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Prepared by: BSCoE-3

Objectives
To know what is a Technical Report. To enumerate and discuss the Basic Elements of a Technical Report. To name the stages of Technical Reporting Procedures. To know the organization and style of Technical Reporting.

Definition
A Technical Report is one of the basic components of business communication. It is a document that encompasses all aspects of a project, process or results of a research process. However, mostly, it is used to document a research process whether it be technical or scientific.

Definition
A Technical Report (also: scientific report) is a document that describes the process, progress, or results of technical or scientific research or the state of a technical or scientific research problem.

Definition
Technical reports present facts and conclusions about your designs and other projects. Typically, a technical report includes research about technical concepts as well as graphical depictions of designs and data. A technical report also follows a strict organization. This way, when other engineers read what you write, they can quickly locate the information that interests them the most.

Definition
Technical Reports are used for dissemination of important information about the research processes in an organization. Organizations who sponsor the research procedure are given these reports for evaluation and review purpose.

Elements
Title Page - List the title of your report, the words "Final Report," "Prepared by" (your name), "Submitted to" (name of organization or individual), and the date.

Elements
Abstract - briefly informs of purpose, scope, and findings.

Elements
Table of Contents (TOC) - List the titles of all sections and subsections that appear in the report and the corresponding page number.

Elements
List of Tables - List the titles of all the tables included in the report, along with the corresponding page number.

Elements
List of Figures List the titles of all the figures included in the report, along with the corresponding page number

Elements
Summary
Include a brief summary of your report stating the problem addressed in this study, the principal objectives, the methods employed, and the major results and conclusions. summary should be generally no longer than 5% of the length of the entire report. A onepage long summary shall be adequate for your project. Even though this section appears first, you normally write it last.

Elements
Introduction
Provide some background on the issue of interest and a concise problem statement. List clearly the major objectives of your study. Describe briefly the organization of the subject report (optional).

Elements
Methodology - Explain the methods you used to carry out your study. - Discuss the structure of the analysis (what was analyzed first, what was analyzed next).

Elements
Data Collection and Reduction Discuss the types of data collected and the methods employed for data collection. Briefly describe the data reduction and data management process. Provide data summaries using tables, flowcharts, graphs and sketches.

Elements
Results Report the main findings from the data analysis. Include tables and graphs, as needed, to clearly illustrate the results.

Elements
Discussion Interpret the results obtained from the data analysis. Perform comparisons (if appropriate) and discuss your observations.

Elements
Conclusions List the conclusions reached as a result of the study. List the conclusions in order of importance.

Elements
Recommendations Provide recommendations based on the results from the data analysis. Caution the reader about any assumptions and limitations. Identify issues that remain unresolved (if appropriate).

Elements
References Provide a list of references that you consulted in constructing your report. Referencing style should comply to the guidelines that you followed in your Research Paper

Elements
List(s) of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms used to explain the meaning of symbols, abbreviations, and acronyms; needed if there are more than 5 not readily recognized as standard

Process
Stages of Report Writing
There are four stages to follow when writing your reports. This will help you to save time and to write good reports.

1. Preparation 2. Organizing 3. Writing 4. Revise

Process
1. Preparation
This is the collection and organizing of the information and facts necessary for the report. Remember what the objective of the report is and what information is required. If you are writing a report at the end of a shift/outing/activity it might be helpful to take notes during the activity or before you start writing the final report so you dont forget important details. This will also help you to carry out the next step.

Process
2. Organizing It is necessary to put the facts and information into logical sequence before writing up the report. This is where your notes will come in useful.

Process
3. Writing Writing must be legible and sentences short. Take care with grammar and punctuation to ensure easy reading. Statements must be written objectively. Objective statements Subjective statements Value judgements

Process
Objective statements - these are statements based on fact. They can be observed and are not affected by the writers personal opinion or emotions. For example:
He had one piece of toast and a cup of coffee for breakfast She smiled when her parents entered the room

Process
Subjective statements - these are statements based on the writers individuals opinions, emotions and judgements. They are biased and unreliable. Subjective statements should not be used in your reports. For example:
He had enough to eat at breakfast Her attitude was bad all shift

Process
Value judgements - these are statements based on the writers value system. How we interpret events is determined by our past experiences and our values, attitudes and prejudices. Reports should state facts rather than make value judgements. For example:
He had a good breakfast. He is a good person.

Process
4. Revise When the report is finished make sure you read through it. Check that it is concise, correct, easy to read and includes only essential information.

Style
Writing Style

Technical writers usually use a more formal writing style than do nontechnical writers. A degree of formality is required because the personal style of a technical writer must be secondary to the clear and objective transmission of information. Any injection of personality that obscures the exact meaning is undesirable. But this does not mean that technical writing has to be dull and rigidly stereotyped. All writers should strive to make their writing enjoyable to read. Therefore attempt to develop a writing style that is both clear and interesting.

Style Writing Naturally Guiding the Reader Getting to the point Emphasizing Major ideas Separating Fact From Opinion

Style
Writing Naturally
Imperative in developing a good writing style is writing naturally. To avoid a stilted style, write in a way that comes easily, using words and phrases that come naturally to you. Do not try to impress readers with your vocabulary, but be certain that the words you use convey your exact meaning. Your readers will be interested in what you have to say and not in how eloquently you say it. Avoid long, complicated terms if shorter and more familiar ones are available. But be careful not to use jargon because it may be misinterpreted.

Style
Guiding the Reader
To achieve clarity and continuity in a report, you must carefully direct your readers' attention throughout the report. Many successful writers do this by using the three classic principles of presentation: Tell readers what you plan to tell them (Introduction). Then tell them (main text). Finally tell them what you told them (Summary of Results or Conclusions).

Style
State your purpose or objective clearly and follow it with a concise description of the method you will use in presenting the subsequent discussion. Then proceed with your presentation, making certain that it is consistent in every respect with your plan. Finally summarize your conclusions and recommendations.

Style
Getting to the Point
Technical reports are not mystery novels; get to the point as directly as possible. Do not lead your readers in and out of blind alleys before taking them to the final destination. Omit information that does not directly relate to the conclusions. Remember, readers are interested primarily in conclusions and supporting evidence.

Style
If you must include some information or discussion that may be of interest but is not directly pertinent to your conclusions, put it in an appendix. Using an appendix allows you to bring up points that may be of interest to some of your readers without distracting the reader who is interested solely in your conclusions.

Style
Emphasizing Major Ideas
Because the purpose of technical reports is to transmit ideas, emphasize your major ideas so that they cannot be missed. To do this, clearly subordinate any supporting information to the major ideas. The report outline is particularly useful here because it establishes the major and supporting points for each section of the report.

Style
Your major ideas can also be emphasized by briefly stating them at the beginning of each section and then summarizing them at the end of the section. Emphasis can also be aided by careful use of headings.

Style
Separating Fact From Opinion
Reports should clearly differentiate between facts and opinions. Many authors are remiss in doing this, overlapping discussions of their experimental results and the conclusions they have drawn. Carefully alert your readers when fact ends and opinion begins.

Style
The statement of your opinions is an instance where the use of the first person is desirable. For example, if you follow the presentation of some specific results with "It is believed that . . .," your readers cannot be sure if this is your opinion or a generally accepted belief. To avoid this confusion, use the first-person pronoun to say, for example, "From these results I conclude that . . ."