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Welcome HRM207 Human Resources Learning and Development Week 5, Semester 1, 2012

(Based on Noe and Winkler, 2009)


Todays Agenda
Lecture Transfer of training - Introduction - Theories of transfer - Self-management strategies - Work environment - Learning organisations

Transfer of training: extent to which trainees effectively and continually apply what they have learnt in training to their jobs.

Model of the transfer process

End point
Generalization - a trainees ability to apply learned capabilities to on-the-job work problems and situations that are similar but not identical to those problems and situations encountered in the learning environment.

Maintenance - process of continuing to use newly acquired capabilities over time.

Trainee characteristics

Motivation Ability

Training Design

Create a learning environment Apply theories of transfer Use self-management strategies

Work environment

Climate for transfer Management and peer support Opportunity to perform Technological support

Theories of transfer x 3 1. Identical Elements = simulations (visual, kinasethetic & spatial similarities; degree of perceived realism) eg pilot simulators, maritime, business

Theories of transfer 1 theory of identical elements


Theory of Transfer 2: Stimulus Generalisation Approach

Emphasises Far Transfer is the trainees ability to transfer the training to the work environment even though not identical teaches general concepts & broad principles A connection needs to be made by the trainee to place the training received in the context of their work reality


Theories of transfer 2 stimulus generalisation approach


Theory of Transfer 3 Cognitive theory of transfer

Based on the information processing model Recall and retrieval of information are vital aspects Must be meaningful material to trainees application assignments. These are work problems that the trainees are asked to solve by applying the training concepts


Theories of transfer 3 cognitive theory of transfer


Self-management strategies
Self-management involves: Determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for using newly acquired skills Setting goals for using learned capabilities Applying learned capabilities to the job Monitoring use of learned capabilities on the job Engaging in self-reinforcement


Self-management strategies


Work environment

Climate for Transfer

Manager Support

Peer Support

Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities

Technological Support


Climate for transfer

- trainees perceptions about a wide variety of characteristics of the work environment that facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior.


Climate for transfer


Manager Support

-refers to the degree to which managers: emphasize the importance of attending training programs.

stress the application of training content to the job


Manager Support
Teaching in program Practice skills Reinforcement Participation Encouragement Acceptance Accommodate attendance at training through rearranging work schedule; endorse employees attending training Permit employees to attend training; acknowledge importance of training Discuss progress with trainees; ask how to support trainees use of new capabilities


Participate as trainer

Allow trainees opportunity to practice

Attend session



Manager Support
Action plan - written document that includes the steps that the trainee and manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job. Includes: goal identifying what training content will be used and how it will be used. strategies for reaching the goal. strategies for receiving feedback. expected outcomes. progress check schedule.


Peer support
Support network - group of two or more trainees who agree to meet and discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job which may involve face-to-face meetings or communications via e-mail.


Opportunity to use learned capabilities

- the extent to which the trainee is provided with or actively seeks experiences that allow for application of the newly learned knowledge, skill, and behaviors from the training program.

Opportunity to perform is determined by breadth, activity level, and task type. Low levels of opportunity to perform may indicate that: - the work environment is interfering with using new skills. - training content is not important for the employees job.


Technological support
Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) computer applications that can provide: - skills training - information access - expert advice Used to enhance transfer of training by providing trainees with an electronic information source that they can refer to on an as-needed basis while they attempt to apply learned capabilities on the job.


Learning organisations
An organisation that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change
Training processes are carefully scrutinised and aligned with company goals

Training is seen as one part of a system designed to create human capital


Key features
Continuous learning

Employees share learning with each other Use job as a basis for applying and creating knowledge Systems are developed for creating, capturing and sharing knowledge

Knowledge generation and sharing

Critical systematic thinking

Employees are encouraged to think in new ways, see relationships and feedback loops and test assumptions


Key features
Learning culture

Learning is rewarded, promoted and supported by managers and company objectives

Encouragement of flexibility and experimentation

Employees are free to take risks, innovate, explore new ideas, try new processes and develop new products and services
System and environment focus on ensuring the development and well-being of every employee

Valuing of employees


Knowledge and knowledge management

Four modes of knowledge sharing


Knowledge management

- process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge.


Ways to create and share knowledge

1. 2.

3. 4.

Use technology and software that allows people to store information and share it with others Publish directories that list: - what employees do - how they can be contacted - the type of knowledge they have Develop informational maps that identify where specific knowledge is stored in the company Create chief information officer and chief learning officer positions for cataloguing and facilitating the exchange of information in the company


Ways to create and share knowledge


7. 8.

Require employees to give presentations to other employees about what they have learned from training programs they have attended Allow employees to take time off from work to acquire knowledge, study problems, attend training and use technology Create an online library of learning resources such as journals, technical manuals, training opportunities and seminars Design office space to facilitate interaction between employees


Recap of today Things to do before next week Any questions?