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Cc tiu chun nn

Sv: Cao vn hip DT1 K4

Chun nn MPEG
I: chun nn MPEG + khi qut v MPEG + MPEG - 1 + MPEG - 2 + MPEG - 4 + MPEG - 7

Khi qut v MPEG


Chun nn MPEG (Moving Picture Expert Group) l chui cc chun nn video vi mc ch l m ho tn hiu hnh nh v m thanh tc t 1,5 50 Mbit/s. Nn d liu audio vi t l t 5:1 10:1.
+ MPEG - 1: nn nh ng c kch thc 320 x 240, tc bit cn t 1 Mbit/s n 1,5 Mbi/s dng cho ghi hnh trn bng t v a quang (CD), ng thi truyn dn trong cc mng. + MPEG - 2: c s dng cho cc ng dng cao hn vi tc cn 10Mbit/s, truyn tn hiu truyn hnh s thng thng. + MPEG - 3: nn tn hiu s xung cn 50 Mbit/s truyn tn hiu truyn hnh c phn gii cao. + MPEG - 4: dng cho nn hnh nh video vi t khung hnh v yu cu lm ti chm. Tc d liu yu cu l 940 Kbit/s. MPEG - 4 pht trin cc tiu chun m ho i vi tc bit rt thp. + MPEG - 7: m t thng lin ca rt nhiu loi phng tin, cho php kh nng tm kim nhanh v hiu qu theo yu cu

Cc cu trc nh
loi I (In tra Picture): l nh c m ho ring, tng t nh vic m ho nh tnh trong JPEG. nh I cha ng d liu ti to li ton b hnh nh v cho php truy cp ngu nhin. Tuy nhin t t l nn thp nht. loi P (Predicted pictre): l nh c m ho c b chuyn ng t cc nh I hoc P pha trc (nh d on trc). nh P cho t s nn cao hn nh I, c th lm mt nh so snh cho vic b chuyn ng cc nh P v B khc. loi B (Bi Directional Predicted Pictutre): l anh c m ho s dng b chuyn ng t cc nh I hoc P pha trc v pha sau (nh d on hai chiu).

nh B cho t l nn cao nht v c nhiu u im: - Gii quyt c cc vn thay i nh cng nh khng d bo c s thay i v ni dung hnh nh. - Vic s dng b chuyn ng t hai nh cho t s tn hiu/tp m tt hn nu nh ch s dng b chuyn ng t mt nh. - nh B khng s dng l nh so snh cho nh khc nn n c th m ho vi s lng bit thp v khng gy li tr trn ng truyn. loi D (Dc-coded Pictre): l nh c s ng trong MPEG - 1 v MPEG - 4 nhng khng c s dng MPEG -2. nh c cc thnh phn mt chiu u ra DCT c th hin.

Nhm nh (GOP) Vi chun MPEG, cht lng nh khng nhng ph thuc vo t l nn trong tng khun hnh m cn ph thuc vo di ca nhm nh. Nhm nh GOP (Group Of Pictre) mang thng tin c lp ca MPEG. c mt khun hnh hon chnh, nh P v B cn phi c d liu t cc nh ln cn. Mi nhm nh bt buc phi bt u bng mt nh I hon chnh sau l cc nh P v B. Nhm nh c th m (Open) hoc ng (Close).

nh P (nh 4) c d bo trc trn c s nh I (nh I). nh B c d on t hai hng, nh B (nh 2) v nh B (nh 3) c d on t hai nh, nh I (nh I) v nh P (nh 4). nh B (nh 5) c d on t 2 nh, nh P (nh 4) v nh I tip theo (nh 6). Th t truyn nh v hin nh trn mn hnh l khng ging nhau.

