nov.gr _______________________________ ____ Tel: +30-2310-999332 Fax:+30-2310-999263 Website: http://www.Research Assistant Group of Applied Neurosciences Lab of Medical Informatics School of Medicine Aristotle University of Thessaloniki mklados@med.manousosklados.