This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(Based on Noe and Winkler, 2009)
Lecture – Transfer of training - Introduction - Theories of transfer - Self-management strategies - Work environment - Learning organisations
Transfer of training: extent to which trainees effectively and continually apply what they have learnt in training to their jobs.
Model of the transfer process
Generalization - a trainee’s ability to apply learned capabilities to on-the-job work problems and situations that are similar but not identical to those problems and situations encountered in the learning environment.
Maintenance - process of continuing to use newly acquired capabilities over time.
• Motivation • Ability
• Create a learning environment • Apply theories of transfer • Use self-management strategies
• Climate for transfer • Management and peer support • Opportunity to perform • Technological support
Theories of transfer x 3 1. Identical Elements = simulations (visual, kinasethetic & spatial similarities; degree of perceived realism) eg pilot simulators, maritime, business
Theories of transfer 1 – theory of identical elements
Theory of Transfer 2: Stimulus Generalisation Approach
Emphasises “Far Transfer” is the trainee’s ability to transfer the training to the work environment even though not identical – teaches general concepts & broad principles A connection needs to be made by the trainee to place the training received in the context of their work reality
Theories of transfer 2 – stimulus generalisation approach
Theory of Transfer 3 Cognitive theory of transfer
• Based on the information processing model • Recall and retrieval of information are vital aspects • Must be meaningful material to trainees – application assignments. These are work problems that the trainees are asked to solve by applying the training concepts
Theories of transfer 3 – cognitive theory of transfer
Self-management involves: • Determining the degree of support and negative consequences in the work setting for using newly acquired skills • Setting goals for using learned capabilities • Applying learned capabilities to the job • Monitoring use of learned capabilities on the job • Engaging in self-reinforcement
Climate for Transfer
Opportunity to Use Learned Capabilities
Climate for transfer
- trainees’ perceptions about a wide variety of characteristics of the work environment that facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behavior.
Climate for transfer
-refers to the degree to which managers: • emphasize the importance of attending training programs.
• stress the application of training content to the job
Teaching in program Practice skills Reinforcement Participation Encouragement Acceptance Accommodate attendance at training through rearranging work schedule; endorse employees’ attending training Permit employees to attend training; acknowledge importance of training Discuss progress with trainees; ask how to support trainees’ use of new capabilities
Participate as trainer
Allow trainees opportunity to practice
Action plan - written document that includes the steps that the trainee and manager will take to ensure that training transfers to the job. Includes: •goal identifying what training content will be used and how it will be used. •strategies for reaching the goal. •strategies for receiving feedback. •expected outcomes. •progress check schedule.
Support network - group of two or more trainees who agree to meet and discuss their progress in using learned capabilities on the job which may involve face-to-face meetings or communications via e-mail.
Opportunity to use learned capabilities
- the extent to which the trainee is provided with or actively seeks experiences that allow for application of the newly learned knowledge, skill, and behaviors from the training program.
Opportunity to perform is determined by breadth, activity level, and task type. Low levels of opportunity to perform may indicate that: - the work environment is interfering with using new skills. - training content is not important for the employee’s job.
Electronic performance support systems (EPSSs) computer applications that can provide: - skills training - information access - expert advice Used to enhance transfer of training by providing trainees with an electronic information source that they can refer to on an as-needed basis while they attempt to apply learned capabilities on the job.
• An organisation that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change
• Training processes are carefully scrutinised and aligned with company goals
• Training is seen as one part of a system designed to create human capital
Employees share learning with each other Use job as a basis for applying and creating knowledge Systems are developed for creating, capturing and sharing knowledge
Knowledge generation and sharing
Critical systematic thinking
Employees are encouraged to think in new ways, see relationships and feedback loops and test assumptions
Learning is rewarded, promoted and supported by managers and company objectives
Encouragement of flexibility and experimentation
Employees are free to take risks, innovate, explore new ideas, try new processes and develop new products and services
System and environment focus on ensuring the development and well-being of every employee
Valuing of employees
Knowledge and knowledge management
Four modes of knowledge sharing
- process of enhancing company performance by designing and implementing tools, processes, systems, structures, and cultures to improve the creation, sharing, and use of knowledge.
Ways to create and share knowledge
Use technology and software that allows people to store information and share it with others Publish directories that list: - what employees do - how they can be contacted - the type of knowledge they have Develop informational maps that identify where specific knowledge is stored in the company Create chief information officer and chief learning officer positions for cataloguing and facilitating the exchange of information in the company
Ways to create and share knowledge
Require employees to give presentations to other employees about what they have learned from training programs they have attended Allow employees to take time off from work to acquire knowledge, study problems, attend training and use technology Create an online library of learning resources such as journals, technical manuals, training opportunities and seminars Design office space to facilitate interaction between employees
•Recap of today •Things to do before next week •Any questions?