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Virus

Ullens School Grade: 10

Microscopic (25nm to 250nm)

The study of virus is called Virology.

Virus are obligatory parasite

They are inert outside the host cell and multiply only in host cell so they are called obligatory parasite.

Virus is termed to be in the boarder line of living and non living


Living characteristics: Grow and reproduce in host cell Composed of organic biomolecule (DNA or RNA) Cause different types of diseases Respond to light, chemicals and temperature Non living characteristics No cellular structure (cytoplasm, nucleus and cell organelles) Do not respire Can be crystallized and stored in bottle Do not inject food and no energy production

Characteristics of Virus

They can reproduce in large amount They may have different enzymes like riboflavin and different vitamin like biotin They have DNA or RNA which helps to transmit genetic character in its offspring

Mode of transmission
Virus can be transmitted from different modes like: Air Water Food Droplet infection

Some specific virus


TMC (tobacco mosaic virus) [affects tobacco]

Bacteriophage

Some common virus affecting diseases


Common cold Mump Measles Polio Rabies AIDS

Common cold
Mode of transmission: Air (Droplet of infection) Virus: Rhino Virus (RNA virus) Symptoms: Sneezing fluent flow of water from nose Headache and fever Preventive measures: Rest and get protect from cold environment Cover nose while sneezing, avoid exposure with infected person

Mump
Virus: Paramyxo (RNA) attacts parotid glad Mode of transmission: droplets during sneezing, coughing Symptoms: Pain and swelling around neck and ear Fever (irregular) Swelling of parotid gland which may lead to sterile in male Preventive measures: safety measures not to spread discharges during sneezing and coughing

Measles
Virus: Paramyxo (RNA) (Usually attacks children) Mode of transmission: droplets during sneezing, coughing Symptoms: High Fever (irregular) Small pink colored rashes on skin Pain in throat Hard to see on sunlight Preventive measures: safety measures not to spread discharges during sneezing and coughing Safety measure: Polio vaccination

Rabies
Virus: Polio virus (RNA) Mode of transmission: Saliva of infected animals like dog, fox Symptoms: Hydrophobia Headache Restless Preventive measures: Vaccination to domestic pets Safety measure: Vaccination

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)


Virus: HIV, human immune deficiency virus (RNA) Mode of transmission: Infected syringe, sexual contact with infected person Symptoms: High loss of immune system Regular common cold, TB, pneumonia Preventive measures: Safe sexual intercourse, sterilized syringe Safety measure: Vaccination AIDS itself does not kill a person, justify the statement.

Worksheet
Explain why virus is considered the borderline of living and non-living. Why is virus called obligatory parasite? How are virus transmitted? What is the study of virus called? Draw a well-labeled diagram of bacteriophage. What is a capsid? Define vaccine. What is the best preventive measure against virus? Can virus be grown on artificial medium? Why? What will you find if you open a virus? Name 2 RNA and 2 DNA virus. AIDS does not kill but help other diseases. Justify the statement. Name the virus causing rabies. Why is it also called hydrophobia? A person suffering from polio may have paralysis. Why? Identify the disease with following symptoms, also mention the causative agentSwelling of parotid glands and testes. High fever, sore throat and red rashes 11. What are the preventive measures of- a) AIDS b) common cold 12. Name the first discovered virus. 13. Write full forms of a. AIDS b. TMV c. HIV