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Bio-Ethanol

Bioethanol fuel is produced by the fermentation, distillation and dehydration of starch plants such as corn and wheat, sugar plants and sometimes trees. The alcohol is then formed (with additives to make it unsuitable for drinking) and can be used within cars in one of two ways. The bioethanol fuel can either be blended with petrol or used as a direct substitute for petrol (and occasionally diesel with suitable modifications to the vehicle). From an environmental point of view, bioethanol fuel is completely biodegradable and from well to wheel shows a 70% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions compared to petrol.

TRENDS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN NEPAL (1995-2003)


Total Energy Consumption 1000 TOE 1995 6647.19 Average Rate of Growth 2003 8282,13 Net Increment 2.27 % 24.59 %

Traditional Fuel Consumption 1995 6058.21 Average Rate of Growth 2003 7241.57 Net Increment Commercial Fuel Consumption 1995 581.59 Average Rate of Growth 2003 1002.52 Net Increment Petroleum products Fuel Consumption 1995 448.56 Average rate of Growth 2003 739.72 Net Increment High Speed Diesel Fuel Consumption 1995 201.71 Average Rate of Growth 2003 288.95 Net Increment

2.24 % 19.51 %

8.35 % 72.40 %

6.55 % 64.90 %

3.87 % 32.34 %

Kerosene Oil Fuel Consumption 1995 153.90 Average Rate of Growth 2003 266.95 Net Increment Motor Spirit Fuel Consumption 1995 27.49 Average Rate of Growth 2003 53.00 Net Increment Renewable Energy Consumption 1995 7.49 Average Rate of Growth 2003 39.04 Net Increment Bio-gas Energy Consumption 1995 6.99 Average Rate of Growth 2003 38.00 Net Increment Micro-hydro / Solar Energy Consumption 1995 0.50 Average Rate of Growth 2003 1.03 Net Increment

9.07 % 92.71 %

8.61 % 92.79 %

23.17 % 421.22 %

23.06 % 443.63 %

9.34 % 106.00 %
Source: WECS 2004 / CES 2004

Dr Rhiddi Bir Singh Bio-fuel Laboratory Center for Energy Studies, Institute of Engineering Tribuvan University, Pulchowk Campus,Lalitpur.

STATUS OF ENERGY SITUATION-2004 / 05

Contribution of Renewable & Non-renewable Energy Resources in the Total Energy Consumption
Total Energy Consumed -Traditional Fuels -Commercial Fuels -Renewable Fuels 369.209 million GJ 322.104 million GJ 44.903 million GJ 2.200 million GJ 87.24 % 12.16 % 0.59 %

Total Energy Generated from the Renewable Resources Traditional Bio-mass Fuels 322.104 million GJ Electricity 6.267 million GJ Renewable Fuels 2.200 million GJ 330.571 million GJ Total Energy Generated from the Non-renewable resources Petroleum Products 32.120 million GJ Coal 6.515 million GJ 38.635 million GJ

87.24 % 1.67 % 0.59 % 89.50 %

8.69 % 1.76 % 10.45 %

BIO-MASS FUELS Vs REST OF THE FUELS

Contribution of Bio-mass Based Fuels in Nepal Wood Fuels & Forest Residues 286.960 million GJ Agricultural Residues 13.963 million GJ Cattle Dung 21.181 million GJ Biogas 2.150 million GJ 324.254 million GJ

77.72 % 3.78 % 5.73 % 0.59 % 87.82 %

Contribution of the Non Bio-mass Based Fuels in Nepal Petroleum Products 32.120 million GJ Coal 6.515 million GJ Electricity 6.267 million GJ Micro-hydro & Solar 0.049 million GJ 44.951million GJ

8.69 % 1.76 % 1.69 % 0.01 % 12.15 %

EMERGING ISSUES OF BIO-MASS RELATED RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT


Despite the pressing need of the efficient energy commodity, which could be processed out of the available indigenous resources consistent developmental efforts are seriously lacking in the field of liquid bio-fuels generation in Nepal.

