# Absolute Standardization and Calibration of Gamma Rays IrregularShape Sources Measured by Gamma

A seminar prepared by: Mohamed ElSayed Krar

Outlines
q Applications of gamma Camera q Types of Gamma Camera q Treatment of Array type Gamma Camera q Treatment of thin cylinderiacl Gamma Camera

vSPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)

Philips FORTE™

Toshiba XVision

vPET (positron emission tomography)

vCT (Computed Tomography)
Siemens ECAT EXACT

Array of Detectors

Thin Cylindrical Crystal

Depth ( D ) Width ( W )

L1 W1 Length ( L )

Separation (Sep)

Where,

X-Axis

P(α, β, h)

The equation of straight line passing by an arbitrary point (α,β, h) and have a direction defined by the polar coordinate (θ,Φ).

Depth (D) Y-Axis

Width (W)
,

Length (L)

Where Const’s and Slope’s are constant values determined by the choice of the arbitrary point and the direction of the photon beam.

( θ, Φ )

Z-Axis

Y-Axis

(2,1) (1,2) 1,2 X=0

(2,2) (1,2) 1,2

(n,m) n,m

X = 2(L1+Sep) X = L1+Sep

X-Axis X = 3(L1+Sep) YAxis

ZAxis

X-Axis

Four possible point of intersection for the (m,n) Detector

With the left side

With the right side

With the down side

With the up side

Where, And

And ΔZ(1st) and ΔZ(2nd ) and ΔZ( inactive) determined according to the values of intersection shown in the previous slide

P (α,β,h)

X-Axis

Y-Axis Depth (L)

Z-side

Z- Axis

Diameter (2R)

qThe equation of a cylinder of radius (R) is given by :

qThe equation of straight line passing by an arbitrary point (α,β, h) and have a direction defined by the polar coordinate (θ,Φ) :

qThe photon enter the camera at the top at the point :

qThe photon path may be through the base or the side

1. Through Base  :

Where ,
2. Through Side :

Where,
1. Through Base  :

2. Through Side :