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NATIONAL HRD CONFERENCE 2002

Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Berhad (PSMB)

The Need For A Dual System Of Training

Gert Loose in cooperation with Fadzliah Kamaruddin The Dual System Project Sheraton Subang Hotel and Towers, Subang 15th and 16th October 2002

Table of Contents
1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia

2.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 2

A Shift of Paradigm in Training

3.

Meeting Todays Qualification Requirements at the Workplace: Dual System Approach


Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept

The

4.

5.

PSMBs Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia

Orientation Marks for Training


Malaysias Economic Position In A Worldwide Perspective
As an exporting nation, Malaysia is ranked 17 internationally, at US $ 98 billion, behind Russia at US $ 105 billion and ahead of Sweden at US $ 87 billion. (WTO data, 2001)

Malaysia is a top exporting nation


HRDC-KL/ Slide 3

Malaysias gross national income for 2000: US $ 78.7 billion, compared to New Zealand US $ 49.7 billion. (World Development Indicators database, World Bank, April 2002). Exxon Mobil, the largest globally operating company, generated an income of US $ 210.4 billion for 2000 (Fortune Global 500 - 06.06.2002)

Malaysia (like all other countries) has to accept the fact that we are part of a global market and have to observe the market rules and mechanisms

Effects Of Globalization
Borderless world of business competitors

CAUSES
HRDC-KL/ Slide 4

Accelerated pace of information flow


Accelerated pace of technological change

More work process-oriented k-workers needed to compete in a dynamic market

Increased workplace complexity Skills become obsolete faster


How are we affected?

Skills increasingly need to have a knowledge base

Training Is The National Priority


The Emphasis:

High Productivity To Maintain Malaysias Competitive Edge


Wage increase 2000-2001 : 2.8% Productivity drop 2000-2001 : 0.4%

Change in % Over the Prior Year for Wages Paid and Productivity (2000-2001) 2000-2001 Increase in Wages Paid
HRDC-KL/ Slide 5

Decrease in Productivity

This trend has to be broken to ensure Malaysias position to compete on a high level with other countries

-1

-0.4

2.8

(Source: Department of Statistics, Malaysia, "Monthly Manufacturing Statistics, Malaysia: December 2001, www.statistics.gov.my)

Consequently: Training of high-performing k-workers must be an absolute development priority for Malaysia

Table of Contents
1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia

2.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 6

A Shift of Paradigm in Training

3.

Meeting Todays Qualification Requirements at the Workplace: Dual System Approach


Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept

The

4.

5.

PSMBs Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia

Traditional Training Approach


The Static Situation Of Becoming Qualified For Work

HRDC-KL/ Slide 7

Pre-Service

Actual

Qualification
Process

Situation at the

Students

Prospective Employees

Workplace

Emphasis on One-time Training


Source: Reinhard Zedler, IW, 1997 (with modifications)

K-Worker Training Approach


The Dynamic Situation Of Becoming Qualified For Work

Feedback
Immediate Training Needs

Controlling
Follow up

HRDC-KL/ Slide 8

Pre-Service Qualification Process

Actual Situation at the

In-Service Qualification Process

Immediate Training Needs

New Actual Situation at the Workplace

Students

Prospective Employees

Workplace

Employees

Employees

Changes

Changes

Process Chain
Emphasis on Lifelong Further Training After Less Extensive Initial Training
Source: Reinhard Zedler, IW, 1997 (with modifications)

The Increasing Complexity At The Workplace Of The Car Mechanic


No. of Pages

An Illustration:

The Increase in the Volume of Repair Manuals for Opel Cars 1933-1998

13,866

8,012

HRDC-KL/ Slide 9

4,526 1,175 210 130 202 170 255 710 470 663 990 1,253 1,213

1,727

1.2 L

1933

1.3 L

1951
Olympia 47

Olympia 53 Record P1 Olympia 50

1966
Record P2

Record B Record C

1983

Omega A Record E

Year 1998

Olympia 1.3

Record A

Omega B

Olympia 1.5

Record D

Source : Georg Spttl, The Dual System Project, 2002

Knowledge Needed to Be in Charge is 100%

The Extremely Rapid Pace Of Technological Change


The Decay Of Knowledge

100%

Knowledge in Higher Education

50%
HRDC-KL/ Slide 10

0 100%

5 Technological Knowledge 3 years

10 100%

15

Years
Computer Knowledge 1 year

50%

50%

Years

Years

Based on data from IBM, 1994

Table of Contents
1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia

2.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 11

A Shift of Paradigm in Training

3.

