13 - Operating Cisco Routers

By Muhammad Asghar Khan
Reference: CCENT/CCNA ICND1 Official Exam Certification Guide By Wendell Odom

1/2

Agenda
 

Differences between Switches & Routers Installing Cisco Routers
 

Installing Enterprise Routers Installing Internet Access Routers

 

Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI Cisco Router Configuration
   
2

Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) Router Interfaces Interface Status Codes Router Interface IP Addresses
www.asghars.blogspot.com

2/2

Agenda
 

Clock Rate & Bandwidth of Serial Interfaces Auxiliary (Aux) Port


Upgrading Cisco IOS
Cisco IOS Boot Process

3

www.asghars.blogspot.com

1/1

Differences between Switches & Routers

 

Switches forward Ethernet frames by comparing the frame’s destination MAC address to the switch’s MAC address table, whereas routers forward packets by comparing the destination IP address to the router’s IP routing table Ethernet switches typically have only one or more types of Ethernet interfaces, whereas routers have Ethernet interfaces, serial WAN interfaces, and other interfaces with which to connect via cable and digital subscriber line (DSL) to the Internet Switches operate on data link layer (L2) while routers provide the main feature of the network layer (L3) Even though their core purposes differ, Cisco routers and switches use the same CLI
4 www.asghars.blogspot.com

1/8

Installing Cisco Routers

Installing Enterprise Routers
 


A typical enterprise network has a few centralized sites as well as lots of smaller remote sites To support devices at each site (the computers, IP phones, printers, and other devices), the network includes at least one LAN switch at each site Each site has a router, which connects to the LAN switch and to some WAN link Figure on next slide shows the detailed diagram of part of an enterprise network The LAN connections all use UTP straight-through cabling pinouts, except for the UTP cable between the two switches, which is a crossover cable
www.asghars.blogspot.com

5

2/8

Installing Cisco Routers

The WAN cable installed by the telco typically has an RJ48 connector, which is the same size and shape as an RJ45 connector

6

www.asghars.blogspot.com

3/8

Installing Cisco Routers

Cisco has several router product series called Integrated Services Routers (ISR) In ISR many functions are integrated into a single device like Cisco offers single devices that act as both router and switch The Cisco 1841 ISR provides the internal CSU/DSU unit

7

www.asghars.blogspot.com

4/8

Installing Cisco Routers

Physical Installation 1. Connect any LAN cables to the LAN ports 2. If using an external CSU/DSU, connect the router’s serial interface to the CSU/DSU, and the CSU/DSU to the line from the telco 3. If using an internal CSU/DSU, connect the router’s serial interface to the line from the telco 4. Connect the router’s console port to a PC (using a rollover cable), as needed, to configure the router 5. Connect a power cable from a power outlet to the power port on the router 6. Turn on the router
www.asghars.blogspot.com

8

5/8

Installing Cisco Routers

Installing Internet Access Routers

Routers play a key role in Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) networks, connecting the LAN-attached end-user devices to a high-speed Internet access service A SOHO Installation with a Separate Switch, Router, and Cable Modem  Figure on next slide shows an example of the devices and cables used in a SOHO network to connect to the Internet using cable TV (CATV) as the high-speed Internet service  The end-user PCs still connect to a switch, and the switch still connects to a router’s Ethernet interface  The voice adapter converts analog voice to IP
www.asghars.blogspot.com

9

6/8

Installing Cisco Routers

Cable Modems /DSL Modems convert electrical signals between an Ethernet cable and either CATV or DSL

10

www.asghars.blogspot.com

7/8

Installing Cisco Routers

Physical Installation
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Connect a UTP straight-through cable from the router to the switch Connect a UTP straight-through cable from the router to the cable modem Connect the router’s console port to a PC (using a rollover cable), as needed, to configure the router Connect a power cable from a power outlet to the power port on the router Turn on the router

