Electronic Business on the Internet - Tutorial How to Make Your Own E-Commerce Site: The Design Engineer Viewpoint


Marjan Mihanovic, marjanm@eunet.yu Dusan Dingarac, dingo@sk.co.yu Zoran Horvat, zoranh@eunet.yu Miodrag Stefanovic, mik42@yahoo.com Prof. Dr. Veljko Milutinovic, vm@etf.bg.ac.yu

What will you learn from this tutorial?
This Tutorial will guide you through the following sections:
  

– You will become familiar with some basic techniques and terminology.

YAHOO! Store
– The easiest way to make your business Internet-enabled

– Software package, intended for creating more advanced eCommerce solutions, still very easy to use.

 

– What is Secure Socket Layer, and why is it so important?

Microsoft Site Server Commerce Edition
– The most powerful tool, for the large and most advanced e-commerce solutions.

E-Xact Online Payment System
– How does payment transaction really works.
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Introduction to E-Commerce

E-Business - The shape of things to come


E-business has made lots of innovations in modern business.  Today, the most important way of doing E-business is over the Internet.  Old kinds of E-business systems are either canceled or improved so they can work over the Internet.  In the next two years one percent of World Trade will go over the Internet (billions of dollars).

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By using modern techniques such as:
– – – – – World Wide Web (WWW) Intranet Extranet Virtual Private Network (VPN) Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption

Business over the Internet is opening a whole new world of opportunities:

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Page Number: 6/268 Made by: Ifact . and just-in-time replenishment of supplies (Extranet) Telecommuting (employee can do his/her job from home)...Introduction      Better communication inside company (Intranet) Geographical location of company parts became transparent (VPN) Collaboration with distributors and suppliers on scheduling Forecasting.

2000. Page Number: 7/268 Made by: Ifact ..1. that were using Internet on 1.Introduction  The most interesting part of E-business over the Internet (also called I-business) is E-commerce over the Internet (I-commerce)  Over 170 000 000 people. can be potential customers  Number of Internet users doubles every three years  The most important thing for I-commerce is web store. a place where you can show and sell your goods to Internet users.

Web store  Having web store is much cheaper than having a classical one  For web store you don't have to pay dozens of bills: – – – – –  rent electricity water city taxes cleaning. You don't need to worry if your store is in a good location for customers  Also... you don't need any salesmen. Page Number: 8/268 Made by: Ifact .

Web store  Your store is working non-stop:  24 hours per day  7 day per week  365 (366) days per year  Your customers from all over the world can spend their money without any time-zone limits. Page Number: 9/268 Made by: Ifact .

Web store  Internet is one giant market where you can sell your goods to anyone. anywhere  A number of countries that had been marginalized by their geographical position take extremely active interest in E-commerce  With E-commerce those countries can move to the center of the virtual geography  With your own Web store hundreds of millions of people are just one click away from your business. Page Number: 10/268 Made by: Ifact .

etc…)  4. etc…) Page Number: 11/268 Made by: Ifact . Creating or Purchasing a Shopping Cart Software (getting hold of the web store infrastructure: sw-shelves. Obtaining a Digital Certificate (obtaining initial keys for encryption. Finding a Provider of Online Transactions (middleman between your customer and your bank)  5.Web store  Let us see what is needed to open a new web store:  1. Getting an Internet Merchant Bank Account (account that enables credit card transactions over the Internet)  2. Web Hosting (getting WWW space with some Internet provider)  3.

you must apply to your bank for an Internet Merchant Bank Account  Depending on which country you live in and what bank you are with.Internet Merchant Bank Account  In order to be able to accept credit cards over the Internet. Page Number: 12/268 Made by: Ifact . this can be relatively easy or somewhat difficult.

Page Number: 13/268 Made by: Ifact .Internet Merchant Bank Account In the U.S. and most Online Transaction Providers will support them  Contact your bank for details.A.:  In the USA. this is a fairly simple procedure  Many banks offer Internet Merchant Accounts.

Internet Merchant Bank Account Internationally:  Majority of Online Transaction Providers are located in the USA  They are restricted in their ability to interact with banks outside their own country  International merchants have very little choice  An international merchant has to find a way: – to get a US merchant account – to find a local Online Transaction Provider – or utilize one of the few companies that services the international market Page Number: 14/268 Made by: Ifact .

int‟l Internet banking.Internet Merchant Bank Account  Many banks outside the US have very restrictive policies regarding Internet accounts  Luckily. the situation is improving  Most Online Transaction Providers will help you with this if you get in touch with them. etc…) Page Number: 15/268 Made by: Ifact .  EU has recently adopted a recommendation aimed at making E-commerce easier (liberal domain assignments.

