You are on page 1of 44

1

CONVERSORES CC/CC
Introduo
2
DC-DC Converter (Chopper)
DEFINITION:
Converting the unregulated DC input to a controlled DC
output with a desired voltage level.

General block diagram:
LOAD
V
control
(derived from
feedback circuit)
DC supply
(from rectifier-
filter, battery,
fuel cell etc.)
DC output
APPLICATIONS:
Switched-mode power supply (SMPS), DC motor control,
battery chargers
3
Linear regulator
Transistor is operated in linear (active)
mode.

Output voltage


The transistor can be conveniently
modelled by an equivalent variable
resistor, as shown.

Power loss is high at high current due
to:
L ce o
T L o
I V P
R I P
=
=
or

2
+

V
o
R
L
+ V
CEce

I
L
LINEAR REGULATOR
RT
EQUIVALENT
CIRCUIT
V
in
R
L
+ V
ce

I
L
V
in
V
o
+

ce in o
V V V =
4
Transistor is operated in switched-mode:
Switch closed: Fully on (saturated)
Switch opened: Fully off (cut-off)
When switch is open, no current flow
in it
When switch is closed no voltage drop
across it.

Since P=V.I, no losses occurs in the
switch.
Power is 100% transferred from
source to load.
Power loss is zero (for ideal switch):

Switching regulator is the basis of all DC-
DC converters
+

V
o
R
L
+ V
ce

I
L
SWITCHING REGULATOR
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
V
in
R
L
I
L
V
in
V
o
+

(ON)
closed
(OFF)
open
(ON)
closed
DT T
OUTPUT VOLTAGE
V
o
SWITCH
V
in
Switching Regulator
5
CONVERSORES CC/CC
CONVERSO BUCK
6
V
d
L
D
C R
L
S
+
V
o

V
o
+
CIRCUIT OF BUCK CONVERTER
CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED
CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED
V
o
+

i
L
V
d D
R
L
S
V
d
D
R
L
S
+ v
L
+
v
L
i
L
Buck (step-down) converter
7
Switch is turned on (closed)
Diode is reversed biased.

Switch conducts inductor
current

This results in positive inductor
voltage, i.e:


It causes linear increase in the
inductor current

o d L
V V v =

=
=
dt v
L
i
dt
di
L v
L L
L
L
1
V
d V
D
+ v
L
-
C
R
L
+

V
o
V
d
V
o
V
o
closed
opened
closed
opened
t
DT T
t
i
Lmin
i
Lmax
I
L
v
L
i
L
i
L
+

S
V
d V
D
+ v
L
-
C
R
L
+

V
o
V
d
V
o
V
o
closed
opened
closed
opened
t
DT T
t
i
Lmin
i
Lmax
I
L
v
L
i
L
i
L
+

S
8
Switch turned off (opened)
Because of inductive energy
storage, i
L
continues to flow.

Diode is forward biased

Current now flows
(freewheeling) through the
diode.

The inductor voltage can be
derived as:
o L
V v =
V
d
+ v
L
-
C
R
L
+

V
o
V
d
V
o
V
o
closed
opened
closed
opened
t
DT T
t
i
Lmin
i
Lmax
I
L
v
L
i
L
i
L
S
D
(1-D)T
V
d
+ v
L
-
C
R
L
+

V
o
V
d
V
o
V
o
closed
opened
closed
opened
t
DT T
t
i
Lmin
i
Lmax
I
L
v
L
i
L
i
L
S
D
(1-D)T
9
Analysis
v
L
V
d
V
o
L
di
L
dt

di
L
dt

V
d
V
o
L
I
L
i
L max
DT T
i
L
V
d
V
o
v
L
t
t
i
L min
closed
Ai
L
When the switch is closed (on):



Derivative of i
L
is positive constant.
Therefore i
L
must increase linearly.
From figure:




For the switch opened:
( )
d o L L L
d o
L
closed
V V di i i
dt t DT L
V V
i DT
L
A A
= = =
A
| |
A =
|
\ .
( ) (1 )
(1 )
o L L
L o
o
L
opened
o L L L
V di di
v V L
V dt dt L
i D T
V di i i
L
dt t D T L

= = =

| |
A =
`
|
A A
\ .