11

www.asghars.blogspot.com

8/8

Installing Cisco Routers

A SOHO Installation with an Integrated Switch, Router, and DSL Modem  SOHO devices include functions like router, switch, cable or DSL modem, voice adapter, wireless AP and hardware enabled encryption  SOHO Internet connection today probably looks more like as shown below with an integrated device

12

www.asghars.blogspot.com

1/3

Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI

The following configuration commands are the same on both routers and switches:
 


 

User and Enable (privileged) mode Configure terminal , end , and exit commands, and the Ctrl-Z key sequence Configuration of console, Telnet, and enable secret passwords Configuration of SSH encryption keys and username/password login credentials Configuration of the host name and interface description

13

www.asghars.blogspot.com

2/3

Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI
    

Configuration of Ethernet interfaces that can negotiate speed, using the speed and duplex commands Configuring an interface to be administratively disabled ( shutdown) and administratively enabled (no shutdown) Navigation through different configuration mode contexts using commands like line console 0 and interface CLI help, command editing, and command recall features The meaning and use of the startup-config (in NVRAM), running-config (in RAM), and external servers (like TFTP), along with how to use the copy command to copy the configuration files and IOS images
www.asghars.blogspot.com

14

3/3

Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI

The process of reaching setup mode either by reloading the router with an empty startup-config or by using the setup command

The following configuration commands are different in routers compared to switches:
  

The configuration of IP addresses differs in some ways The questions asked in setup mode differ Routers have an auxiliary (Aux) port, intended to be connected to an external modem and phone line, to allow remote users to dial into the router, and access the CLI, by making a phone call
www.asghars.blogspot.com

15

1/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Initial Configuration (Setup Mode)
 

The processes related to setup mode in routers follow the same rules as for switches You can reach setup mode either by booting a router after erasing the startup-config file or by using the setup enable-mode EXEC command Note, routers need to know the IP address and mask for each interface on which you want to configure IP, whereas switches have only one IP address Example on next slide demonstrates the use of setup mode
www.asghars.blogspot.com

16

2/11

Cisco Router Configuration

17

www.asghars.blogspot.com

3/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Router Interfaces
  

There are two general types of physical interfaces on routers: Ethernet interfaces and serial interfaces Routers use numbers to distinguish between the different interfaces of the same type The following example lists the interfaces in a router

18

www.asghars.blogspot.com

4/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Interface Status Codes

The two interface status codes (Line Status; refers to the L1 status & Protocol Status; refers to the L2 status) on the interface must be in an “up” state Four combinations of settings exist for the status codes when troubleshooting a network

19

www.asghars.blogspot.com

5/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Router Interface IP Addresses
 

Routers need an IP address on each interface If no IP address is configured, even if the interface is in an up/up state, the router will not attempt to send and receive IP packets on the interface Example on next slide shows a configuration of IP addresses on an interface
www.asghars.blogspot.com

20

6/11

Cisco Router Configuration

21

www.asghars.blogspot.com

7/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Clock Rate & Bandwidth of Serial Interfaces
  

Ethernet interfaces use either a single speed or one of a few speeds that can be auto-negotiated However, WAN links can run at a wide variety of speeds To deal with the wide range of speeds, routers physically slave themselves to the speed as dictated by the CSU/DSU through a process called clocking In effect, the CSU/DSU tells the router when to send the next bit over the cable, and when to receive the next bit, with the router just blindly reacting to the CSU/DSU for that timing
www.asghars.blogspot.com

22

8/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Routers use two different interface configuration commands that specify the speed of the WAN link connected to a serial interface, namely the clock rate and bandwidth interface subcommands The clock rate command dictates the actual speed (in bps)used to transmit bits on a serial link, but only when the physical serial link is actually created with cabling in a lab

23

www.asghars.blogspot.com

9/11

Cisco Router Configuration

The clock rate speed interface subcommand sets the rate in bits per second on the router that has the DCE cable plugged into it To find which router has the DCE cable in it, you can find out by using the show controllers command, which lists whether the attached cable is DCE or DTE

The second interface subcommand bandwidth tells IOS the speed (in kbps)of the link, in kilobits per second
www.asghars.blogspot.com

