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WHAT IS A SATELLITE?  It is originated from the latin word ‚satellit‛- meaning an attendant,
WHAT IS A SATELLITE?
It is originated from
the latin word ‚satellit‛-
meaning an attendant,
one who is constantly
hovering around and
attending to a ‚master‛
or big man.
A heavenly object
which revolves around
some heavenly body due
to gravitational force.
A communication
satellite (COSMAT) is an
artificial satellite sent to
space for the purpose of
telecommunications.
HOW DO SATELLITES WORK?  Two stations on earth want to communicate through radio broadcast but
HOW DO SATELLITES WORK?
Two stations on earth
want to communicate
through radio broadcast
but are too far away to use
conventional means.
The two stations can use a
satellite as a relay station
for their communication.
One earth station sends a
transmission to the
satellite. This is called
UPLINK. The satellite
transponder converts the
signal and sends it down
to the second earth
station. This is called
DOWNLINK.
 The first artificial satellite was SOVIET SPUTNIK launched on October 4 1957.  The first
The first artificial satellite
was SOVIET SPUTNIK
launched on October 4
1957.
The first American satellite
to relay communications was
PROJECT SCORE in 1958.
TELSTAR was the first act
relay 1 launched on Dec 13
1962 and was first to transmit
across pacific.
India launched its first
artificial satellite in 1975.
TYPES OF SATELLITES Satellites are mainly of two types: 1.Active satellites 2.Passive satellites Active satellites: These
TYPES OF SATELLITES
Satellites are mainly of two
types:
1.Active satellites
2.Passive satellites
Active satellites: These
satellites have a processing
equipment called
transponder and prevents
interference of signals.
Passive satellites: These are
relay stations in space ,they
include natural satellites
and artificial satellites.
TYPES OF SATELLITES(cont) Based on satellite orbits • Geo stationary earth orbit(GEO) • Low earth orbit(LEO)
TYPES OF
SATELLITES(cont)
Based on satellite orbits
• Geo stationary earth orbit(GEO)
• Low earth orbit(LEO)
• Medium earth orbit(MEO)
• Molniya orbit
GEO STATIONARY ORBITS  These satellites revolve in a orbit 35,863 km above the earths surface
GEO STATIONARY ORBITS
These satellites revolve in a orbit
35,863 km above the earths surface
along the equator.
Objects in geostationary orbit revolve
around the earth at the same speed as
the earth revolves. So they are always in
a position relative to earth.
GEO orbit is useful for communication
because ground antennas can be aimed
at the satellite with out having to track
the satellite motion which is very
inexpensive.
DRAWBACKS:
• Satellite can not serve extreme north
and south areas
•Height of the orbit
•Significant delay of 0.25 sec in
communications
LOW EARTH ORBIT(LEO) LEO satellites are much closer to earth than GEO satellites ranging from 500
LOW EARTH ORBIT(LEO)
LEO satellites are much closer to earth than GEO
satellites ranging from 500 -1500 kms above the earth
surface and correspondingly a period of 90 minutes.
Leo satellites do not stay in a fixed position relative to
earth and are only visible for 15 -20 minutes each pass.
So ,for uninterrupted connectivity a network of LEO
satellites is necessary.
Due to the proximity to the ground, these do not
require a high signal strength.
A group of satellites working in concert is known as
satellite constellation.Two such constellations intended
to provide satellite phone services to remote areas are
IRIDIUM and GLOBALSTAR systems. Another such was
TELEDESIC.
DRAWBACKS:
Discontinuity coverage
MEDIUM EARTH ORBIT(MEO) Medium earth orbits(MEO) are at a distance 2 -8000 kms above the earths
MEDIUM EARTH ORBIT(MEO)
Medium earth orbits(MEO) are at a
distance 2 -8000 kms above the earths
surface.
These satellites have a larger
coverage area than LEO satellites.
A MEO satellite longer duration of
visibility and wider footprint means
fewer satellites are needed in a MEO
network than a LEO network.
DRAWBACKS:
A MEO satellite ‘s distance gives it a
longer time delay and weaker signal
than a LE0 satellite, though not as bad
as a GEO satellite.
MOLNIYA ORBIT SATELLITES Used by Russia for decades.  This satellites are mainly designed to operate
MOLNIYA ORBIT SATELLITES
Used by Russia for decades.
