You are on page 1of 22

Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) For Lower Extremities

ENGN ETN Physcal Theraphy and Rehabilitation Faculty 4.Course 5.Group

The method:
Patient contract isometrically resulted in increased response of the agonist, this was named rhythmic stabilization. Following using this stabilization, it was found slow reversal technique, alternate resistance to isotonic contractions of antagonist and agonist also had a facilitating effect. Definitions of PNF: Proprioceptive, means receiving stimulation within the tissues of the body. Neuromuscular, means pertaining to the nerves and muscles. Facilitation, means the effect produced in nerve tissue by the passage of an impulse.

To perform PNF exercises, it is important to remember the following Principles: Patient must be taught the pattern. Have the patient watch the moving limb moved passively. The patient must give proper verbal command. Manual contact with appropriate pressure is very important. Contraction of the muscle group is facilitated by hand placement. Apply maximal resistance throughout ROM. Resistance will change. Rotation of movement will change throughout ROM. Distal movement should occur first .

All patterns have three components:


Flexion-extension Abduction-adduction Internal rotation-external rotation

Upper and lower extremity have 2 diagonal patterns Trunk patterns are called chopping and lifting Neck patterns involve flexion/rotation to one side and extension/rotation to the other

Patterns

There are two diagonals of motion for each of the major parts of the body The head and neck, the upper trunk, The lower trunk the extremities.

Each diagonal is made up of two patterns that are antagonistic of each other Each pattern has a major component of flexion or one of extension Their being two flexion and two extension pattern of the major parts

D1 Flexion D2 Flexion D1 Extension D2 Extension

Each spiral and diagonal pattern is 3component motion which takes place in anatomical plain Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction External Supination and inversion Internal Pronation and Eversion Motion Components

Proximal pivot,

Intermediate
Distal

Upper / Lower Extremities

Proximal pivot In Lower Extremity


Hip flexion and extension are combined with adduction and abduction and external and internal rotation Adduction is consistent with external rotation Abduction is consistent with internal rotation.

Intermediate pivots

The intermediate joints , the elbow and knee , may remain straight or they may flex or extend Distal pivots (components of motion are consistent with proximal components regardless of intermediate joint action )

Distal Pivots

Digital pivots

Distal pivot is always Consistent with proximal joint motion and with those of wrist and hand or ankle and foot , regardless of intermediate joint action

Lower Extremity
Plantar flexion of the ankle and foot is consistent with hip extension Dorsiflexion of ankle and foot is consistent with hip flexion Inversion of foot and motion toward tibial side is consistent with hip adduction & external rotation . Eversion of foot and motion to fibular side is consistent with hip abduction and internal rotation.

Extension with abduction of the toes is combined with dorsiflexion of the foot and ankle and consistent with hip flexion. Flexion with adduction of toes is combined with plantar flexion and is consistent with the hip extension.

Lower Extremity

Toes rotate towards the tibial side with inversion of the foot and hip adduction and external rotation .
Toes rotate towards the fibular side with eversion and hip abduction and internal rotation .

MAJAOR MUSCLE COMPONENT

1. MMC of a given pattern are related by their topographical alignment upon the skeleton system and are primarily responsible for movement.

e.g. Flexion Adduction - External of the lower limb Extension- Abduction Internal of the lower limb.

2) The muscles secondarily responsible for a pattern are those most closely related by location and function.

These muscles provide overlapping between patterns, having one or two common components of action. e.g. Extension Adduction External rotation pattern is optimal for gluteus maximus

Extension abduction Internal rotation main action is by glutei medius, minimus and a part of gluteus maximus will cooperate 3. This type of overlapping is characteristics of the major muscle component of proximal pivot.

LINE OF MOVEMENT

1.The spiral and diagonal patterns of facilitation provide for an optimal contraction of major muscle component. 2.In a pattern of movement the muscle contract from their completely lengthened state to their completely shortened state. 3.Starting position (lengthened state) of a given pattern the major muscle components are in their completely lengthened state, the fibres of related muscles are subjected to maximum stretch for facilitation.

4.When major muscle component contract., the subject or pattern, moves the part from the lengthened range through the available Range Of Motion to the shortened range. 5.In the shortened range of pattern the major muscle component have reached their completely shortened state within the anatomical structure. 6.The half between lengthening and shortening range is referred as Middle Range.

Positioning of a pattern

1.Positioning of a pattern in lengthened range of a pattern requires consideration of all the components of motion from proximal to distal. E.g. flexion extension are considered first. 2.The MMC of flexion or extension are considered first 3.The motion relative to the midline is next considered. If adduction required is moved to abduction. 4.Rotation is considered last. If external rotation, the part is place in internal rotation 5. All components are combined for diagonal placement

Lower Extremity D1 Flexion

Starting position

Hand positions (for R side) Movements

Hip extension, abduction and internal rotation; ankle plantarflexion; foot eversion; toe flexion L hand on distal, anterior/medial thigh, R hand on medial dorsal aspect of foot
Hip flexion, adduction and external rotation; ankle dorsiflexion; foot inversion; toe extension

Lower Extremity D1 Extension

Starting position

Hand positions (for R side) Movements

Hip flexion, adduction and external rotation; ankle dorsiflexion; foot inversion; toe extension L hand on distal, posterior/lateral thigh, R hand on lateral plantar aspect of foot Hip extension, abduction and internal rotation; ankle plantarflexion; foot eversion; toe flexion

Starting position

Hand positions (for R side) Movements

Hip extension, adduction and external rotation; ankle plantarflexion; foot inversion; toe flexion L hand on distal, anterior/lateral thigh, R hand on dorsal lateral aspect of foot

Hip flexion, abduction and internal rotation; ankle dorsiflexion; foot eversion; toe extension

Lower Extremity D2 Flexion

Starting position

Hand positions (for R side) Movements

Hip flexion, abduction and internal rotation; ankle dorsiflexion; foot eversion; toe extension L hand on distal, posterior/medial thigh, R hand on plantar medial aspect of foot

Hip extension, adduction and external rotation; ankle plantarflexion; foot inversion; toe flexion

Lower Extremity D2 Extension