Voice over internet protocol

TABLE OF CONTENT
 Introduction
 Voice over IP  SIP (Session Internet Protocol)
 Messages  Addresses  Simple session  Tracking the callee

 H.323 protocol
 H.323 architecture

 Protocols
 H.323 example

 MGCP  Advantages of VoIP  Disadvantages of VoIP  Conclusion

 This technology enables users to: Make calls by moving packets of information over the Internet using broadband network connection to make phone calls to other VoIP and regular phone users and ”Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)” or analog telephones. .What is voip  VoIP stands for Voice over Internet Protocol and is also referred as IP Telephony.

...This Is Now.

. .That Was Then..

the process is reversed at the receiving end.Voip overview  It is a technology for transmitting ordinary telephone calls over the Internet using packet linked routes. .  The basic steps involved in originating an Internet telephony call are conversion of the analog voice signal to digital format and compression / translation of the signal into Internet protocol (IP) packets for transmission over the Internet.

. etc. set up. AAA. QoS.  Media Transport Protocols : To transmit packetized audio/video signal. locate user. modify and tear down sessions.WHAT PROTOCOLS ARE REQUIRED ?  Signalling Protocol : To establish presence.  Supporting Protocols : Gateway Location. Address Translation.

Voip protocol Stack .

 SIP is designed to be independent of the underlying transport layer.Session initiated protocol  The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) was designed by IETF. or SCTP. TCP. or multicast sessions.  It is an application layer protocol that establishes. .  Can be used to create two-party. multiparty. it can run on UDP. and terminates a multimedia session (call). manages.

SIP Messages INVITE ACK BYE OPTIONS CANCEL REGISTER .e. SIP uses messages.Sip messages  SIP is text-based protocol i.

SIP is very flexible. and other types of addresses can be used to identify the sender and receiver. an IP address. An e-mail address. However.  Some common formats are: . and another telephone number identifies the receiver. the address needs to be in SIP format (also called scheme).SIP Addresses  In a regular telephone communication. In SIP. a telephone number. a telephone number identifies the sender.

SIP SESSION • A simple session using SIP consists of three modules: • Establishing • communicating • terminating. .

TRACKING THE CALLEE .

video. data.323 is a standard designed by ITU to allow telephones on the public telephone network to talk to computers (called terminals in H. and fax communications across an IP-based network while maintaining connectivity with the PSTN.323 was developed as a means to transmit voice.H.323  H. allowing it to operate in pure VoIP networks and more widely distributed networks .323) connected to the Internet.  H.  It has gone through several versions and annexes (which add functionality to the protocol).

h.323 architecture .

 The terminal and gatekeeper communicate. gateway.245 to negotiate the compression method. gatekeeper. The gatekeeper responds with its IP address. and telephone communicate by using H. gatekeeper.  The terminal gatekeeper. and telephone exchange audio by using RTP under the management of RTCP. and telephone communicate by using Q.h. gateway. using H. .931 to terminate the communication.  The terminal.  The terminal.931 to set up a connection.323 Operation Steps used by a terminal to communicate with a telephone :  The terminal sends a broadcast message to the gatekeeper. gateway.  The terminal.225 to negotiate bandwidth. gateway. and telephone communicate by using Q.

MGCP  The Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) was developed by IETF . and have all the call logic and processing handled by media gateways and call agents. MGCP uses a centralized model. MGCP phones cannot directly call other MGCP phones.  Unlike SIP.  It was designed to make the end devices (such as phones) as simple as possible. they must always go through some type of controller. .

or near-zero-cost features: Conference calling. VoIP is technically free. and caller ID. zero.  Zero. . companies pay their normal high speed internet provider and in return receive VoIP free. Typically. This is the biggest advantage to most companies. automatic redial. call forwarding.Voip Advantages  Inexpensive: The advantages include costs. VoIP is relatively inexpensive.or near-zero-cost features that traditional telecommunication companies normally charge extra for.

It is only necessary to encrypt and authenticate the existing data stream.) Most of the difficulties of creating a secure phone connection over traditional phone lines. The ability to transmit more than one telephone call over the same broadband connection. are already in place with VoIP. like digitizing and digital transmission. .  Security: Secure calls using standardized protocols (such as Secure Real-time Transport Protocol. This can make VoIP a simple way to add an extra telephone line to a home or office.

audio conferencing. friends or colleagues) are available to interested parties. For instance. Location independence or portability: Only an Internet connection is needed to get a connection to a VoIP provider. call center agents using VoIP phones can work from anywhere with a sufficiently fast and stable Internet connection. screen pops. The fact that the phone call is on the same data network as a user's PC opens a new door to possibilities. and IVR implementations are easier and cheaper to implement and integrate.  Integration with other services available over the Internet. including  Advanced Telephony features: such as call routing. message or data file exchange in parallel with the conversation.g. . and passing information about whether others (e. managing address books. video conversation.

.Voip Disadvantages  Lack of continuous service during a power outage  Emergency calls (911) (Problem of locating call)  Sound quality and reliability  Vulnerable to same attacks as IP data networks  Vulnerable to spam (Spam over Internet Telephony)  Toll fraud (Call spoofing)  Possibility of data loss.

and is associated with potential command center desk top convergence. . multi-media collaboration. mobility enhancements. and cost avoidance. infrastructure reduction.conclusion Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is an emerging technology that is a critical component of network centric warfare.

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