24

10/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Note, the bandwidth setting does not change the speed at which bits are sent and received on the link. Instead, the router uses it for documentation purposes, particularly; the EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols use the interface bandwidth settings to set their default metrics

Auxiliary (Aux) Port
 

The Aux port is connected via a cable (RJ-45, 4 pair, with straight-through pinouts) to an external analog modem The engineer uses a PC, terminal emulator, and modem to call the remote router
www.asghars.blogspot.com

25

11/11

Cisco Router Configuration

Aux ports can be configured beginning with the line aux 0 command to reach aux line configuration mode Cisco switches do not have an Aux port

26

www.asghars.blogspot.com

1/3

Upgrading Cisco IOS
  

Routers and switches store IOS images in Flash memory Flash memory is rewriteable, permanent storage Additionally, the IOS image can be placed on an external TFTP server, but external server is typically used for testing and not in production The copy tftp flash command is used to copy the IOS image from external server to flash memory During this process of copying the IOS image into Flash memory, the router asks for questions like IP of tftp server, the name of image file to be copied
27 www.asghars.blogspot.com

2/3

Upgrading Cisco IOS

Example below demonstrate these steps

28

www.asghars.blogspot.com

3/3

Upgrading Cisco IOS

Use the show flash command to verify the contents of Flash memory

Once the new IOS has been copied into Flash, the router must be reloaded (rebooted) to use the new IOS image

29

www.asghars.blogspot.com

1/6

Cisco IOS Boot Process

When a router first powers on, it follows four steps, these steps are graphically depicted in the following figure Router copies a
POST ROM Step 2 Bootstrap

Start

Step 1
Performs a power-on self-test to verify that all components work properly 1

Flash TFTP ROM NVRAM TFTP Console

bootstrap program from ROM into RAM, and runs the bootstrap 2 program bootstrap program decides which IOS image (from flash, tftp or rom) to load into RAM, and 3 loads that OS

IOS Image Step 3 Running Config File RAM

Step 4

30

IOS finds the configuration file (from nvram, tftp or console) typically the startup-config file in NVRAM and loads it into RAM as the www.asghars.blogspot.com running-config

4

2/6

Cisco IOS Boot Process

Cisco routers can use a different OS to perform some troubleshooting, to recover router passwords, and to copy new IOS files into Flash when Flash has been inadvertently erased or corrupted In the more recent additions to the Cisco router product line (e.g., 1800 and 2800 series routers), Cisco routers use only one other OS, whereas older Cisco routers (e.g., 2500 series routers) actually had two different operating systems to perform different subsets of these same functions
 
31

ROM Monitor (ROMMON) used in old and new routers Boot ROM(RxBoot, Boot Helper) only used in older routers
www.asghars.blogspot.com

3/6

Cisco IOS Boot Process

A router chooses the OS to load based on the low-order 4 bits (boot field) in the configuration register and the details configured in any boot system global configuration commands found in the startup-config file The configuration register is a special 16-bit number that can be set on any Cisco router The command config-register value is used to change the value of configuration register The 0x2100 causes the router to load the ROMMON OS instead of IOS
32 www.asghars.blogspot.com

4/6

Cisco IOS Boot Process

The process to choose which OS to load, on more modern routers that do not have an RxBoot OS, happens as follows:
  

If boot field = 0, use the ROMMON OS If boot field = 1, load the first IOS file found in Flash memory If boot field = 2-F:  Try each boot system command in the startup-config file, in order, until one works. If none of the boot system commands work, load the first IOS file found in Flash memory
www.asghars.blogspot.com

33

5/6

Cisco IOS Boot Process

Following is the several examples of the boot system commands:
  

boot system flash; load first file boot system flash filename; load file with specified name boot system tftp filename 10.1.1.1; load file from tftp server

34

www.asghars.blogspot.com

6/6

Cisco IOS Boot Process

The show version command supplies a both the current value of the

configuration
register and the expected value

at the next reload
of the router
35 www.asghars.blogspot.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful