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A sight into the


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Parts of eye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Working of human eye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8

Accommodation by the eye. . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Persistence of vision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

The human eye is the organ which gives us the sense of sight, allowing us

to observe and learn more about the surrounding world than we do with
any of the other four senses. We use our eyes in almost every activity we perform, whether reading, working, watching television, writing a letter, driving a car, and in countless other ways. Most people probably would agree that sight is the sense they value more than all the rest. The eye allows us to see and interpret the shapes, colors, and dimensions of objects in the world by processing the light they reflect or emit. The eye is able to detect bright light or dim light, but it cannot sense objects when light is absent.

Parts of the Eye

Sclera Cornea Choroid Ciliary body Lens Iris Retina Pupil Optic nerve macula Vitreous body Conjuctiva

Sclera: Lens:

The sclera also known as the white or white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the eye containing collagen and elastic fiber. In humans the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris. In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing slightly blue. In the elderly, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear slightly yellow.

Most important part of the eye is a naturally occurring transparent convex lens. It is a jelly like material that forms an inverted but real image of the object and focuses it on the retina. The lens is capable of changing its shape (hence the focal length) by muscular movement of the ciliary muscles.


The retina is the film of the eye. It converts light rays into electrical signals and sends them to the brain through the optic nerve. The sides of the retina are responsible for our peripheral vision. The center area, called the macula, is used for our fine central vision and color vision. The retina is where most the problems leading to vision loss occur.


The cornea is a thin membrane at the front side of the eye. The lens,iris and pupil are protected by the cornea. It has a bulging spherical shape of an average diameter of an inch or 2.5 cm. A light ray enters through the cornea and is refracted by it.

Ciliary body:

The ciliary body is the structure in the eye that releases a transparent liquid (called the aqueous humor) within the eye. The ciliary body also contains the ciliary muscle, which changes the shape of the lens when your eyes focus on something. This process is called accommodation.

Iris is the brown or black part of the eye that gives colour to it. It is a dark flexible muscular diaphragm. It contracts and dilates to control the size of the pupil. The variations in the size of pupil depends on the intesity of light entering the eye.


The part of the lens in the centre is pupil. It controls the amount of light entering the eye.

Conjuctiva: Choroid:

The conjunctiva is a thin, clear membrane covering the front of the eye and inner eyelids. Cells in this lining produce mucous that helps to lubricate the eye. This is the eyes first layer of protection against infection. Inflammation of this membrane is called conjunctivitis, or pink eye.

The choroid is a layer of blood vessels between the retina and sclera; it supplies blood to the retina. In the disease called Macular Degeneration, abnormal blood vessels grow into the space between the retina and choroid damaging the macula.


The brain is where the electrical signals sent from our eyes are processed into vision. Damage to the brain can lead to vision loss if the visual cortex or optic pathways are damaged. The majority of nerve fibers in the optic tract connect to the LGN. Several nerve fibers leave the optic tract before the LGN to connect to sub cortical structures through out the brain. These parts of the brain regulate things like: eye and head movements, pupillary light reflex - (pupil size), and circadian rhythms - (light/dark cycle). Damage to these parts of the brain often leads to vision disorders too.


Light rays from the object enter the eye through cornea and fall on the eye lens. The eye lens, being convex, forms a real, inverted and smaller image on the retina. Retina has large number of light sensitive cells , i.e. rods and cones. The rods respond to intensity of light and cones to the color of light. The image generates electrical signals which are transferred to the brain by the optic nerve. The brain processes this information and we perceive objects as they are, i.e. without inversion Having two eyes confers stereopsis in which parallax provided by the two eyes different positions on the face gives brain the precise distance and shape of the object


Accommodation by the eye

The ability of the eye lens to adjust its focal length, hence power, by ciliary muscles is called POWER OF ACCOMMODATION. For observing distant objects, the ciliary muscles are relaxed and the eye lens remains thin providing the maximum focal length and minimum converging power. Whereas to observe nearby object the ciliary muscles contract and the eye lens thickens resulting in reduced focal length and increased converging power.

1 =1 _ 1 F v u

Eye Ciliary muscles lens

Case 1 2 Case

In a human eye the distance v remains same but u is variable so the eye has to accommodate its focal length f. In case 1 when uis greater then the ciliary muscles are relaxed and lens remains thin, hence, increasing the f In case 2 when the object is near and u is smaller the ciliary muscles contract and lens becomes thick to reduce the f

Persistence of vision
Persistence is one of the most important characteristics of the eye. The image of an image formed on the retina is neither permanent nor it fades away instantly. It persists on the retina for 1/16 seconds, even after the removal of object. This is known as persistence of vision. If another object is seen before the impression of the first image fades the eye is not able to separate the two impressions and a sense of continuity develops. This property is also used in cinematography.

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