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Possibility of WtE Plants in Developing and Underdeveloped countries


Chand, Tapendra Pun, Khum Raj

859594 859583




in waste quantity Trends in waste composition

Trends in waste quantity

Worldwide: 1.84 billion tons in 2004 Worldwide : 2.5 to 4 billion in 2006 25 OECD countries: >600 million tons

Trends in waste quantity

Kilograms per capita City Adelaide, australia Bamako, Mali Belo Horizonte, Brazil Bengalor, India Canete, Peru Curepipe, Mauritius Delhi, India Dhaka, Bangladesh ghorahi, Nepal Kunming, China Lusaka, Zambia Managua, Nicaragua Moshi, Tanzania Nairobi, Kenya Quezon city, Philippines Rotterdam, Netherlands San Francisco, USA Sousse, Tunisia Tompkins county, USA Population 1089728 1809106 2452617 7800000 48892 82750 13850507 7000000 59156 3500000 1500000 1002882 183520 4000000 2861091 582949 835364 173047 101136 Year 490 256 529 269 246 284 184 167 167 286 201 420 338 219 257 528 609 394 577 Day 1.3 0.7 1.4 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6 1.1 0.9 0.6 0.7 1.4 1.7 1.1 1.6

Source: UN Habitat

Trends in waste quantity

Waste generation in different cities [metric ton/day]







Source: UN Habitat

Trends in waste quantity

Annual MSW generation world scenario Asia: high increase rate EU USA Latin American countries (LAC) South Africa

Source: United Nations Environment Programme

Trends in waste composition

Source: United Nations Environment Programme

Trends in waste composition

Source: UN Habitat

Trends in waste composition


World solid waste disposal scenario

800 WTE plants worldwide 435 in Europe 100 in USA and the rest in Asia and other parts of the world Worldwide, about 130 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) are combusted annually Currently, there are WTE facilities in 35 nations, including large countries such as China and small ones such as Bermuda.

World solid waste disposal scenario

Possibility of WtE Plants in Developing and underdeveloped countries Technical Perspective Economic Perspective Environmental Perspective

Possibility of WtE Plants in Developing and underdeveloped countries Technical Perspective Incinerator systems Stoker grate system Fluidized bed system

Technical Perspective
Stoker Grate system

Source: MSW Incinerator Residues

Technical Perspective
Stoker Grate system used in china

Source: Waste Management World

Technical Perspective
Fluidized bed system

Source: MSW Incinerator Residues

Economic Perspective
Investment cost

Cost per unit

Developed countries: 8 cent/kWh [as of USA] Developing countries: 4-5 cent/kWh [as of India]

Financing options
Government budget Foreign aid and investment Public Private Partnership

Economic Perspective
Income from Clean Development Mechanism

Most of the developing countries are not strict to the emission limits from waste incineration plants facilitating National & International investment.

Economic Perspective Investment cost example

City: New Delhi, India Population: 14 million MSW generation: 7000 MT/day Incineration plant Capacity: 2050 MT/D Investment cost: US$ 45 million (0.9 % of total budget) Annual budget of the city: US$ 5000 million City: Kathmandu/Nepal Population: 3 Million Potential: 10 MW Investment cost: US$ 2.81 million/MW (Less compared to US$ 4.5 million/MW from Hydro-power)

Environmental Perspective
WTE plants conserve fossil fuels. One ton of MSW combusted reduces oil use by one barrel (i.e., 35gallons) or 0.25 tons of coal.

It has been estimated that one ton of MSW combusted rather than land-filled reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 1.5 tons of CO2.
WTE plants do not have the aqueous emissions that may be experienced in landfills, either now or in the distant future. WTE plants reduce the space required for land-filling by about 90% thereby reducing the emission of methane (20 times more harmful than CO2).

Using the ash from MSW incinerators for environmentally appropriate construction not only provides a low cost aggregate but further reduces the need for landll capacity

Future Scenario of WtE-Plants in China

Waste for power Generation will account for 30% (54 Million tons/year) by 2030, compared to 13% (21.54 Million tons/year)
Total waste to Energy Capacity
60 Million tons/year


30% by 2030





0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2030

Source: WTERT-Greece, SYNERGIA

Future Scenario of WtE-Plants in China

the 3rd China WtE Outlook held on December 7th-9th in Shanghai focused on Green Operation during the Twelfth Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), the total investment in municipal solid waste will reach 441 million US$

Why WtE-plant is Not the first Choice?

expensive option and require highly skilled personnel and careful maintenance. Lower content of burnable constituents (means higher content of organic material with higher Moisture content) The average annual lower caloric value must be at least 7 MJ/kg, and must never fall below 6 MJ/kg in any season. Misguiding view among stakeholders, specially local people

Source: World Bank

Fig. Waste Hierarchy

Large content of organic waste is the major obstacle for WtE plants in Developing and under developed countries Large population resulting in large waste generation Increasing trend of per capita income, resulting to increase in consumption and increased waste generation. CDM may become a vehicle to promote it as a sustainable activity Lower cost of unit energy production [4-5 cents/KWh] as compared to developed countries. Flexible governmental policies and subsidies Contribution to reducing GHGs and climate change Subsequent decrease in landfill area by 90% Limited availability of Landfill areas, resulted due to Urbanization A municipality can save 10-15% of Annual Budget on solid waste Management.

References: _incineration_FINAL.pdf Makers.pdf df

[august 2011] /COLLECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE/Key issues for Decisionmakers in Developing Countries-by un-Habitat SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE WORLDS CITIES /WATER AND SANITATION IN THE WORLDS CITIES 2010/United Nations Human Settlements Program 2010/Collection of Municipal Solid Waste in Developing Countries/UN-Habitat Waste to Energy/The Worldwide Market for Waste Incineration Plants 2011/2012 Cologne / Oberhausen, May 2011 DEVELOPING INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN/Volume 1: Waste Characterization and Quantification with Projections for Future/2009 POSITION PAPER ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SECTOR IN INDIA/November 2009/Department of Economic Affairs/Ministry of Finance/Government of India Urban Solid Waste Management: Waste Reduction in Developing Nations/Written April 2003 for the requirements of CE 5993/Field Engineering in the Developing World by Olar Zerbock/M.S. Candidate WASTE TO ENERGY: A POSSIBILITY FOR PUERTORICO/M ay 2007