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century (the fundamental elements of practice in the forms of art were rejected: form, melody, perspective, representation, traditional realism rejected. Emphasis on MAKE IT NEW)
From early 20th
1910 – 1930
from the 1980‟s Cuddon: characterized by “an eclectic approach, (a liking for) aleatory writing, (and for ) parody and pastiche.” Very similar to Modernism in its inclinations – but a redefinition.
A term current
the Modernist writing was marked by nostalgia for the continuity which was lost, the postmodernist writing finds the fragmentation exhilarating, liberating, “symptomatic of escape from the claustrophobic embrace of fixed systems of belief.” (Barry) .
Postmodernism rejects the distinction between high and popular culture. and welcomes what would be called vulgarity.Modernism marked by extreme asceticism. . rigorously sparse expressions. gaudiness. seen in their minimalism. bad taste.
. (parody. Disappearance of real Foreground inter-textual elements. allusion) Irony (regarding the metanarrative) Challenge hierarchy of high and low culture.
71-82.answering the question: what is postmodernism (Jean-Francois Lyotard. 1984. University of Minnesota Press. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. ) . Minneapolis. pp.
characterized by an abundance of micronarratives. the incompatibility of our aspirations. Believing in one grand narrative becomes therefore an impossibility postmodernity . diversity. alert to difference. . beliefs and desires.
and social. cultural phenomena based upon the appeal to universal truth or universal values. . experiences. comprehensive account to various historical events.a theory that tries to give a totalizing.
“Our working hypothesis is that the status of knowledge is altered as societies enter what is known as the postindustrial age and cultures enter what is known as the postmodern age. ” .
. The postmodern condition is the fundamentally different outlook on knowledge that has arisen after the Enlightenment. and particularly since World War II in Western post-industrial. information-based society.
.In the Report. in the postmodern condition must be legitimated and made accessible in a just society. Lyotard makes a variety of claims and recommendations about how knowledge. particularly computerized knowledge.
the crisis of metanarratives John Stephens defines metanaratives as "a global or totalizing cultural narrative schema which orders and explains knowledge and experience." .
It is obliged to legitimate the rules of its own game.Science is a narrative. It then produces a discourse of legitimation with respect to its own status. a discourse called philosophy .
or the creation of wealth. Lyotard uses the term „modern‟ to designate any science that legitimates itself with reference to a metadiscourse of this kind making an explicit appeal to some grand narrative. the emancipation of the rational or working subject. . such as the dialectics of Spirit. the hermeneutics of meaning.
the Enlightenment narrative is a metanarrative – implying a unanimity between rational minds .
in the Enlightenment narrative.universal peace. . the hero of knowledge works toward a good ethico-political end -.
postmodernism interrupts. questions metanarratives . challenges.
-rudyard kipling . On fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught. Half-devil and half-child. And work another's gain. …. To seek another's profit. sullen peoples. To wait in heavy harness. Take up the White Man's burden-Send forth the best ye breed-Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need. Take up the White Man's burden-In patience to abide.
THE WHITE MAN’S BURDEN .
once. . her flowers to love.If I should die. There shall be In that rich earth a richer dust concealed. her ways to roam. think only this of me: That there's some corner of a foreign field That is for ever England. breathing English air. blest by suns of home. made aware. shaped. Gave. Washed by the rivers. A dust whom England bore. A body of England's.
. In all my dreams.1: As under a green sea. I saw him drowning.g. bitter as the cud Of vile. My friend.Wilfred Owen . The old Lie. … If you could hear. the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs. drowning.e. choking. incurable sores on innocent tongues. guttering. If in some smothering dreams you too could pace Behind the wagon that we flung him in. Obscene as cancer. at every jolt. you would not tell with such high zest(13) To children ardent for some desperate glory. He plunges at me. Dulce et Decorum est Pro patria mori. before my helpless sight.
nothing. total. God starts it all up and WHAP! Stuff everywhere! The cosmos in chaos: no shape. God’s Holy Spirit. The word on the street (The Street Bible) (2003): First off. And God said. Second off. no matter. No light. no form. Day one: Then God’s voice booms out. no function– just darkness . ready to play. ‘Lights!’ and.Translation of Genesis 1:1-3 King James Version (1611): In the beginning God created the heaven and earth.. and void. And floating above it all. no substance. Let there be light: and there was light. from nowhere.. light floods the skies and ‘night’ is swept off the scene. And the earth was without form. . no time. and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.