Internet Merchant Bank Account  Keep in mind when you apply for a Merchant Bank Account:  A US merchant account can take up to a month to come through  If you already have a merchant bank account. Page Number: 16/268 Made by: Ifact . Paymentech. or CyberCash (alternative payment methods)  Your account must be able to handle Card Not Present transactions (important!). you will probably also need to upgrade it to an Internet account  Ensure that your bank accepts Internet merchant accounts and has credit card processors that can connect to FDC.

5% guarantied) Good technical support (your store is working non-stop) Fast connection to the Internet Staff that is knowledgeable about E-commerce Compatibility with major E-commerce providers Classified statistics of access to your Web site Page Number: 17/268 Made by: Ifact .Web Hosting  Web hosting is a very important step in this process  This is how you gain a presence on the Internet in the first place  It is important that the web hosting company is capable of providing you with the level of service that you need to maintain your Web store  A few things to look for are: – – – – – – Good uptime (over 99.

night jobs are not wanted)  For the money you're spending.Web Hosting  It is always good to spend some time when choosing a Web hosting company  There are many 'fly-by-night' businesses out there (if you are working globally. make sure that the company is reputable. Page Number: 18/268 Made by: Ifact .

one can usually use the certificate owned by the Web hosting company where your page resides. so you can take credit card orders securely It ensures that hackers cannot eavesdrop on you Any E-commerce company will require you to have SSL before you can use their services For most people obtaining a digital certificate is not a problem For a minimal fee. enables SSL on the Web server SSL protects communications. Page Number: 19/268 Made by: Ifact .Obtaining a Digital Certificate       A digital certificate (SSL Server Certificate).

00 per year and can be obtained from – Verisign (http://www.com) or – Thawte (http://www.com) Page Number: 20/268 Made by: Ifact .Obtaining a Digital Certificate  If you are a larger company. however. you may want to get your own digital certificate (for CC processing and/or for processing of sensitive data)  A certificate costs about $150.thawte.verisign.

you should stop for a moment and consider what exactly you need How many transactions do you expect to be completed in a month? How many products do you have to put on your web site? How complex does the software need to be? How much are you willing to spend? Page Number: 21/268 Made by: Ifact .Provider of Online Transactions      Before you start looking for a provider.

Provider of Online Transactions  There are a lot of online transaction providers  They offer all kinds of packages  Decide on a provider's package that fits your needs  This is perhaps the most important aspect in creating an E-commerce Web site. Page Number: 22/268 Made by: Ifact .

Shopping Cart Software      Shopping cart software is the most popular and the most widely used concept of Web store architecture There are many other types of software that you can use in your store. such as catalog software or a flat order form Creating or purchasing a Shopping Cart Software? Creating can be very complicated without proper tools Creating can be very expensive. Page Number: 23/268 Made by: Ifact .

or one that offers a simple flat order form  Maybe purchasing of good tools is the best solution (ecBuilder or Microsoft SSCE. Page Number: 24/268 Made by: Ifact . but it can often be very expensive  Another possibility is a package that offers it as a rental included in the monthly service charge. Yahoo! Store is a ready-to-use Web store).Shopping Cart Software  Many Online Transaction Providers will have shopping cart software that comes with their service.

Shopping Cart Software  Generally it is possible to find three different types of Web store  Three types of Web store creating and shopping cart software are best represented with three examples discussed later in this tutorial: • 1) Yahoo! Store • 2) EcBuilder • 3) Microsoft Site Server Commerce Edition Page Number: 25/268 Made by: Ifact .

where he/she decides he/she wants to buy something. which ensures security.Credit Card  The most widely used way of purchasing over the Internet is Credit Card  The consumer surfs the Internet to the merchants Web site. Page Number: 26/268 Made by: Ifact .  The consumer is moved to the online transaction server. where it is completed (or denied).  Transaction (credit card billing) is passed through private gateway to a CC Processing Network.

Credit Card  System of validating card data and making a transaction is shown on this picture Other Merchant Sites Bank Consumer Internet Consumer Consumer Merchant Site Online Transaction Server Bank Bank Bank Other Merchant Sites Private Gateway issuing and acquiring banks Page Number: 27/268 Made by: Ifact .

