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RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

Meaning
The process of searching for and obtaining applicants for jobs, from among whom the right people can be selected

Edwin Flippo- Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organization It may be defined as a search for promising job applicants to fill the vacancies that may arise in the organization.

Purposes and Importance


Determine the present and future requirements Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost Reduce the probability of employee turn over Increase the success rate of the selection process Increase organizational and individuals effectiveness

EFFECTS
Positive Recruitment Process
Attract highly qualified and competent people Ensure that the selected candidates stay longer with the company Make sure that there is match between cost and benefit Help the firm create more culturally diverse work-force

Negative Recruitment Process


Failure to generate qualified applicants There is no match between cost and benefit Extra cost on training and supervision Increases the entry level pay scales

External Factors Supply and Demand Unemployment rate Labor market Political-social Sons of soil Image

Internal Factors Recruitment Policy HRP Size of the firm Cost Growth and Expansion

Recruitment

RECRUITMENT PROCESS
Planning Strategy development Searching Screening Evaluation and control

20

30
40 200 2000

Offers/Acceptance (3:2) Interviews/Offers (4:3) Screening/Invites (5:1) Contacts/Screens (10:1)

STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT
Technological sophistication Where to look How to look
The strategy must be designed in such a way that it attract as many applicant as many applicant as possible.

Evaluation of the sources of Recruitment


Two important sources of recruitment in every firminternal and external Internal sources-existing employees, the former employees and employee referrals External sources-employee exchange, employment associations professional associations, public advertisement, etc

E - Recruiting

Screening Directing potential hires to skill assessment Conduct background checks Interview through video conferencing

Cost savings ,Speed enhancement , Geographical reach Unqualified candidates may appear, more e mails, resumes, internet access is a must.

EVALUATION & CONTROL Salaries for Recruiters Management & professional time spent on preparing job description,job specification advertisements,liaison etc.. Cost of advertisement Cost of producing supporting literature Recruitment overheads & administrative expenses Cost of overtime & outsourcing

PHILOSOPHIES OF RECRUITING
Traditional philosophy to get as many people to apply for a job as possible Waiting in queues Job dissatisfaction & employee turnover Emphasis is on matching the needs of the organization to the needs of the applicants Minimize employee turnover & enhance satisfaction

Sources of Recruitment
Internal Sources
Present Employees Employee Referrals Former Employees Previous Applicants

External sources
Professional Trade associations Advertisements Employment exchanges College / University / Institute placement services Walk-ins and Write-ins Outsourced to Recruitment Agencies Contractors Displaced persons Radio and Television

Advantages Benefits of new skills, new talents and new experiences to organization Compliance with reservation policy is easy Scope for resentment, jealousies and heartburn are avoided Disadvantages Better morale and motivation associated with internal recruiting is denied to the organization It is costly Chances of creeping in false positive and fake negative errors Adjustment of new employees to the organizational culture takes longer time

ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT
Because of the cost of recruiting OVERTIME - When demand for product peaks - additional income for employee - It results in Fatigue, increased accidents & more absenteeism - Need to pay double wages

EMPLOYEE LEASING
- Often called Staff outsourcing - Useful to small & medium sized firms TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT - Low labour costs - Easy access to experienced labour - Flexibility in future - DISADVANTAGE- Do not know the work culture of the firm

SELECTION
DEFINITION: It is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify (and hire) those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. Selection is the managerial decision-making process to predict which job applicants will be successful if hired

Difference between Recruitment &selection


Recruitment
1 The process of procurement begins with the recruitment of candidate from different sources Since the aim of recruitment is to gather as many applicants as possible for the jobs in an organization, it is a positive task Recruitment is comparatively easy as it does not require expertise on the part of the recruiters to build an applicant pool

Selection
The process of procurement ends with the selection of the necessary number of candidate for the jobs Selection attempts to eliminate applicants in different stages to end up with a smaller number of requisite candidates, & is thus a negative task Selection is difficult job as it requires specialized knowledge & skills on the part the selectors to choose the best candidates by predicting their likely performance Selection is basically a screening functions as it screens the candidates for their suitability for the jobs offered

