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Alternator Basic Theory
For Generating Electricity We Require;  Coil.  Magnet.  Relative motion between the two.

NNNNNNNNSSSSSSSSSSSSS NNNNNNNSNSSSSSSSSSSS NNNNNNNSS NN NN

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Alternator Basic Theory
Other way to have relative motion is by rotation of magnet. S N

S N
N S

N S

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Alternator Basic Theory
Bicycle Dynamo
Simplest & most basic form of alternator is bicycle dynamo. Principle Rotor is a Two Pole Permanent Magnet. Voltage  Speed. Voltage  Strength of the magnet. (Can not be adjusted).

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Alternator Basic Theory
Brush System
Permanent magnet used earlier can be Principle replaced by an electromagnet. Output voltage can be atjusted at the same speed by changing DC supply. Disadvantages Two Carbon brushes are required to be used.

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Alternator Basic Theory
Brushless Separate excitation System
In order to avoid use of brushes we have to use a small alternator named ‘Exciter’. Principle Main Field, Rotating Rectifiers & Exciter Armature are mounted on the same shaft. Excitation supply comes from battery to exciter field instead of main field. In this case the DC power required for excitation is much lesser. Disadvantages This is an open loop system & input to exciter does not vary for variation in output voltage.
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Alternator Basic Theory
Self Excited & Regulated Shunt System In order to give correction in the exciter input according to the voltage output we have to use AVR. Principle
Different Types of AVR’s are being used in DG sets. The one that is being used currently is Basler

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TRAINING Short Circuit Main Main Back Up CT’s Field Armature Surge Supressor

WIN-S Rotating Rectifiers

Rotor

AVR Exciter Field

Exciter Armature

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AVR

End
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Alternator Basic Theory

N

Main Field
S

AC
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Alternator Separate Excitation Brush System
Main Field Slip Rings

N

S

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Alternator Separate Excitation Brushless System
Rotating Rectifiers Exciter
N Main Field

S

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Alternator Self Excitation Brushless System Rotating
N Main Field

Exciter

Rectifiers

S

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N

S

Neutral TerminalsSCM CT’S

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