.  It is perfect for so-called micropayments (such as paying $0.. Page Number: 28/268 Made by: Ifact . but Credit Card will be dominant for at least the next few years.19 for reading a literary essay)  Electronic Cash can offer such benefits as – anonymity of the buyer – global acceptance.Electronic Cash  Contrary to Credit Card. Electronic Cash is informational equivalent of physical banknotes and coins.10 for the one-time use of software or $0.

marketing your site is very important: – Submit your site to as many search engines as possible – Try finding Web sites with similar themes and make deals to create reciprocal links – Create an advertising banner and purchase space from a popular Web site to display it – Put your URL in the signature file of your email and the header of all business correspondence – Word of mouth is very powerful on the Internet.  When the Web store is ready for customers.. Page Number: 29/268 Made by: Ifact .. tell all of your friends about your page – Avoid spamming .Marketing.it is a sure way to get a very bad reputation.

. Page Number: 30/268 Made by: Ifact . and Planing  Investigate the web sites that are possible rivals and formulate a strategy for competing against them  If you anticipate a lot of growth in the amount of orders coming through your site... figure out how you are going to cope with the increased load before you get swamped.

Yahoo! Store .

It can be accessed on the Internet address http://store. thus highly applicable to small business solutions – Intuitive interface.  Basic advantages – Low cost for small stores.yahoo. easy to use – Results are visible immediately – Powerful support provided by Yahoo! on a number of topics concerning e-Commerce and e-Business Page Number: 32/268 Made by: Ifact .com/.Introduction to Yahoo! Store  Yahoo! Store is a powerful tool for building e-Commerce sites.

– Yahoo! Store certainly cannot fulfill all e-Business demands asked by big companies Page Number: 33/268 Made by: Ifact . sites on Yahoo! Store look similar to each other no matter what effort was taken for visual design. it can use other tools (such as ecBuilder) to create more flexible e-Commerce site.Introduction to Yahoo! Store  Basic disadvantages – Cannot create original look of the e-Commerce site. That is because all sites are forced to have the same structure. and only graphical elements and their arrangement on the screen may be partially different – Company still needs its own server in order to use most advanced capabilities of Yahoo! Store (e.g. custom functions for tax and shipment calculation). If company owes a server (virtual or real).

you do not need to register again. This ID offers pass to Yahoo! services like: mail at mail.yahoo.com/. If you are already using some of Yahoo! services.yahoo. Once logged on. just use the same ID to create the store. so once you get an ID.Registering With Yahoo!       Yahoo! Store IDs are maintained on the level of Yahoo! (not on the level of Yahoo! Store). You may take a look at some featured stores by clicking on appropriate links. etc.yahoo.com.com. or you can take a search in order to find some specific store by using the Search field. you can access all Yahoo! services Obtain Yahoo! ID by registering at http://www.yahoo. e-Commerce at store. the welcoming screen will be shown.com/ or at http://store. Page Number: 34/268 Made by: Ifact .

Page Number: 35/268 Made by: Ifact .Creating the Store  First step in creating your own store is to click on Create a Store link.  This action leads to the store editor.

complete address of your store after publishing will be http://store.Creating the Store  In order to create a store. It should be clear that once entered ID cannot be changed later since it is the WWW address. It also has to be checked whether the specified ID is already in use: if so.this field is in fact the name of the company. the user is prompted for: – ID of the site . as well: user must be very careful when selecting this item. it will be shown at the top of the front page of the site. Page Number: 36/268 Made by: Ifact .com/xyz.yahoo.this field also becomes the address of the site. – Name of the site . another ID should be entered. Whatever is written as name. where xyz is ID you typed.

 Each fruit is offered in a number of forms: fresh. our WWW address will be: http://store.com/rasp.. Inc. juice. and heading on our front page will read Raspberries. frozen. etc.Creating the Store – Final Step  Suppose at this moment that we are featuring a company named Raspberries.  Thus. Inc.  First we want to create the store for our company: we may type rasp in the ID field. and Raspberries. and strawberries. which offers ecological fruit: raspberries. Inc. blackberries.yahoo. Page Number: 37/268 Made by: Ifact . in the name field.

– This temporal store will be treated for ten days... (Whenever you log onto your store. current day countdown will be shown. and after that it will be automatically deleted. just to remind you that your store will be deleted if account is not transformed. etc. There you will find some important information about your future store: – An account we have just created is temporal. it means that your temporal account cannot be used to make profit until it is converted into a real account (the submitted CC# will not be visible to the store owner. a screen with instructions will be shown. the site will be fully operational. except that orders from customers will be scrambled.) – During the test period of ten days. transforming this account into real one will be presented later. Page Number: 38/268 Made by: Ifact .Instructions by Yahoo!  After clicking at the Create button.).

each item is represented on a separate page.)  Links to section pages are provided on the front page. the appropriate item page is loaded.  By clicking on some item. This option is preferable when only a few items are offered. size. Page Number: 39/268 Made by: Ifact . quantity. without creating sections at all. showing only the most necessary properties of each item (such as price) – Item pages . design.  Items can be put directly onto the front page.  Each section page contains names and pictures (if provided) for items in that section.Types of Pages on the Store  Each store has three types of pages: – Front page . etc. containing all important data (price.the first page of the site – Section pages .each section presents separate items for sale.

Preparing to Edit the Store  After signing with Yahoo!. Page Number: 40/268 Made by: Ifact .  The key page. the screen with options will be shown. not the shopper. each one of the 8 sections contains links to vital activities  Only manager can access this page.

Page Number: 41/268 Made by: Ifact .shows some additional options. click to link Simple. in order to step into Simple Interface for store building. its use is recommended to experienced programmers only. Three options in this column represent three types of interface: – Simple Interface .shows only the necessary options for store building – Regular Interface .shows the complete Yahoo! Store functionality. which allow the user to create a better visual look of the store – Advanced Interface . we are interested in the Edit section. which allows us to edit our store.Selecting the Interface  At this moment.  The three options differ in the amount of tools available for edit  Only the last option allows links to other sites for extra functions  In the Edit section.

It is recommended for new users to leave online help visible for a while. Online help is initially shown for Simple Interface. and for Regular and Advanced Interface it is initially hidden. help can be toggled on/off with a single click.Simple Interface at First Glance      After stepping into Simple Interface. Click to Hide Help button. if you want to remove help from the screen. a line with options will be shown at the bottom of the screen. Also. Page Number: 42/268 Made by: Ifact . online help will be available. In all interfaces.

 Before sections and items are added. our front page shows only the heading.  We shall see later how these properties can be changed in order to meet our special demands.  Font. and background color are all set to defaults. size. face color.Initial Look of the Front Page  Now we shall add content into our store: we should create sections for different kinds of items. Page Number: 43/268 Made by: Ifact . and then fill each section with appropriate items.

Page Number: 44/268 Made by: Ifact . in this case the front page. last button which reads Published shows that our site is currently published and another publishing is meaningless. this button will read Publish and will be available.  Previous figure shows its look at the front page of the store. This option will be used to change some general aspects of the front page.  Light yellow buttons on the bar are available. It allows us to edit the current page.Menu Bar at the Front Page  The line with options at the center of the page is context-sensitive. Grayed buttons are unavailable. It will look partially different on section and item pages. When we make some changes. For instance.  The first button is Edit.

 Properties are referred as Variables. another page with properties of the front page will load.  Each page contains a number of variables that describe all relevant details of its look and structure.Page Variables  If we click the Edit button at the front page.  The site creation activity boils down to the changing of the values of relevant Variables! Page Number: 45/268 Made by: Ifact .

Variables for Front Page  Field names on this form are self-explanatory: – Page-title shows title of the browser window – Page-elements is the list of elements that should be shown on the front page – Image field allows us to upload an image. banner. Page Number: 46/268 Made by: Ifact .  Some other fields will be explained later. and unconstrained – Buttons field is also a list. which will substitute the name of the company – Image-format shows three possible positions of the image: left. containing buttons that should be shown on the left margin of the front page – Message contains text that should be written under the store title.

It is highly recommended to upload images smaller than 20kB.). Let page title be: Green food from Serbia. it will be used instead of the store title. If no page title is entered. If this image is loaded.e. i.g. e. Our fruit knows of no chemistry. we will enter the page title and the logo message. Raspberries. Page Number: 47/268 Made by: Ifact . We also may upload a title image by pressing the Upload File button at the appropriate row. Message might be assumed as company motto. instead of Raspberries. Inc. store title will be used instead (in our case. Inc. Note that page loading time will be longer when the uploaded image is bigger.Changing Some Variables       At this step. in order to keep high performance.