Recruitment is basically a searching function as it searches for prospective candidates for the jobs offered

SELECTION PROCESS
Preliminary interview Application Forms/Blanks Selection tests Employment interview References and background analysis Selection decision Physical examination Job offer Employment contract Evaluation

REJECTED APPLICANTS

Application blank
Information from the candidates Biographical information Educational qualification Work experience Pay & other perquisites Additional information Reference

Selection Tests
Since there are difference in the abilities, aptitudes, interest &personality traits of individuals, it is essential to measure these differences effectively & accurately to determine their suitability for the jobs. This may be done with help of selection tests, also called psychological tests. A psychological test is a standardized measure of behavior. A test is a systematic procedure for comparing the behavior of two or more persons

Uses of psychological test


psychological tests are useful for HR manager in several ways. These tests are essential for Selecting & placing employees Determining their career plan Assessing their job performance & potential Counseling them in conflicting situations

Types of psychological tests


Ability test-ability refers to the capability of a person to do a particular job. The ability of a person commonly denotes the combination of mental ability(memory & inductive reasoning),physical ability(stamina& body condition)& motor ability(finger dexterity& reaction time). An organization may resort to any one or more of the following teste:

Intelligent test
This test assesses the memory, vocabulary, verbal comprehension, thought fluency, inductive reasoning & numerical skills of a candidate. The unique of this test is that it measures several abilities of the candidate and derives the intelligence score IQ= (Mental age/ actual age)X100

Aptitude test
This test measures the latent talents of a person that may be crucial to performing the job successfully. This test appropriate for predicting the future ability &/performance of the candidate.

Achievement test
Measure the knowledge gained by a person in his/her job. It evaluates the claims made by the job holders regarding their performance & skill acquired in the job. Proficiency test, performance test & trade test

2.Personality test
It refers to the sum of the characteristics of a person which reflect on his response to a particular situation. The characteristics may include, among other things, introversion, inter-personal skills, motivation, stability, self-belief, courage, attitude & temperament. Rorschach Blot test(RBT),Thematic Apperception test(TAT), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality test(MMPT)& MyerBriggs type indicator (MBIT)

Interest test
A person mental & physical abilities are not sufficient to achieve a desirable job performance. The aim of the interest test is to know the interest, attitude and preference of a person towards the job offered

Honesty or integrity test


Organization may feel a need to ascertain the honesty of the candidates to ensure that they have not furnished any false information in the application form & also to safeguard themselves from the frauds and misappropriation.

THE SELECTION INTERVIEW


Interview a selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants oral responses to oral inquires A purposeful exchange of ideas, the answering of questions and communication between two or more persons

Kinds of interviews
Structured interview Unstructured interview In-depth interview Stress interview Panel interview Computerized interview

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
EXTERNAL
Supply and demand in labour market Unemployment rate Legal and political considerations Companys image

INTERNAL
Companys policy Cost of hiring

Selection Decision

The most critical of all steps Final decision is made after tests interviews and reference checks. It becomes a daunting task when selection. many job-seekers lined for final

HR Manager and Line Manager play a crucial here.

Job Offer

Job offer is made through a letter of Appointment( when to report on duty )

Appointee should be give reasonable time for reporting.


Appointee is also required to obtain a relieving certificate. Decency demands that rejected applicants should be informed. Their application can be preserved for future use, if any.

Barriers for Effective Selection

Perception
Fairness Validity Reliability Pressure

Evaluation and Conclusion of Selection Programme: - Reassuring the non selected candidate.
- An Audit for evaluation.

Orientation
Orientation is the process of planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their coworkers, & the organization Purpose of orientation: Formally welcoming employees Overcoming initial uneasiness and hesitation Exchanging information Assessing employees Acclimatizing employees Controlling the HR cost Developing the team spirit

Placement
Placement is the process of finding an appropriate fit between the people and the positions in an organization.