I define postmodern as incredulity toward metanarratives” -Lyotard .. “Simplifying to the extreme.
its great voyages. . its great hero. This incredulity is undoubtedly a product of progress in the sciences: but that progress in turn presupposes it. The narrative function is losing its functors. its great dangers. its great goal.
Goldsmith. And wring his bosom--is to die. What charm can soothe her melancholy.When lovely woman stoops to folly. To give repentance to her lover. And finds too late that men betray. Vicar of Wakefield (1766) . . To hide her shame from every eye. What art can wash her guilt away? The only art her guilt to cover.
She smoothes her hair with automatic hand. And puts a record on the gramophone. alone.When lovely woman stoops to folly and Paces about her room again. 1922 . The Wasteland. -Eliot.
and the nature of the legitimation itself. .The major question that interests Lyotard is how knowledge gets legitimated in cybernetic society.
education. and many other basic elements of society. .He maintains that whatever principle society uses to legitimate knowledge must also be the principle that it uses to legitimate decision-making in society. and consequently government. laws.
. They form the basis of the social bond. Meta-narratives roughly equate to the everyday notion of what principles a society is founded on. or grand narratives.Legitimation in the Enlightenment was tied to what Lyotard calls metanarratives.
and generally regulate decisionmaking and the adjudication of what is considered truth. which make ethical and political prescriptions for society.Meta-narratives are total philosophies of history. .
The quest for a universally valid philosophy for humanity is an example of a meta-narrative. . The progressive liberation of humanity through science is a meta-narrative.The meta-narratives of the Enlightenment were about grand quests.
weapons of destruction legitimized by discourse of science = progress .
when implemented. becomes domineering and repressive. Marxism/Nationalism are classic cases of meta-narratives based on principles of equality. liberty. they seem to go disastrously awry.The problem is that when metanarratives are concretely formulated and implemented. emancipation and egalitarianism which. .
earlier discourses of childhood innocence and purity destroyed by proliferation of media 1 .
earlier discourses of joyful romances and weddings destroyed by proliferation of media 2 .
earlier discourses of human mercy destroyed by proliferation of media 1 .
that the legitimating function that grand quests once played in society has lost all credibility. what now forms the basis of legitimation in society if there is no overarching meta-narrative? .Lyotard claims that we have now lost the ability to believe in meta-narratives. The question then becomes.
then what we have fallen back on are little narratives. the answer lies in the philosophy of Wittgenstein. For Lyotard. which analyzes the way sub-groups in society regulate their behavior through rules of linguistic conduct. If we have rejected grand narratives. .
We no longer give credence to total philosophical contexts like Marxism which ostensibly would prescribe behavior in all aspects of life. limited contexts in which there are clear. if not clearly defined. rather. rules for understanding and behavior. .Little narratives are Wittgenstein's "language games". we have lots of smaller contexts which we act within.
We are employees. Our effectiveness is judged in the context of how well we perform in each of these many limited roles. This is the nature of the modern social bond. we avoid the need for meta-narratives. (performativity) . By fragmenting life into a thousand localized roles. we are students. each with their particular contexts for judging actions and knowledge. Each role legitimates knowledge and courses of action in their limited contexts.
diversity. the incompatibility of our aspirations. beliefs and desires. Believing in one grand narrative becomes therefore an impossibility postmodernity .characterized by an abundance of micronarratives. alert to difference. .
„My argument is that the modern project [of realising universality] has not been abandoned or forgotten but destroyed. liquidated‟. 1984 . -Lyotard.
the incompatibility of our aspirations. alert to difference. beliefs and desires. Believing in one grand narrative becomes therefore an impossibility postmodernity . . diversity.characterized by an abundance of micronarratives.
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