Cu truc dong bit MPEG

Kin truc dong d liu MPEG

Tiu chun nn MPEG-1


Trong tiu chun nn MPEG-1 gim phc tp v gi thnh b gii m,th MPEG-1 c mt s tham s mc nh thnh hng s theo bng:
Tham s rng nh Chiu cao nh Tc nh S lng MB Gii vecter chuyn ng Kch thc b m u vo Tc bt Gi tr cc i 768 im 576 dng 30 nh/s 396 +_ 64 im 327.680 bit 1,8Mbps

C php dng bt gm 6 lp s dng c hai dng nn: - nn intre:bin i DCT,lng t ho,m ho VLC cho nh I - nn Inter c lng chuyn ng,to d bo c b chuyn ng cho nh B v P. MPEG-1 c mt vi tiu chun sau: - Ch c cu trc ly mu 4:2:0. - Kch thc nh ti a 720x576 pixel - di mu u vo 8 bit - Lng t ho DCT 9 bit - Lng t cho MB 16x16 - di cc i h s DC l 8 bit - S dng khung P v B - chnh xc d bo chuyn ng l na im - Tc bt ti a 1.85 mbps

H thng nn MPEG -1

Qu trnh m ho MPEG-1

Qu trnh gii m

Qu trnh gii m MPEG-1

Tiu chun nn MPEG-2


MPEG-2 gm 4 phn: - p1:h thng(iso/iec 13818-1):xc nh cu trc ghp knh audio,video cung cp ng b thi gian thc - p2:h thng(iso/iec 13828-2) xc nh nhng thnh phn m ho i din cho d liu video v x l gii m khi phc. - P3: audio(iso/iec 13818-3) m ho v gii m tn hiu m thanh - p4: biu din(iso/iec 13818-3) nh ngha qu trnh kim tra cc yu cu ca MPEG-2. So vi MPEG-1 th MPEG-2 c nhiu tin b v kch thc nh v tc phn gii nh

Kh nng co gin v ng dng MPEG-2


Kh nng co gin l kh nng gii m c 1 phn dng bit MPEG-2 c lp vi phn cn li nhm khi phc video vi cht lng hn ch.c nhiu loi co gin nh sau: + co gin khng gian:dng bit co nhiu lp video v c phn gii khc nhau. + co gin SND:c nhiu lp video,c cng phn gii khng gian nhng SNR khc nhau + co gin thi gian:c phn gii thi gian khc nhau + co gin phn chia s liu:chia lm 2 phn(u tin cao-h s DCT tn s thp:u tin thp-h s DCT tn s cao)

Phm vi ng dng ca MPEG-2 rt ln.n c 4 cp :

Level
Low Main

C khung
352x288(1/4 c tivi chun) 720x576(c tivi chun)

High-1440
High

1440x1152
960x576 hoc 1920x1152

Nn MPEG-2 c chui cc mc (Level) v c tnh (Profile) c dng cho nhiu ng dng khc nhau. Phn chia cc cu trc thnh cc tp con gi l Profile. Trong phm vi mi Profile ch cho php s dng cc phn t ca cc phn t va phi trong cu trc tn hiu y .

Ghp knh audio-video s theo chun MPEG-2


H thng truyn tn hiu MPEG-2 h thng MPEG-2 s dng cu trc d liu dng gi nh gi liu trong mng truyn thng.cc gi d liu lun lun bao gm phn u(header) v phn ti(pay load)

Tiu chun nn MPEG-2


Cu trc dng bit video MPEG-2
Cu trc dng bit video MPEG-2 c s phn lp v l s m rng c php ca cu trc MPEG-L. N bao gm cc chc nng ca MPEG-L, c ngha l chng tng hp vi nhau. C hai hng i trong dng bit MPEG-2, hoc theo quy trnh ca MPEG-L hoc theo chc nng m rng ca MPEG-2.

MPEG-2 c kh nng x l chui video xen k. S m ho c th thch nghi vi s la chn Field hoc Frame trong khi MPEG-L ch c mt mode c nh. Chui video c bt u m ho bng Sequence Header, sau l chui m rng (nu c) v cc nhm nh. Nu phn chui m rng khng c xc nh (khng c m bo c thnh phn m rng), cc lp tn hiu tip theo khi s thc hin quy trnh ging MPEG-L, l tng hp thun. Header ca nhm nh c chc nng tng t nh Header ca MPEG-L v khng c chc nng c bit trong Extension Header ca GOP. Cc thng s quan trng dng m ho m rng c xc nh ngha trong Extension Header ca nh.