Meeting Todays Qualification Requirements at the Workplace: Dual System Approach


Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept

The

4.

5.

PSMBs Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia

The Process And Outcome Of Training


Competency-Based Training Experience-Based Training
Process of Teaching and Learning (Learning Curve) Assessment of Competencies (Sequence of Defined Competencies)

LEVEL OF DESIRED SKILLS (Competence according to CBET)

HRDC-KL/ Slide 12

Skills

Contents of Training
Time

Source: Verification 1998, n.p. (modified)

Workplace And Classroom As The Fundamental Domains In The Dual System


Tapping The Best Training Potential Of Both Domains: This Is The Strength of The Dual System In Training Classroom In The Training Institution Workplace In The Enterprise

Classroom etc.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 13

Learning

Coordinating Agent

Production
Efficiency Profitability

Protected Zone

Individual Care

Workplace etc.

The Workplace As The Supreme Learning Environment


Correlation Between Different Types Of Vocational Learning And Selected Learning Environments
Type of Learning
Abstract Learning Learning Structured Contents through Demonstration and Doing Learning Basic Functional Skills
HRDC-KL/ Slide 14

Learning Environment
Classroom Laboratory

School Workshop Central Training Facility

Learning Complex / Rare Functional Skills


(with Expensive Equipment)

Training Facility at Workplace Learning Basic or More Complex Functional Skills (with Expensive Equipment)

Training Corner at Workplace

Learning Functional and Extra-Functional Skills in Real Work Environment

Workplace

Source: Gert Loose, Forschungsbericht, 1988, updated 2002

Enhancement Of the Dual System Culture: The Rationale

HRDC-KL/ Slide 15

To deliver 1st rate training, the actual workplace must be encompassed as a learning environment. This is the place where massive change happens and only there it can be sufficiently comprehended.

Dual TEVT Culture - The "Tools"


Integration of learning and working at the place of work
Joint Operation of Dual Traineeship & Apprenticeship Schemes Implementation of Regulating Instruments for Dual TEVT Schemes

Establishment of Dual TEVT Coordination Offices


Appointment of Dual TEVT Coordinators & Supervisors Joint Career Guidance & Counselling
HRDC-KL/ Slide 16

The Core Concept

Hosting of Recurrent Events Cooperation: Part-time Teachers, Teaching Aids, Special Services Occupational Practise Programmes Company Practise Programmes Mini Experiences e.g. Regular Industry Excursions

Regular Formal Contacts

Separation
Source: Wolfram Pforte, The Dual System Project, 2002

100 %

The Way Forward: The Need To Tap The Potential Of The Workplace

1 2 3

Specific and rapidly changing manpower needs can only be determined quickly enough by and within companies Public and private training institutions always lag behind in their adjustments to technological change Behavior patterns, attitudes and specific work procedures can best be trained under actual work conditions

HRDC-KL/ Slide 17

The steadily rising costs of TEVT call for strong and committed partnerships to ensure the delivery of efficient, economically affordable, effective and high quality training solutions

Source: Wolfram Pforte, DSP, 2001, modified 2002

Table of Contents
1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia

2.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 18

A Shift of Paradigm in Training

3.

Meeting Todays Qualification Requirements at the Workplace: Dual System Approach


Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept

The

4.

5.

