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A PRESENTATION ON SOIL PROFILE

PRESENTED BY: RUNJUN BORAH 2ND SEM ROLL NO: 1

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF SOIL FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION SOIL FORMING PROCESSES SOIL DEVELOPMENT SOIL PROFILE SOIL HORIZON NOMENCLATURE REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION:
Definition:
The loose and unconsolidated materials derived through the disintegration of rocks that forms the uppermost layers of the earths crust. Ecologically soil is a natural body of animal,mineral and organic constituents differentiated into horizons of variable depths which differ from the material below in morphology, physical make-up, chemical properties and composition and biological characteristics.(J.S Joffe,1949) Engineering definition: anything that can be removed without blasting.

COMPONENTS OF SOIL
The soil system has the following five components:
Mineral matter Humus Soil water\Soil solution Soil atmosphere Biological system

According to the Russian pedologist Dokuchayev(1889), the soil is a result of the action and reciprocal influences of parent rocks, climate, topography plants, animals and age of the land. It can be represented by the following formula: S=(g.e.b)t Where S=soil; g=geology; e= environment; b=biological influences; t=time

Factors of Soil Formation


Active Factor Climate Organism Passive Factor Parental Material Topography Time

SOIL FORMING PROCESSES


The physical and chemical properties of a soil are determined by the soil forming process under which they form

Laterization: Laterization occurs in the hot, rainy tropics where chemical


weathering proceeds at a rapid rate.

Calcification: Calcification occurs in warm, semi-arid environments,


usually under grassland vegetation.

Podzolization: Podzolization occurs in cool and moist climates under


pine forests. They are typical of the colder portions of the humid continental and subarctic climates.

Salinization: Salinization occurs in warm and dry locations where soluble


salts precipitate from water and accumulate in the soil.

Gleization:Gleization occurs in regions of high rainfall and low-lying areas


that may be naturally waterlogged.

LATERIZATION

CALCIFICATION

SALINIZATION

PODZOLIZATION

GLEIZATION

Soil Development

description below of a generic, fully developed soil.

SOIL PROFILE:
Soil formation begins first with the break down of rock into regolith. Continued weathering and soil horizon development process leads to the development of a soil profile, the vertical display of soil horizons

Soil Profiles(typical figure)

Soil Horizon Nomenclature


O-horizon: Surface accumulation of mainly organic matter
overlying mineral soil.
Oi horizon: least decomposed organic material.

Oe horizon: intermediate degree of decomposition. Oa horizon: most decomposed.

A- horizon: Accumulation of humified organic matter mixed with mineral fraction and the latter is dominant.
E- horizon: Usually underlies on O or A horizon, characterised by less organic matter or fewer sesquioxides or less clay than the underlying horizon. B- horizon: Shows little or no evidence of the original sediment or rock structure. Subdivisions are:

Bh horizon: Illuvial accumulation of amorphous organic matter-sesquioxides complexes. Bhs horizon: Illuvial accumulation of both organic matter and sesquioxides as organic-matter sesquioxides. Bk horizon: Illuvial accumulation of alkaline earth carbonates. Bo horizon: Residual concentration of sesquioxides ,the more soluble materials having been removed. Bq horizon: Accumulation of secondary silica. Bs horizon: Illuvial accumulation of amorphous organic matter-sesquioxides complexes. Bt horizon: Accumulation of silicate clay that has either formed insitu or is illuvial.

Bw horizon: Development of colour or structure with little or no apparent illuvial accumulation of material. By horizon: Accumulation of gypsum. Bz horizon: Accumulation of salts more soluble than gypsum.
K-horizon: A subsurface horizon so impregnant with carbonate that its morphology is determined by the carbonates.
C-horizon: A subsurface horizon excluding R,like or unlike material from which the soil formed or is presumed to have been formed.

R-horizon: Consolidated bedrock underlying the soil

A Horizon

B Horizon

C Horizon

Soil Profiles
Over time different levels of a soil can differentiate into distinct horizons that create soil profiles. Chemical reactions and formation of secondary minerals (clays). Leaching by infiltrating water. Deposition and accumulation of material leached from higher levels in the soil.

Physical weathering breaks rocks into small mineral particles.

Chemical weathering dissolves and changes minerals at the Earths surface.

Decomposing organic material from plants and animals mixes with accumulated soil minerals.

REFERENCES
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY
Dr ALKA GAUTAM

LECTURE NOTE
Dr J.N. SHARMA(Department of applied geology, Dibrugarh University)

Internet
www.google.com www.wikipedia.com

THANK YOU