This satellites are mainly designed to
operate in the areas of extreme northern
and southern latitudes which is the main
drawback of GEO satellites.
Molniya orbits are highly inclined
guaranteeing good elevation over selected
positions during the northern portion of
the orbit.
Period of molniya satellite is half day. so
it is available for operation over the target
for 6-9 hrs every revolution. So a
constellation of 3 molniya satellites can
provide an uninterrupted coverage.
APPLICATIONS TELEPHONE: The first and historical most important application for communication satellites was an intercontinental long
APPLICATIONS
TELEPHONE:
The first and historical most important application for
communication satellites was an intercontinental long
distance telephony.
The fixed public switched telephone network
relays telephone calls from land line telephones to
an earth station, where they are then transmitted to a
geostationary satellite. The downlink follows an
analogous path.
With the evolution of fibre optics, the use of satellites
declined but they still serve the remote islands where no
submarine cables are in service.
Satellite phones connect directly to a constellation
either GEO or LEO satellites. calls are then forwarded to
satellite teleport connected to public switch telephone
network.
MILITARY USES  Satellite often used as a weapon. A satellite itself neither military nor civil.
MILITARY USES
Satellite often used as a weapon.
A satellite itself neither military nor
civil.
MILSTAR:
1)constellation of military satellites
managed by U.S air force
2)provide wideband, narrow band
and protected military
communication systems.
Wideband: high band width
transfers
Protected: more sophisticated
security like nuclear survivability
Narrow band: basic communication
WEATHER  The advent of HRPT in the 19 th century allowed real time weather forecasting
WEATHER
The advent of HRPT in the 19 th
century allowed real time weather
forecasting to become a reality.
Small scale features (mesocyclones,
polar lows) as well as long scale
features (katabatic winds) could be
detected in infrared channel.
SHORT COMINGS:
1.Lack of high performance
communication links.
2. Development and implementation
of software to derive and visualize
products has been lagged.
Equipment in Comsat 1. Payload: Transponder : Transmit, Receive antennas other equipments Receives signals: multiplex, demultiplex
Equipment in Comsat
1. Payload:
Transponder : Transmit, Receive antennas
other equipments
Receives signals: multiplex, demultiplex , amplify and
transmit.
2. Support Subsystems :
Power Supply, Altitude, orbit control equipment.
Telemetry, Telecommand systems.
TRANSPONDER  Series of interconnected units which forms a communication channel between the receiving and transmitting
TRANSPONDER
Series of interconnected units
which forms a communication
channel between the receiving
and transmitting antennas.
Transponder is actually
composed of:
1.
Input band limiting device
2.
An input low noise amplifier
3.
Frequency translator
4. Output band pass filter
5.
Power amplifier
ADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES OF COMSAT OVER TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATION  Coverage area of satellite greatly exceeds than that
ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES OF COMSAT OVER
TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATION
Coverage area of satellite greatly exceeds than that of
terrestrial system.
Satellite to satellite communication is very precise.
Higher bandwidths available.
Transmission cost of a satellite is independent of the distance
from the center of the coverage area.
DISADVANTAGES  Launching satellite into orbit is costly.  Satellite band width is gradually becoming used
DISADVANTAGES
Launching satellite into orbit is
costly.
Satellite band width is gradually
becoming used up.
Failure of satellites during the
equinox period.
ISRO  ISRO is amongst the six largest government space agencies in the world.  India’s
ISRO
ISRO is amongst the six largest government space agencies in
the world.
India’s first satellite ARYABHATA was built by ISRO
First satellite launched by ISRO was SLV3
LAUNCH VEHICLE FLEET:
SLV: 4 stage solid fuel light launcher. Intended to reach a
height of 500km.
ASLV: 5 stage solid propellent rocket with the capability of
placing 150kg into LEO.
PSLV: 1. design to launch Indian remote sensing satellites.
2. It launched 10 satellites at once, breaking the world record of
Russia.
GSLV:
Comparison of
Indian carrier
rockets. Left to
right: SLV, ASLV,
PSLV, GSLV, GSLV
III.
1.Developed to launch INSAT type vehicles.
2.It is the heaviest satellite launch vehicle of ISRO.