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Qualitative research design

Presentation by : TAMER GHARAIBEH, RN

Master of Nursing

Learning Outcomes
At the end of this lecture, students will be able to Identify the characteristics, phases, and features of qualitative research design. Discuss some qualitative research traditions.

Qualitative Research Design

Quantitative researchers carefully specify a research design before data collection. In qualitative research, by contrast, the study design evolves over the course of the project. Decisions about how best to obtain data, from whom to obtain data, how to schedule data collection, and how long each data collection session should last are made in the field as the study unfolds.

Characteristics of Qualitative Research Design

Often involves a merging together of various data collection strategies, such as interviewing, observations, and documents. Is flexible and elastic, capable of adjusting to what is being learned during the course of data collection. Tends to be holistic, trying to understand the whole. Requires researchers to be deeply involved , often remaining in the field for lengthy periods of time. The researcher is the data instrument. Ongoing analysis of data to formulate subsequent strategies and to determine when field work is over.

Qualitative research designs have five primary purposes:

Describing phenomena Generating hypotheses Illustrating the meaning of relationships Understanding relationships Developing, refining, or expanding theory

Phases in Qualitative Design

The naturalistic inquiry progresses through three broad phases while in the field: Orientation and overview. Quantitative researchers believe that they know what they do not know. They know exactly what type of knowledge they expect to obtain by doing a study. Qualitative researchers, by contrast, enter the study not knowing what is not known. That is not knowing what it is about the phenomenon that will drive the inquiry forward. Focused exploration. This phase is more focused scrutiny and in depth exploration of those aspects of the phenomenon that are judged as salient [prominent]. Confirmation and closure. Here, researchers undertake efforts to establish that their findings are trustworthy, often by going back and discussing their results with participants

Qualitative Design Features

1. Control over the independent variable: Qualitative researchers do not conceptualize their studies as having IV and DV, and rarely control or manipulate any aspect of the people or environment in the study. Qualitative research is almost always non-experimental seeking to develop rich understanding of a phenomenon as it exist naturally. 2. Type of group comparison: As the aim of qualitative research is to describe and explain a phenomenon, researchers do not plan in advance to make group comparisons. Sometimes, comparisons are planned when studying two different cultures. 3. Number of data collection points: Qualitative studies could cross-sectional or longitudinal to observe the evolution of a phenomenon. An example will follow.

Cross-sectional: Dewar & Lee (2000) examined how people who sustained major injury managed their circumstances. Ina single interview, participants were asked to describe their coping processes over time. Longitudinal: Reising (2002) studied early socialisation processes of new critical care nurses by interviewing them multiple times over a 5-month period. 4. Research Setting: Qualitative researchers collect their data in real world, natural settings. They may also deliberately strive to study phenomena in a variety of natural contexts.

Overview of Qualitative Research Traditions

Research traditions that provide theoretical underpinning for qualitative studies come, primarily, from anthropology, psychology, and sociology. Traditions of interest are outlined below and discussed afterwards.

Grounded Theory
Grounded theory focus on the manner in which people make sense of social interaction and interpretation they attach to social symbols Research seek to understand the action by first discovering the main concern or problem and then individuals behavior that is designated to solve it Core variables : the manner in which people resolve main concern or problem.

Grounded theory method

Research problem and process used to resolve it are discovered during data collection Data collection, data analysis, and sampling participant occur simultaneously Recursive Constant comparison : procedure is used to develop and refine theoretically relevant concepts

Grounded theory
Grounded theory method is a systematic generation of theory from data that contains both inductive and deductive thinking The questions the researcher repeatedly asks in grounded theory are "Whats going on? "What is the main problem of the participants? and how are they trying to solve it?"

Grounded Theory
- Depth interviews and observation was the primary source of data typically sample about 20 to 40 informants

Ethnography involves the description and interpretation of cultural behaviour. Ethnographies are a blend of a process and a product, field work, and written text. Ethnograpahers, through field work, come to understand a culture, and use the text to communicate and portray the culture. Culture is not visible. As such, it is inferred from the words, actions, and products of members of a cultural group, So its the way a group of people live ( e.g, values and norms) . Describe and interprets cultural behaviour

Culture can classified to 1- broadly defined culture or macroethnography Ex. Ghanaian village culture 2- more narrowly defined culture or microethnography .. small units within a group or specific activates within organization Ex. How nurses communicate with children in an emergency room

Researcher seek to learn from members of a cultural group to understand their world live Seeks an emic perspective of the culture ( The way the member of the culture envision there world , group view and local language, ) Etic perspective is the out siders interpretation of the experiences of that culture The concept of researcher as instrument used to describe the significant role ethnographers play in analysing and interpreting culture

Information are usually sought by ethnographers : 1- cultural behaviour
What members of culture do?

2- cultural artificial
what the members of the culture make and use ?

3- and cultural speech

What people say ?

-ethnographers typically conduct in- depth interview with about 25-50 informants

Strategies of data collection

1. Observation 2. In-depth interviews and records 3. Participant observation : researchers make observations of the culture under study while participating in its activities 4. Key informants strategy

time-consuming and labor intensive The study of culture requires certain level of intimacy with members of culture

the product of study is a rich and holistic description of culture under study Describing normative behavioral and social pattern Help to facilitate understanding of behaviors affecting health and illness

Ethunonursing :
The study and analysis of the local or indigenous peoples viewpoint, believes, and practices about nursing care behavior and process of designated cultures

Types of ethunographers
1. Outsider 2. Insider or autoethnography

Phenomenology is a school of thought that emphasizes a focus on peoples subjective experiences and interpretations of the world. Phenomenologists attempt to understand those whom they observe from the subjects perspective. It is close to hermeneutics: focusing on meaning and interpretation.

Focused on the description and interpreation of people live experience Depth conversation with participant is the main data source Using bracketing

Typically involve a small number of study participant , 10 or fewer

Interest to four aspects of lived experience :

Lived space or spatiality Lived body or corporeality Lived time or temporarily lived human relation or relationality

example of Phenomenology
Wilkin and slevin (2004) conducted a
Phenomenology study of the meaning of caring to nurses working in an intensive care unit in Ireland
( used to illuminate the nature of intensive care unit )

1-Descriptive Phenomenology study : Primary interested in question
What do we know as a person?

Include description of things as people experience them like hearing , seeing, feeling and so forth Involve four step :
1. 2. 3. 4. bracketing ( preconceived belief and opinions ) , Intuiting ( meanings attributed to the phenomenon by participant) , analyzing ( extracting significant statement ) Description ( understand and define the phenomenon )

Interpretive Phenomenology study : Refer to art and philosophy of interpreting the meaning of an object such as text, work of art , human utterances and so on The critical question is
What is being?

No bracketing
- rely primarily on depth interviews with individuals who have experienced the phenomenon of interest

Example of Interpretive Phenomenology

the meaning of the experience of living with serious chronic illness, which they interpreted as hovering between suffering and enduring. The researcher used threephase hermeneutic process to interpret the text

Historical: it is based on the study of written materials, oral reports, photographs, and films. Sources are either primary or secondary.
Philosophical inquiry: is conducted to debate issues or develop theories; analysis is used.

Field Research
Field research is a general term that refers to a group of methodologies used by researchers in making qualitative inquiries. The field researcher goes directly to the social phenomenon under study and observes it as completely as possible.

Case Studies

Attempts to shed light on a phenomena by studying in-depth a single case example of the phenomena. The case can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.

seek to answer question why rather than what

Data relate to the present status and past experience and factors relevant to the problem being examined Information obtained can be used to develop hypotheses to be tested more rigorously in subsequent research

Case study
Strength of case study
The depth that is possible when a limited number of individuals or groups is being investigation Provide researcher an intimate knowledge of persons condition ,feeling action in past and present

Weakness of case study

This depth relationship between researcher and person my make objectivity more difficult Generalization , if researcher discover important relationship, its difficult to know whether the same relationship would occur with others

Narrative Analysis
o Focus on story as the object of inquiry to determine how individual make sense of event in their lives o Narrative inquiry uses field texts, such as stories, autobiography, journals, field notes, letters, conversations, interviews, family stories o Approaches to analysis story Linguistic approach Pentadic dramatism

Descriptive qualitative research

Claim no particular disciplinary or methodologic roots. describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied it does not answer questions about e.g.: how/when/why Researchers may indicate that the conducted a qualitative study or a naturalistic inquiry

Researchers tend not to penetrate their data in any interpretive depth

Qualitative Research with Ideological

Critical social theory: is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining.

Critical theory
Its aim to integrate theory and practice such that people become aware of contradication and disparities in their beliefs and social practice, and become inspired to change them.

Critical ethnography: approach focuses on

raising consciousness and aiding emancipatory goals in the hope of effecting social change Cultures dimensions
1. 2. 3. 4. Historical Social Political economic

Feminist research
is research which is carried out by women who identify as feminists Common belief
is the presupposition that women are oppressed, It is from this common acceptance that there is indeed a problem, that there is something amiss in the treatment of women in society, that feminism arises. Researches seek to understand how gender and a gendered social order have shaped womens lives and their consciousness ,the aim is to facilitate changing in ways relevant to ending womens unequal social postion

Feminist research method

In-depth interactive Collaborative individual interviews or group interviews Feminists seek to negotiate the meaning of result with those participating in the study

Qualitative Research with Ideological Ex. Elliot, Berman, and Kim (2002) undertook a critical ethnographic study to examine how menopauses is experienced by Korean woman living in Canada . Through dialogic interview. The researcher explored how the lack of understanding of cultural health practices can result in misunderstanding and the provision of care that is culturally inappropriate

Qualitative Research with Ideological

Participatory action research

Action research is known by many other names, including participatory research, collaborative inquiry, action learning, and contextual action research, but all are variations on a theme..

Qualitative Research with Ideological

Participatory action research

. Action research is learning by doing - a group of people identify a problem, do something to resolve it, see how successful their efforts were, and if not satisfied, try again. Is based on a recognition that the use and production of knowledge can be political and can be used to exert power .

Qualitative Research with Ideological

Participatory action research emphasizes the political aspects of knowledge production. Concerned about power and powerlessness empowerment through conscientisation (building self-awareness and constructing knowledge). Importance of peoples lived experience honor the wisdom of the people. Concerned with genuine collaboration. Democratic values.

Participatory action research Ex. Brackley and colleagues (2003) described a participatory action project involving community readiness model for preventing intimate violence in Bexar County, Texas. The project involved determining the country states of readiness to prevent partner violence, engaging the community in determining the usefulness and accuracy of the assessment, developing targeted strategies to enhance readiness, and evaluating the results.

Limitations of Qualitative Research

1- It is anecdotal (stories told for dramatic quality without critical evaluation). 2- Unscientific. 3- Producing findings that are not generalizable.

4- Impressionistic.
5- Subjective.