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Java

Planning our Programs Flowcharts Arithmetic Operators

Planning Programs

It is very important to plan our programs before we start coding

There are two ways of planning a program; 1. Pseudo-code = makes use of English statements to plot the program 2. Flowcharts = use graphical symbols

Example

Lets say we had the following program

class VariablesExample { public static void main (String args[]){ //variables are declared and assigned int N1 = 50; int N2 = 13; int tot; //the total of variables N1 and N2 //is stored in tot tot = N1 + N2; //Finally, we can show the result System.out.println(tot); } }

Pseudo-code Plan

The following is the Pseudo-code Plan for the previous program;


1. Start 2. Store 50 in N1. 3. Store 13 in N2. 4. Add N1 to N2 and store result in tot. 5. Display the value in tot. 6. Stop

Flowchart Plan

The following is the Flowchart Plan of the previous program;


Start

N1 = 50 N2 = 13 tot = N1 + N2

Display tot
End

Why do we Plan Programs?

We plan our programs in order to know what we will be doing before we start coding

With a plan it will be much easier to know what structure our program will have
Planning makes programming much easier

Flowcharts

A flowchart is basically a graphical presentation of our program A flowchart is very is to read and understand Flowcharts break down our programs into many steps

Flowchart Symbols

Terminator
The terminator is used to show 1. The start and 2. The end of a program

START END

Process

A process is any action to be done by the program

The process in this case is declaring two variables

N1 = 50 N2 = 13

Decision
Decision are used when we have a comparison Decisions have two outputs which are YES or NO.

Is it Raining ?
YES

NO

Input/Output
The Input/ Output symbol is used 1. When the program requires and input 2. When the program results in an output

In this case the output to be shown is the contents of tot

Display tot

Try it out
class Variable{ Create public static void main (String args[]){ //variables are declared and assigned 1. The pseudo-codes plan int N1 = 20; 2. The flowchart plan int N2 = 10; int tot; for the following program; int tot2; //tot1 and tot 2 declared tot = N1 + N2; tot2 = N1 N2; //Finally, we can show the result System.out.println(tot2); } }

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic Operators are used to perform mathematical calculations

The basic arithmetic operators ; 1. + (addition) These are called 2. - (subtraction) binary operators 3. / (division) because they need 4. * (multiplication) to use at least two 5. % (remainder) variables

Unary Operators

Then are also what we call unary operators

These only need one variable 1. ++ (increment by 1) 2. -- (decrement by 1) 3. variable += x (same as variable = variable + x)

variable -= x (same as variable = variable - x) 5. variable *= x (same as variable = variable * x) 6. variable /= x (same as variable = variable / x) 7. variable %= x (same as variable = variable %
4.

Combining Operators

We could create a formula by combining a number of operators


X = 10 + 4 * 3 / 2;

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The order the operators are work out is the following;


Multiplication Division Remainder Addition Subtraction
10 + 4 * 3 / 2 10 + 12 / 2 10 + 6 16

Use of Brackets

When we use brackets in our formula we are telling the program which operations to calculate first
X = (10 + 4) * 3 / 2; (10 + 4 ) * 3 / 2 14 * 3 / 2 42 / 2 21

As we can see the result has changed!!