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Vocational Education and Training in Germany – The Dual System

Prof. Dr. Georg Spoettl M.A.

Training . S.Status and expected growth of employment (Spöttl. maintenance 15 % 6% 7% In the future increase of 20% necessary! + 10 % +8% semi .skilled Operators. 64) Management highly skilled skilled Trouble shooters. Hand finishers 72 % © JS . 2000.

Check out how all features could interact requirements of economic sectors determine selection of priority occupations manage request existing training programmes transform employment system use of New job descriptions influence endorsed occupational profiles trigger support new or revised training programmes turn out training system testing instruments supply competent & confident workforce bring out assessment & certification of occupational competence building blocks go for it! well prepared trainees mobility & flexibility N ational Q ualifications F framework bridges and ladders .

comprising periods of training on and off-the-job • The Core: Existence of a training contract between the employer and the apprentice • Practical training is received in companies (under guidance of a supervisor or the employer) and theoretical training in a Vocational School (12h per week) .Dual System – a Simple Concept It is • An alternating training.

Dual System – Training Contract • Gives the apprentice the status of an employee in the company • The contract is a written. the amount of time in for work on-the-job and for theoretical training in the Vocational School • The contracts are guided by the Chambers . remuneration. legally binding document between apprentice & employer • Specifies the duration of apprenticeship.

.Workplace and Classroom as the Fundamental Domains in the “Dual System” Tapping the best Training Potential of both Domains: This is the Strength of the „Dual System“ in Training Classroom In The Training Institution Workplace In The Enterprise Classroom etc. Learning Coordination by the Partners Production Efficiency Profitability Protected Zone Individual Care Workplace etc.

Expert Specialised advanced knowledge Detailed and functional knowledge Coherent knowledge Orientation and overview knowledge Beginner Self-Reliant – Problem Solving – Experience .

Training Promotion Act and School Laws of the Länder . supported by researchers and coordinated by a Federal Institute (the BIBB) • The Dual System is regulated by the “Federal Training Act 1969 (some revisions).Dual System – Occupations & Laws • Approx. 350 Occupational Profiles are available within all industrial sectors • The Occupational Profiles are created by the Social Partners. the Voc.

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year 3.5 Specialization car technology Car Mechatronic Specialization commercial vehicle technology Specialization motorcycle technology Specialization vehicle communication technology Mechanic for bodywork maintenance technology §25 HWO and §25BBIG Subject area bodywork maintenance technology Bodywork and vehicle construction mechanic Subject area bodywork technology Subject area vehicle construction technology Subject area bicycle technology Two-wheel vehicle mechanic Subject area motorcycle technology Mechanic for agricultural machine technology Basic subjects Main subjects . year 3 4.Structure of the occupations for vehicle technology in Germany from 2003 on 0 1st year 1 2nd year 2 3.

Employment… • Age of entry: approx.2% of all employees (1. to universities. Duration. 500.000 companies are participating in the Dual System (30%) • Approx. 18 years • Condition of entry: passed Class 9. to further training. 10 or 13 of General School or High School (“Abitur”) • Duration of training: 3 to 3..5 years (some 2 years) • Participation: Number of apprentices in industry and trade are about 4. 60% of the graduates obtain employment immediately (other go to military service.Dual System – Age of Entry.7 Mio) • Approx.) .

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Fundament for the Dual System National Occupational Profiles 1. Work Processes 2. Guidelines for Further Detailing Technical Training Institutions Close Cooperation between General Studies and Technical Training Further Break Down Enterprises Close Cooperation of Technical Training Institutions with Enterprises General Subjects English Physics Math. Occupational Profiles 3. etc Technical Theoretical Training related to Work Processes 1 to x Practical Workshop and Workplace Training related to Work Processes 1 to x .

Forschungsbericht.The Workplace as the Supreme Learning Environment Correlation between different Types of Vocational Learning and Selected Learning Environments Type of Learning Abstract Learning Learning Structured Contents through Demonstration and Doing Learning Basic Functional Skills Learning Complex / Rare Functional Skills (with Expensive Equipment) Learning Environment Classroom Laboratory School Workshop Central Training Facility Training Facility at Workplace Learning Basic and Complex Functional Skills (with Expensive Equipment) Training Corner at Workplace Learning Functional and Extra-Functional Skills in Real Work Environment Workplace Source: Gert Loose. 1988. updated 2002 .

Technical Competence The Occupational Work Task Human and Social Competence Tools. methods and organisation of skilled work Objects of Skilled Work Requirements for skilled work and technology Learning and Methodological Competence … Source: biat / DSP .

Willingness to accept uncertainties .Ability to set goals and structure assignments .Ability for selfreliant learning in a structured way Methodical Competencies .Ability for finding relevant information .Ability for problem solving in work processes in a self-reliant way .Tools and methods used and organization of skilled work .Readiness for cooperation . prepare and execute orders .Readiness to concentrate when learning .Ability to learn independently and in a team .Occupational Competencies of a skilled Worker which have to be Assessed Technical Competencie s Social Competencies Ability to carry out criticism in a fair manner .Ability to work in a team and consider others .Ability to communicate and to exchange information .Readiness for self-reliant development Learning Competencies Ability to apply learning strategies .Readiness for conflict-solving and consensus Human Competencie s .Requirements placed on skilled work and technology being used etc.Ability to work under pressure .Ability to monitor and assess product quality in a selfreliant way All Competencies Must be Defined in Relation to the Work Process Comprises knowledge and skills regarding … .Willingness to act in a reliable .Readiness for self-reflection . .Ability to plan.Awareness of lifelong learning .Objects of skilled Work .

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TEVT – system penetration (scope and levels) VOCATIONAL TRAINING SUB-SYSTEM PROFICIENCY or COMPLEXITY LEVELS TECHNICAL/VOCATIONAL EDUCATION SUB-SYSTEM GENERAL EDUCATION SUB-SYSTEM 6 degree 5 variety of modes and certificates diploma certificate (formal and non-formal) 5 4 4 3 certificate secondary 3 2 2 1 1 "small vessel" "big vessel" SYSTEM PENETRATION / INTEGRATION primary NATIONAL QUALIFICATION LEVELS .

TERIMA KASIH THANK YOU DANKE SCHOEN .

Calculating . DSP/2003 4 Planning of Work .Tools .Manufacturing. Maintenance.Methods . when carrying out work assignments 3 .Work Process Structure 1 . BOBB/Koch.Considering costs for companies 2 5 These particular requirements have to be met. Service .Evaluation .Delivery .Rough planning of work .Organisations Slide 3 .Quality Assurance Hoepfner.Presentation Foreman / Customer places an an order .