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-BY 09BIT059 (MIHIKA SHAH)
• The word ‘Night vision’ itself means the ability
to see in low light conditions. • Humans have poor night vision compared to many other animals.
• So we all might have a question in our mind that is this really possible to see in the dark night? • The answer is……..YES, we can see in the dark night using the proper equipment made by using this technology.
•We can see a person standing over 183m away in the dark night.
•Due to the nature of these early night vision devices (NVD).HISTORY •Pre 1940’s: Flares and spot lights were used for operations at night. •Military scientists began to think of ways to improve night vision to gain a strategic advantage . they gave away tactical positions.
.EARLY DEVELOPMENT •The first night vision devices (NVD) were created during World war-II. •Functioned by placing an infrared filter over a searchlight. •Fighters would use special binoculars to see using the light from the searchlights. •Many problems came from this night vision method.
A tank from World War II equipped with a search light used for night combat. .
HOW DOES IT WORK? •The night vision is possible because of two approaches: (1) Sufficient spectral range (2) Sufficient intensity range •Two technologies are used for night vision: (1)Thermal Imaging (2)Image Enhancement .
and red has the least. •Just next to the visible light spectrum is the infrared spectrum.(Contd…) •Infrared light is used to visualize the things in the dark. . •Of visible light. violet has the most energy. •The amount of energy in a light wave is related to its wavelength: Shorter wavelengths have higher energy.
3 micron. including remote controls. Both near-IR and mid-IR are used by a variety of electronic devices.7 to 1. near-IR has wavelengths that range 0. •Mid-infrared (mid-IR) – Mid-IR has wavelengths ranging from 1. .(Contd…) Infrared light can be split into three categories: Near-infrared (near-IR) – Closest to visible light.3 to 3 microns.
(Contd…) •Thermal-infrared (thermal-IR) – Occupying the largest part of the infrared spectrum. . thermal-IR has wavelengths ranging from 3 microns to over 30 microns.
•The detector elements create a very detailed temperature pattern called a thermogram. . •The focused light is scanned by a phased array of infrared-detector elements. •It only takes about one-thirtieth of a second for the detector array to obtain the temperature information to make the thermogram.THERMAL IMAGING •A special lens focuses the infrared light emitted by all of the objects in view.
a circuit board with a dedicated chip that translates the information from the elements into data for the display. •The impulses are sent to a signal-processing unit. •The thermogram created by the detector elements is translated into electric impulses.(Contd…) •This information is obtained from several thousand points in the field of view of the detector array. .
(Contd…) •The signal-processing unit sends the information to the display. where it appears as various colors depending on the intensity of the infrared emission. . •The combination of all the impulses from all of the elements creates the image.
In day light In dark night Using thermal imaging .
IMAGE ENHANCEMENT .
•The image-intensifier tube has a photocathode. •A conventional lens.(Contd…) • An image-intensifier tube is used to collect and amplify infrared and visible light. • The gathered light is sent to the image-intensifier tube. which is used to convert the photons of light energy into electrons. called the objective lens. captures ambient light and some near-infrared light. .
(Contd…) •A Microscopic plate(MCP) is a tiny glass disk that has millions of microscopic holes in it.000-V bursts being sent between the electrode pair. •When the electrons from the photo cathode hit the first electrode of the MCP. they are accelerated into the glass micro-channels by the 5. •The MCP is contained in a vacuum and has metal electrodes on either side of the disc. .
the electrons hit a screen coated with phosphors.(Contd. •These electrons maintain their position in relation to the channel they passed through. •At the end of the image-intensifier tube..) •As electrons pass through the micro channels. they cause thousands of other electrons to be released in each channel using a process called cascaded secondary emission. which provides a perfect image since the electrons stay in the same alignment as the original photons. .
•The NVD may be connected to a monitor to display the image. •The green phosphor image is viewed through another lens. which allows you to magnify and focus the image.(Contd…) •The energy of the electrons causes the phosphors to reach an excited state and release photons. called the ocular lens. . •These photons create the image on the screen.
GENERATIONS • NVDs have been around for more than 50 years. They are categorized by generation. . • Each substantial change in NVD technology establishes a new generation.
• Uses active infrared.0 • Created by US Army. • A projection unit called IR illuminator is attached with NVD.(Contd…) GENERATION. • Use anode in conjunction with cathode to accelerate the electrons. • Duplicated by the hostile nations. • Problems : acceleration causes distortion of image and reduction of the life of the tube. .
• Uses ambient light provided by the moon and the stars. .(Contd…) GENERATION. • Same problems as faced by the Generation-0.1 • Uses passive infrared. • Doesn’t work well on cloudy or moonless nights. • Uses same image-intensifier tube technology as Generation-0. • Doesn’t require a source of projected infrared light.
• Able to see in extreme low light conditions due to the addition of microchannel plate(MCP) to the image-intensifier tube. • Considerably more reliable. •The images are less distorted and brighter.2 • Offer improved resolution and performance over Generation-1 devices. .(Contd…) GENERATION.
• MCP is coated with an ion barrier. • Photocathode is made up of Gallium Arsenideefficient of converting photons to electrons. • Tube life is increased .(Contd…) GENERATION. • Better resolution and sensitivity.3 • Currently used by the US Army.
4 • Known as filmless and gated technology. • Reduced background noise. • No ion barrier in MCP. . • Enhances signal to noise ratio. • Shows significant improvement in both high. • Images are less distorted and brighter.and low-level light environments.(Contd…) GENERATION.
Cameras . Goggles III.NIGHT VISION DEVICES It can be splitted in three broad categories: I. Scopes II.
(Contd…) SCOPES .
• Can not be worn like goggles. • It is good for when you want to get a better look at a specific object and then return to normal viewing conditions. scopes are monocular (one eye-piece). .(Contd…) •Normally handheld or mounted on a weapon.
(Contd…) GOGGLES .
(Contd…) •While goggles can be handheld. • Goggles are binocular (two eye-pieces) and may have a single lens or stereo lens. depending on the model. such as moving around in a dark building. . • Goggles are excellent for constant viewing. they are most often worn on the head.
(Contd…) CAMERAS .
such as on a building. . • When night-vision capability is desired in a permanent location.(Contd…) •Cameras with night-vision technology can send the image to a monitor for display or to a VCR for recording.
APPLICATIONS •Military •Hunting •Wildlife observation •Surveillance •Security •Navigation •Hidden-object detection •Entertainment .
.even on the darkest nights.(Contd…) AUTOMOBILE BMW's Night Vision with Pedestrian Detection system allows drivers to see what (or who) is down the road -.
. Prabhat Ranjan from DA-IICT has used a camera based on Infrared flash in his research on ‘Sensor Networks in wildlife’.(Contd…) • Dr.
wikipedia.com •http://carl.sandiego.org/wiki/Night_vision •http://electronics.howstuffworks.REFERENCES •http://en.edu .
THANK YOU .
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