TECHNICAL SEMINAR ON POWER QUALITY MONITORING

Presented By:

P.Vinay Kumar

11671D0703

WHAT IS POWER QUALITY
The term Power quality is used to describe the extent

of variation of the voltage, current and frequency on the
power system. The variation of voltage and current can either be in terms of magnitude or waveform shape/distortion.

WHAT IS POWER QUALITY MONITORING
The best way to detect and diagnose the problems in electrical power system is called Power quality monitoring

Power Quality Monitoring • Why monitor? • What to monitor? • When to monitor? • Where to monitor? • How to monitor?

Why Monitor?

why
 • Increased currents & losses in the system
 • Lower Energy efficiency  • Blocked capacity / Higher Investment

 • Additional heating and lower reliability / life
 • Failure of equipment  • Mal-function of equipment  • Poor operational efficiency  • Poor quality of products manufactured

What to monitor?

what
 Power Quality
 Power = Voltage x Current 

S=VxI  Power Quality = Voltage Quality x Current Quality

Where to monitor?

Where
 • Close to sensitive /critical equipment
 • Close to source  • PCC / metering point  • Major Nodes / Branches

When to monitor?

When
 • Before installation of plant / Equipment
 • Before expansion  • After problem occurrence / suspect

 • Annually / Periodically
 • Formulation of guidelines  • Continuously

How to monitor?

HOW TO MONITOR
POWER QUALITY PROBLEM VOLTAGE SAG VOLTAGE INTERRUPTION VOLTAGE SWELL TRANSIENT VOLTAGE NOTCH IMBALANCE SOLUTION UPS,DVR,CVT UPS UPS,POWER CONDITIONER SVC SNUBBER CKT PROTECTION SCHEME

DISTORTION
VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION VOLTAGE FLICKERING

SERIES & SHUNT ACTIVE FILTER
SVC VOLTAGE UNBALANCED RELAY

PQ Aspects
            

• Voltage - shape & magnitude – Steady state limits – Frequency – Distortion - Frequency content – Sags & Swells – Transients – Unbalance - Phase and magnitude • Current- shape & magnitude – Magnitude – Distortion - frequency content – Phase angle – Transients – Unbalance

POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS
 1.Disturbance I. Voltage sag II. Voltage interruption III. Voltage swell IV. Transient V. Voltage notch  2.Imbalance  3.Distortion  4.Voltage fluctuation  5.Voltage flickering

DESCRIPTION
 1.DISTURBANCES
A DISTURBANCE IS DEFINED AS THE TEMPORARY DEVIATION
FROM THE STEADY STATE WAVEFORM.

• •

VOLTAGE SAG
Reduction in voltage magnitude for a short period of time.

VOLTAGE INTERRUPTION
Voltage sag with 100% reduction in amplitude.

• VOLTAGE SWELL
Increase in RMS voltage or current at the power frequency between 1.1 to 1.9 per unit for a duration of 8milisec to 1min.

• TRANSIENT
Voltage disturbance shorter than sag/swell and are caused by sudden changes in power system.

• VOLTAGE NOTCH
Periodic transient occuring within each cycle.

 2.IMBALANCE
A SITUATION IN WHICH VOLTAGE,FREQUENCY AND PHASE ALL ARE DIFFERENT.

 3. DISTORTION
IT IS GENERALLY EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF HARMONICS WHICH ARE SINUSOIDAL VOLTAGES OR CURRENTS HAVING FREQUENCY THAT ARE INTEGER MULTIPLE OF THE FREQUENCY AT WHICH THE SUPPLY SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO OPERATE.

 4.VOLTAGE FLUCTUATION
THE RAPID CHANGE IN VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE IN THE ALLOWABLE LIMIT I.E.,

95% TO 105%.

 5.VOLTAGE FLICKERING
THE COLOUR OCCURING WHEN THE FREQUENCY OF VARIATION OF LIGHT FLUX LIES BETWEEN FEW HERTZ AND FUSION FREQUENCY.

Why PQ is such a Big Problem?
 The sensitivity of today’s electronic equipment makes it

susceptible to power disturbances  For some devices, a momentary disturbance can cause
   

scrambled data interrupted communications a frozen mouse system crashes and equipment failure

Who is Affected?
• High Cost Facilities o Semiconductor plants o Pharmaceuticals o Data centers Medium Cost Facilities o Automotive manufacturing o Glass plants o Plastics & Chemicals o Textiles

Major PQ Problems
Outages, 6% Spikes, 7%

Swells,
31%
Swells System fault conditions Switching on a large capacitor bank Switching off a large load

Sags, 56%

Sags (Dips)

Associated with system faults
Switching of heavy loads Starting of large motors

Cost of Voltage Sags
Textile Industry Plastics Industry Glass Industry Process Industry Semiconductors

$1k

$10k

$100k

$1M

$10M

Losses per Voltage Sag Event

HOW DO THEY AFFECT YOU
 Motors stall
 Computers crash  Production is affected

 Equipment damaged
 Product spoilage  ‘The lights go out’

BENEFITS OF POWER QUALITY MONITORING
Direct Benefits / Technical Benefits
 – Energy Savings  – Release of blocked capacity  – Reduced temperature rise

 – Increased reliability / Life of equipment (e.g. Transformer,

Motors, capacitors...)  – Reduced mal-function of equipment (e.g. Drives, Relays,Meters)

Indirect / Regulatory Benefits
 – Penalty savings / Incentives (e.g. Demand charges, pf penalty)
 – Tax benefits  – Compliance to standards & Regulations

CONCLUSION
 DISTURBANCES PLACE ALL BUSINESSES AT

RISK BOTH IN TERMS OF FINANCIAL LOSSES AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY SO THEY SHOULD BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY.
 POWER QUALITY MONITORING IS VERY

ESSENTIAL TO GET AN UNINTERRUPTABLE AND EFFICIENT POWER SUPPLY.

REFERENCES
• UNDERSTANDING POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS – VOLTAGE SAGS &INTERRUPTIONS, MATH H J BOLLEN, IEEE PRESS. • AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, R VENKATESH & S R KANNAN, - ET POWER TECH 2001. • SOLUTIONS TO THE POWER QUALITY PROBLEM, PROF. RAY ARNOLD,IEE POWER ENGINEERING JOURNAL, APRIL 2001 • POWER QUALITY ISSUES A DISTRIBUTION COMPANY PERSPECTIVE,IEE POWER ENGINEERING JOURNAL, APRIL 2001 • MONITORING POWER FOR THE FUTURE, AFROZ K. KHAN, IEEPOWER ENGINEERING JOURNAL, APRIL 2001