PSMBs Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia

The Changing Paradigms of Training

HRDC-KL/ Slide 19

1 The urgent need that due to permanent technological development tomorrow`s requirements, which have to be anticipated need to be addressed. Hence, learning has to be anticipatory.

2 The urgent need to realize that due to complexity and specialization of work individuals can no longer be responsible for a complete work process. We have to work in changing teams (networks). Hence, learning has to be participatory.

To enhance the capacity for anticipation and readiness for participation as the key qualifications for the workplace.
Source: James W. Botkin, Mahdi Elmandjra, Mircea Malitza. No limits to learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1978.

Training the K-Worker: A New Concept Of Learning For TEVT

HRDC-KL/ Slide 20

Networking of the individual at the workplace between - selected formal qualifications and - in-depth content-based knowledge and know-how
(Outlined on the basis of findings from research in expertise and in problem solving learning)
Source: Jochen Gerstenmaier, Denken bentigt Wissen, GdWz, 10 (1999)2, 65-67

Objectives For Training K-Workers I


With Regard To Competence In All High-tech Occupations Or Areas Of Activity The Following Objectives Are Recommended Complex 1: Formal Qualifications

HRDC-KL/ Slide 21

Capacity for thinking: problem-solving thinking Creativity: e.g. generating ideas Capability to master decision making: e.g. readiness for calculated risks Capacity for assessing situations: e.g. capacity for self-criticism Permanent willingness for continuous learning: lifelong learning

Social attitude, readiness to deal with coworkers of all levels Ability to cooperate in teams Personal involvement: e.g. commitment for achievement, reliable, willingness to participate Straightforwardness

Objectives for Training K-Workers II


In Addition to the Formal Qualifications (Complex 1), In-Depth Content-Based Knowledge And Know-How In Particular Occupations Or Areas Of Activity Are Always Needed For Training K-Workers

Complex 2: Work Process Knowledge

HRDC-KL/ Slide 22

Orientation knowledge Comprehensive knowledge of systems Detailed functional knowledge Extended specialized knowledge

Source: Ulrich Beck, a + l / Wirtschaft, No 10, 1998, p.8

Responding Directly To Requirements Of The Actual Situation At The Workplace


Networking of the individual at the workplace between selected formal qualifications and in-depth content-based knowledge and know-how.

Competitiveness in a Global World


HRDC-KL/ Slide 23

Thinking Creativity
Decisionmaking
Assessing Learning

Social attitude
Teamwork Straightforward Personal involvement Orientation Systems Functional Specialized

The National Training Endeavour

Table of Contents
1. Orientation Marks for National Training Policies in Malaysia

2.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 24

A Shift of Paradigm in Training

3.

Meeting Todays Qualification Requirements at the Workplace: Dual System Approach


Training K-Workers: The Outline of a Didactic Concept

The

4.

5.

PSMBs Role in Securing the Necessary Quantity and Quality in Training for Malaysia

The Crucial Role Of Dual Structures: The DSP Cone


National TEVT Network in synergy with modern technology concepts

The Assets Network


Teacher Training
Technical teacher and instructor training covering pre- and inservice training

Quality curricula and Instructional Materials


HRDC-KL/ Slide 25

Quality curricula

Dual System StructureThe DSP Cone- the overall The DSP Cone direction and main thrust
concerning creation and enhancement of a Dual Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT) Culture. Directly involves all partners at all levels

The Holder- the


foundation that deals with social values, esteem for work and the image of TEVT
Source: Oliver Haas, DSP, 2001, modified 2002

Values

The Holder

Pembangunan Sumber Manusia Berhad (PSMB)s Role In

Securing Quantity And Quality In Training


PSMBs tremendous achievements in securing the quantity of training for the Malaysian workforce.
HRDC-KL/ Slide 26

A suggested agenda for the future: PSMBs role in developing highquality training arrangements emphasizing smart collaborations of training institutions and the workplace as learning environments.

Maintaining Malaysias Competitive Edge In A Global Market

The Dual Training Take Off

TERIMA KASIH

THANK YOU
DANKE SCHN