Emerging major issues of liquid bio-fuels, which are exclusively based on the local bio-mass resources
Domestic production and consumption of the bio-hydrocarbon oil from the Pine oleoresin as alternative to the imported non-renewable fossil fuel, the Kerosene oil in the rural areas. Domestic production and consumption of the power ethanol (Absolute Ethanol 99.5- 99.9 % v / v) from the sugarcane molasses as an Alternative to the imported non-renewable fossil fuel the Motor Spirit (MS) in urban areas. Domestic production and consumption of the bio-diesel from the nonconventional seed oil / fat resources as an Alternative to the imported nonrenewable fossil fuel the High Speed Diesel (HSD) in urban / rural areas.

EMERGING ISSUES OF BIO-MASS RELATED RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT


About 9 % of the nation's total energy contributed by the petroleum products consumed about 40 % of the national export earning amounting to Rs 22.60 billion (2004 / 05). The production of power / fuel ethanol in itself is an advanced technical step. The application of bio-ethanol to substitute the petrol / gasoline / motor spirit in the automobile is the advanced application of the agriculture based biomass. The substitution of kerosene oil by the bio-hydrocarbon oil distilled out from the Pine oleoresin will not only save the tree for at least 20 years, but also yield clean renewable liquid bio-fuel having 40 % fuel efficiency in the cooking stove besides, other non-timber forest product. The production of bio-diesel out of the plant based seed oils / fats actually require industrial technical processing system. Application of bio-diesel in place of fossil fuel diesel in the vehicles demonstrates the advanced application of the bio mass based liquid bio-fuel.

Resource Potential for Domestic Bio-ethanol Production in Nepal


About 20 % of the total land area are under agriculture practice in Nepal.
Sugarcane: -cultivated in 59000 hector -Yield: 2.212 million MT. (2004/2005) About 100000 MT of Molasses is estimated to be produced each year from the existing major sugar industries. 2003/04 Ethanol (Rectified Spirit) prod. in Nepal: 9931 KL(50.09% of capacity, 19823 KL)

Rectified Spirit is not the quality Fuel Ethanol and can not fulfill the E-10 E-100 fuel requirement of the nation.
2003: Absolute Ethanol Production Started in Nepal at Sri Ram Sugar Mills Pvt. Ltd., Garuda VDC-6, Rautahat District, with the installed capacity of 30000 (30 KL) per day.

-Production status was limited only at the trial level as the sale and purchase negotiation between the factory and the government could not be materialized.

Resource Potential for Domestic Bio-ethanol Production in Nepal


The factory had the stored stock of 180000 liter of power ethanol ready to use as the fuel bio-ethanol. The Installed Production Capacity can fulfill the 10 % of the total MS imported for E-10 fuel. 300 day x 30 KL = 9000 KL Absolute Ethanol 99.8 % v / v.

ANALYTICAL REPORT OF THE FUEL GRADE BIO-ETHANOL MANUFACTURED IN NEPAL


Parameter Ethanol Content Appearance Water Content Boiling Range Specific Gravity Copper Content Acidity (As Acetic Acid) Unit %v/v -----% oC At 15 o C mg / kg mg / l Observed Value 99.75 Transparent free from Suspended Particles 0.25 7475 o C 0.7925 0.11 6.80

Source: R.B.Singh and R.Bhandari 2006

ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF DOMESTICALLY GENERATED E-10 GASOHOL FUEL

About Rs. 115 million would have been saved in 2004 if the Government declaration (Magh 2060) had been actually implemented.

ENVIRONMENT BENEFFIT OF DOMESTICALLY GENERATED E-10 GASOHOL FUEL

The exhaust emission gases collected after the application of E-10 fuel containing the bio-ethanol produced within the country the decreased level of CO, CO2 and HC (hydrocarbons) were measured and compared with that of pure MS. The emission of CO decreased by The emission of CO2 decreased by The emission of HC decreased by 28.2333.13 % 21.6624.50 % 18.53----29.47 %

Source: R.B.Singh and R.Bhandari 2006