= = =
A
)
10
Steady-state operation
D i
L
( )
closed
+ D i
L
( )
opened
0
V
d
V
o
L

DT
s
+
V
o
L

(1 D)T
s
0
i
L
Increasing current
Decaying current
Steady-state current
t
t
t
i
L
i
L
Steady state operation requires that i
L
at the end of switching cycle is the
same at the begining of the next cycle. That is the change of i
L
over one
period is zero, i.e.:
o d
V DV =
11
I
L
I
max
I
min
i
L
Ai
L
t
Average inductor current = average current in R
L
:


Maximum current:


Minimum current:


Inductor current ripple
o
L R
V
I I
R
= =
I
max
I
L
+
D i
L
2

V
o
R
+
1
2
V
o
L
(1- D)T

V
o
1
R
+
(1- D)T
2Lf

min
1 (1 )
2 2
L
L o
i D
I I V
R Lf
| | A
= =
|
\ .
max min L
i I I A =
Average, Maximum and Minimum
Inductor Current
max min L
i I I A =
12
Average, Maximum and Minimum
Inductor Current
Inductor current ripple



Considering input voltage V
d
constant:



So, the maximum current ripple occurs for D=0.5


Then, the inductance value for a given current ripple can be
obtained
(1 )
o
L
V D
i
Lf

A =
(1 )
d
L
V D D
i
Lf

A =
D
Ai
L

max
4
d
L
V
i
Lf
A =
13
Continuous Current Mode (CCM)
min
1 (1 )
2 2
L
L o
i D
I I V
R Lf
| | A
= =
|
\ .
i
L
I
max
I
min
t
0
From the previous analysis:



For continuous operation:



This is the minimum inductor current to ensure continuous mode of
operation.
min
1 (1 ) (1 )
0
2 2
o
D D
V L L R
R Lf f
| |
> > =
|
\ .
14
i
L
i
L
=I
R
i
max
i
min
0
0
V
o
+

V
o
/R
i
R
L
i
L
i
C
i
C
Capacitor current:

The charge can be written as:


Using the triangle area formula:


Ripple voltage (pp)


The ripple can be reduced by:
Increasing switching frequency;
Increasing the inductor size;
Increasing the capacitor size.
c L R
i i i = +
o o o
Q
Q CV Q C V V
C
A
= A = A A =
1
2 2 2 8
L L
i i T
Q
A A
| | | |
A = =
| |
\ .\ .
8
L
o
i
V
fC
A
A =
Output voltage ripple
15
Basic design procedures
V
d
(input
spec.)
SWITCH
f = ?
D = ?
TYPE ?
D
L
L
min
= ?
L = 10L
min
C
ripple ?
R
L
P
o
= ?
I
o
= ?
Calculate D to obtain required output voltage.
Select a particular switching frequency (f) and device
preferably f>20KHz for negligible acoustic noise
higher fs results in smaller L and C. But results in higher losses. Reduced efficiency, larger
heat sink.
Possible devices: MOSFET, IGBT. Low power MOSFET can reach MHz range.
Calculate L
min
. Choose L>10 L
min

Calculate C for ripple factor requirement.
Capacitor ratings:
must withstand peak output voltage
must carry required RMS current. Note RMS current for triangular w/f is I
p
/3, where I
p

is the peak capacitor current given by Ai
L
/2.
ECAPs can be used
Wire size consideration:
Normally rated in RMS. But i
L
is known as peak. RMS value for i
L
is given as:
2
2
,
3
2
|
.
|

\
|
A
+ =
L
L RMS L
i
I I
16
Examples
A buck converter is supplied from a 50V battery source. Given L=400uH,
C=100uF, R=20 Ohm, f=20KHz and D=0.4. Calculate: (a) output voltage (b)
maximum and minimum inductor current, (c) output voltage ripple.

A buck converter has an input voltage of 50V and output of 25V. The switching
frequency is 10KHz. The power output is 125W. (a) Determine the duty cycle,
(b) value of L to limit the peak inductor current to 6.25A, (c) value of capacitance
to limit the output voltage ripple to 0.5%.

Design a buck converter such that the output voltage is 28V when the input is
48V. The load is 8ohm. Design the converter such that it will be in continuous
current mode (AI
L
<10%I
0max
). The output voltage ripple must not be more than
0.5%. Considering the switching frequency equal to 20kHz, specify the values of
L and C. Suggest the power switch also.
17
CONVERSORES CC/CC
CONVERSO BOOST
18
V
d
L
D
C
R
L
S
V
d
L
D
C
R
L
S
V
d
L
D
C
R
L
S
+ v
L

+
V
o

+ v
L
-
V
o
+
CIRCUIT OF BOOST CONVERTER
CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED
CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED
V
o
+

i
L
Boost (step-up) Converter
19
( )

d L L
L d
d L L L
L
closed
V di di
v V L
dt dt L
V DT di i i
i
dt t DT L
= = =
A A
= = A =
A
Boost Analysis: Switch Closed
DT T
i
L
v
L
CLOSED
t
t
V
d
V
d
V
o
Ai
L
V
d
L
D
C
S
+ v
L

i
L
+
v
o

20
( )
( )
(1 )
(1 )
d o L L
L d o
d o L L L
d o
L
opened
V V di di
v V V L
dt dt L
V V di i i
dt t D T L
V V D T
i
L

= = =
A A
= = =
A

A =
DT T
( 1-D )T
i
L
v
L
OPENED
t
t
V
d
V
d
V
o
Ai
L
V
d
D
C
S
+ v
L
-
i
L
+
v
o
-
Switch Opened
21
Steady-State Operation
( ) ( )
( )
0
(1 )
0
1
L L
closed opened
d o
d d
o
i i
V V D T
V DT V
V
L L D
A + A =

+ = =

Boost converter produces output voltage that is greater or


equal to the input voltage.
Alternative explanation:
when switch is closed, diode is reversed. Thus output is
isolated. The input supplies energy to inductor.
When switch is opened, the output stage receives energy
from the input as well as from the inductor. Hence output is
large.
Output voltage is maintained constant by virtue of large C.
22
Average, Maximum, Minimum
Inductor Current
min
2
2 (1 ) 2
d d L
L
V V DT i
I I
D R L
A
= =

Input Power = Output Power





Average inductor current:


Maximum inductor current:


Minimum inductor current:
2
2 2
2
(1 )
(1 )
d
o d
d d d L
V
D V V
V I V I
R R D R
| |
|

\ .
= = =

2
(1 )
d
L
V
I
D R
=

max
2
2 (1 ) 2
d d L
L
V V DT i
I I
D R L
A
= + = +

23
L and C Values
o
o
V
Q DT C V
R
| |
A = = A
|
\ .
I
max
I
min
I
min
I
max
i
c
i
D
i
L
V
d
v
L
V
d
V
o
I
o
=V
o
/ R
DT T
AQ
For CCM:



Considering V
0
=cte:


Output voltage ripple
( )
min
2
2
min
0 0
(1 ) 2
1
2
d d
V V DT
I
D R L
D D TR
L
> >

=
( )
0.5
0
0
max
1
=
4
D
d
L L
V D DT
V DT V T
i i
L L L
=

A = = A
( )
0.5
1
4
D
in
o o in
o
V D D
V DT V D V
V
RC RCf RCf RCf
=

A = =
24
Examples
The boost converter has the following parameters: V
d
=20V,
D=0.6, R=12.5ohm, L=65uH, C=200uF, f
s
=40KHz. Determine
(a) output voltage, (b) average, maximum and minimum inductor
current, (c) output voltage ripple.

Design a boost converter to provide an output voltage of 36V
from a 24V source. The load is 50W. The voltage ripple must be
less than 0.5%. Specify the duty cycle ratio, inductor and
capacitor size, and power device, considering a switching
frequency equal to 50kHz.
25
V
d L
D
C
R
L
S
R
L
+
V
o

V
o
+
CIRCUIT OF BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER
CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS CLOSED
CIRCUIT WHEN SWITCH IS OPENED
V
o
+

i
L
V
d
v
L
+

i
L
V
d
v
L
+

D
D
S
S
Buck-Boost Converter
26
DT T
I
min
I
max
i
c
i
D
i
L
V
d
v
L
AQ
V
d
V
o
I
o
=V
o
/ R
I
max
I
min
( )
d d L L L
L
d
L closed
V V di di i
v Vd L
dt dt L DT L
V DT
i
L
A
= = = =
A =
(1 )
(1 )
( )
o o L L L
L o
o
L opened
V V di di i
v V L
dt dt L D T L
V D T
i
L
A
= = = =

A =
Switch turned on:







Switch turned off:
Buck-boost Analysis
27
Output Voltage
Steady state:



NOTE: Output of a buck-boost converter either be higher or lower than
input.
If D>0.5, output is higher than input
If D<0.5, output is lower input

Output voltage is always negative.

Note that output is never directly connected to load.

Energy is stored in inductor when switch is closed and transferred to
load when switch is opened.
( ) ( )
o
0
(1 )
0 V
1
iL closed iL opened
d o
s
V DT V D T D
V
L L D
A + A =

| |
+ = =
|

\ .
28
Average Inductor Current
2
2
(1 )
o o d
L
d d
V P V D
I
V RD V D R D
= = =

Considering no power losses in the converter:





The average input current can be related to average inductor
current as:



Substituting for V
0
:
2
o
o s d s
V
P P V I
R
= =
2
s L
o
d L
I I D
V
V I D
R
=
=
29
L and C Values
Q
o o o
o o
V V DT V D
DT C V V
R RC RCf
| |
A = = A A = =
|
\ .
Maximum and minimum inductor current:




For CCM:



Output voltage ripple:
max
2
min
2
2 (1 ) 2
2 (1 ) 2
d d L
L
d d L
L
V D V DT i
I I
R D L
V D V DT i
I I
R D L
A
= + = +

A
= =

2
d
min
2
V (1 )
0
(1 ) 2 2
d
D V DT D R
L
R D L f

> =

30
V
d
L
D
C
R
L
S
+
V
o

f
R D
L
LCf
D
V
V
D
V
V
o
o
d
o
2
) 1 (
8
1
Buck
min
2

=
A
=
f
R D D
L
RCf
D
V
V
D V
V
o
o
d
o
2
) 1 (
1
1
Boost
2
min

=
=
A

=
f
R D
L
RCf
D
V
V
D
D
V
V
o
o
d
o
2
) 1 (
1
Boost Buck
2
min

=
=
A

=

V
d
L
D
C R
L
S
+
V
o

V
d
L
D
C
R
L
S
+
V
o

Converters in CCM: Summary


31
Exerccio
The buck-boost converter has the following
parameters: V
d
=12V, V
0
=-12V, R=12ohm,
f
s
=40kHz, C=200uF. Determine (a) Duty
cycle, (b) Average inductor current, (c)
Inductance for AI
L
=10%I
Lmax
, (d) Output
voltage ripple, (e) Minimum load for
continuous conduction mode.

32
Control of DC-DC Converter:
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
Comparator
V
control
Sawtooth
Waveform
V
o
(desired)
V
o
(actual)
+
-
Switch control
signal
Sawtooth
Waveform
V
control 1
Switch
control
signal
t
on 2
T
V
control 2
t
on 1
33
CONVERSORES CC/CC
MODO DESCONTNUO DE CONDUO
34
CONVERSOR BUCK
Desprezando-se as perdas:


Substituindo a corrente
mdia no indutor, tem-se:
0 in
P P =
2
0 0
2
d s
d s
s
V V DT V
V DT
L T R

| |
=
|
\ .
( )
2 2 2
0 0
2
d d s
V V V D T R LV =
0
2
2
8
1 1
d
s
V
V
Lf
RD
| |
|
|
=
|
+ +
|
\ .
35
CONVERSOR BUCK
Considerando a carga com uma fonte de corrente
constante, tem-se:
0
0 0
2
d s
d s
s
V V DT
V DT V I
L T

| |
=
|
\ .
2
0
2
0
2
d
d d s
V V D
V LI V D T
=
+
2
0
2
0
2
d
i s
V D
LI
V
D
VT
=
+
2
0
2
2
d
V D
V D I
=
'
+
36
CONVERSOR BOOST
( )
1 2
2
L
Lmed
s
I
I t t
T
A
= A + A
2
0
0
1
2
d s
d
V V T
D
V LI
= +
2
0
1
2
d
V D
V I
= +
'
37
CONVERSOR BUCK-BOOST
( )
1
2
L
Smed
s
I
I t
T
A
= A
2
0
0
2
d s
d
V V T
D
V LI
=
2
0
2
d
V D
V I
=
'
38
Exerccio
Considere um conversor boost operando no
MDC, com Vi=12-36V, V
0
=48V, fs=50kHz e
P
0
=120W. Obtenha o mximo valor de L para
garantir o modo descontnuo de conduo.
39
CONVERSORES CC/CC
CONVERSORES DERIVADOS
40
CONVERSOR CUK

41
CONVERSOR SEPIC

42
CONVERSOR ZETA

43
Outros Conversores No Isolados
Buck / Boost multifsicos;
Buck / Boost quadrticos;
Boost-Half Bridge / Buck-Boost Half-Bridge

44
CONVERSORES ISOLADOS
Forward 1 chave / 2 chaves
Push-Pull
Half-Bridge
Full-Bridge
FlyBack
Duplo Forward 1 ou 2 chaves
Sepic / Cuk / Zeta isolados
Conversores cc/cc trifsicos