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• Pharmacognosy name derived from two Greek words i.e. Pharmacon (Drugs) and gnosis(knowledge). • Ethnopharmacognosy is the relationship between plant and people. • Study of medicinal plants based on ancient literature and investigation in modern concept, is ethnology. • Study of crude drug from plant or animal origin.

• Related to the field of botany and plant chemistry.
• The Ayurvedic system of healing evolved among the Brahmin sages of ancient India. • About 2370 plants are documented in charak samhita and susruta samhita. • Ethnopharmacognosy includes the study of traditional concept for distinguishing between various plant parts.

Natural products
• • • • Entire organism(plant or animal origin) A part of an organism Exudates or extract Isolated pure compounds

Values of Natural product
• Provide a numbers of extremely useful drugs. • It supplies the basic compounds of an medicine. • Utility as model for synthetic drug processing. • Some natural products have no activity but they enhances the

activity of other drugs.

History of Natural drugs
• In china, medicinal plants used since 5000 BC. • The oldest herbal document ‘Pentaso’ written by Shen xung in 3000 BC. • Charak made 50 groups of herbs each of which meant for particular disease. • Sustruta arranged 760 herbs in 70 groups based on their common properties. • Plant medicine used in Ayurvedic system were described about 127 plants, around 1200 BC. • Eberus papyrus(1550 BC), documented the 100 of plant used to making mummy of dead bodies.

• Barberians (3000 BC) use the plant for medicine, some of them used till that same way. • Hipocrates (460-377 BC): The father of medicine. Identified and used large numbers of medicinal plants. • Aristotle(384-322 BC): listed more than 500 medicinally important plants. • Theopharastus (370-287 BC): Identified a large number of medicinal plants. • Dioscorides (1st century AD): a Greek physician published 5 volumes of ‘De Materia Medica’. • The Islamic era (770-1197 AD) • Era of European exploration(16th -17th century)

• 18th Century , the starting period of pharmacognosy. • 19th century : era of pure compound. • 20th century: discovery of important drugs from animal kingdom, particularly hormones and vitamins.

Way of knowledge of medicinal plant
The way by which the ancient people acquired knowledge about drugs, these are:

• By guess work for trial and error.
• While searching for food.

• By examining the signature of nature.
• By observing other animals instinctive discrimination between toxic and palatable plant. • By accident discovery.

Plant for Medicine

Plant with anti-tumor potential
• Calastrus hindsii • Ageratum conyzoides • Aloe vera • Vinca rosea

• Catharantus roseus
• Taxus baccata

Plant with anti-HIV potential
• Acer okomotoanum • Artemisia annua • Croton tiglium • Glycyrrhiza lepidata

• Polyalthia suberosa
• Phyllanthus myrtifolius

Plant with anti-inflamatory activity
• Vitex negundo • Commiphora mukul • Lawsennia spp. • Eclipta alba

• Plumbago indica
• Terminalia chebula

Plant with hepatoprotective activity
• Andographis paniculata • Swertia chirata • Azadirachta indica • Solanum nigrum • Phyllanthus niruri

Plant with anti-diabetic activity
• Gymnema sylvestres • Acacia arabica • Allium cepa • Boerhavia diffusa • Trigonella foenum graecum

Modern researches
• Takes the classical references. • Mainly based on traditional concept. • Combination of traditional concept with the modern concept. • Scientific prove of traditional concept.

Artistic plants
• Tulip Tulipa sp. (Liliaceae)

• Sunflower
Helianthus annus (Asteraceae) • Rajanigandha

Polianthes tuberosa (Agavaceae)
• Calendula Calendula officinalis (Compositae)

• Rose
Rosa sp. • Jhendu (Genda)

Plants for symbols
• Acacia Trees - Acacia symbolizes the the Virgin's purity. • Almond Trees - Almond symbolizes divine approval. • Bulrush Plants - The bulrush symbolizes faithfulness and humility. • Cypress Trees - The cypress symbolizes death. • Elm Trees - The elm symbolizes dignity and faithfulness.

• Fern Plants - The fern symbolizes humility.
• Fig - The fig symbolizes lust or fertility.

• Fir Trees - The Fir tree symbolizes patience. • Grapes - Grapes symbolize the blood of Christ.

• Holly Plants - Holly symbolizes Christ's crown of thorns and His
Passion. • Hyssop Plants - Hyssop Symbolizes penitence, humility and baptism. • Ivy - Ivy Symbolizes faithfulness and eternal life. • Olive Trees - The olive symbolizes peace. • Palm - Palms symbolizes victory.

Plant for nutrition

Plant for making furniture
Western red cedar (Thuja plicata) • Especially good for houses, as it withstands almost any climatic condition.

Sugar maple (Acer saccharum)
• Furniture making, fine letter blocks for printing press, tool handles and even billiard cues. Teak (Tectona grandis) • A timber which exudes a natural oil from its pores Indian laurel • It shows strong, used for making home and furniture. Ramin (Gonystylus macrophyllum) • Used for door and window frames and in the production of plywood.

Other plants for making furniture or decorative items
• American black walnut (Juglans nigra)

• European walnut (Juglans regi)
• Balsa wood (Ochroma lagopus) • Olive (Olea hochstetteri) • Plane (lacewood) (Platanus acerifolia) • English cherry (Prunus avium) • American cherry (Prunus serotina) • Muninga (Pterocarpus angolensis) • Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergiodes)

• American white oak (Quercus alba) • American red oak (Quercus borealis/rubra)

• English oak (Quercus robur)
• Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolio) • Bubinga (Copaifera amoldiana) • Tulipwood/poplar (Dalbergia oliveri) • European beech (Fagus sylvatica)

• Maximum researches on the medicinal plant is carried out. • There also have many plants which have no formulation, but they used as folk medicine or remedies. • Ancient time different synonyms were used by traditional people.

• There have some plant which are not properly identified till day.
• Recent pharmacognostical standards provide a guideline to determine the identity, purity and strength of the drug.

• Silja VP, Verma KS, Mohanan KV, Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge of Mullu kuruma tribe of Wayanad district, kerala. Int. J. of Trad. 2008, Knowledge, Vol 7(4): 604-612. • Joseph E L, Charles WW, Edwin AK, Use and nutritional compositio of some traditional mountain pima plant, J. Ethnobiol. 1991, 11(1): 93-114. • w w w symbols/plants-trees-christiansymbols.htm •