 We will make three sections: – Fresh Fruits – Frozen Fruits – Finished Products  In order to create a section.  Then. you will be prompted for name and caption of the new section. you should click onto the New Section button on the menu bar. Page Number: 48/268 Made by: Ifact .Creating New Section  Now we may create sections on our front page.

Page Number: 49/268 Made by: Ifact . click the Update button.  In the same manner.  In order to return to the front page. click Home button at the left margin on the section page.  After each section is created.Creating New Section  To finish section creating. appropriate section page is loaded. another two sections can be created.

another line with buttons will load.Selecting General Look of the Page  Now we may take some time to change the general look of the front page. Page Number: 50/268 Made by: Ifact .  The simplest way to do this is to click the Look button on the menu bar.  After that.  Each look can be selected by simple clicking on the appropriate button. You may feel free to experiment with different styles. containing general templates. in order to find the one which best fits with your store style.

Page Number: 51/268 Made by: Ifact . each of them leading to one of our sections.Selecting General Look of the Page  Figure shows one possible look of our front page (style Soft on the menu bar). in order to set impression of stability and consistency to the customer.  Note that the menu on the left margin contains three buttons. It is important to know that all pages (currently our three section pages) will share the same look.  It is highly recommended that all pages on the site have the same general visual properties.

 Variable identifiers are mostly self-explaining.  For instance. there are variables Button-font-size. with obvious meanings. and can be viewed by clicking onto Variables button at the menu bar. Email. Title. Variables are in fact properties of the page.Page Variables  Once the general look of the store is selected. Page-width. so the use of the Variables section should be quite simple. etc. Page Number: 52/268 Made by: Ifact . some details can be fixed manually.  Complete look and structure of each page is described through its variables.

 After the Update button is pressed. by clicking onto the Select button.Changing Variable Values  Figure shows some of the variables for the front page. next to the variable name. our front page will have pink background.  Value of the Background-color variable is changed from white to pink. Page Number: 53/268 Made by: Ifact .

 Note that the menu bar is somewhat different on Fresh Fruits section page from the one on the front page. Page Number: 54/268 Made by: Ifact .  For instance. all pages will have the new variable value as well. and tiny differences will arise on different pages. Menu bars are context-sensitive.Variable Inheritance  Once the variable is changed at the front page. our section pages will have pink background as the front page does. Figure shows Fresh Fruits section with the pink background.

 After clicking to the Update button.Adding an Item to the Section  Now. a form will be loaded. price in US Dollars. Page Number: 55/268 Made by: Ifact .  Four properties of the new item are asked for: name. our item will be added to the Fresh Fruits section.  After clicking to New Item option (say. code (this is internal code of the item). we may try to add items into our store. Menu bar on section pages contains New Item option. on the Fresh Fruits section page). caption.

Page Number: 56/268 Made by: Ifact . meaning that you cannot upload an image.  There will also be a button for final image uploading. offering us to browse for the image. the appropriate item page will be loaded. You should either change the browser. If this button does not exist. or update it to newer version. no library of images available!  Note: after clicking to Image option. it means that your browser does not support uploading.Uploading an Image for the Item  After a new item is created. and upload an image  Make your own images. another form will be loaded. Now we may add ANY image for our item: click onto Image option on the menu bar.

User will be able to order our product by clicking on that button.  Note that image is shown in full size on the item page.Full Look of the Item  After an image is uploaded. and as a thumbnail at the section page.  Also. Page Number: 57/268 Made by: Ifact . there is an Order button at the item page. it will be shown both on the item (upper figure) and the section pages (lower figure).

the user can order the wanted amount of the product. we can add other items to our Fresh Fruits page. appropriate item page will be loaded: then.Final Look of Fresh Fruits Section  In the same manner. Page Number: 58/268 Made by: Ifact .  Figure shows possible look of the Fresh Fruits page after four items were added.  By clicking either on the name or the image of any item.

and choose some other color. By clicking the Variables option at the menu bar. we may try to edit variables on the Fresh Fruits page. the list of variables will be loaded. and that is not what we wanted! In fact. Well. We may try to change the Background-color variable again. and leave all other pages with pink background. this task cannot be performed on Simple Interface: Regular or Advanced Interface should be used. Page Number: 59/268 Made by: Ifact .Changing Variables for Single Page      Now. but all the other pages will be changed too. hoping that our Fresh Fruits page will be in a different color. we want to change the background color for Fresh Fruits section only. New color will be set for the Fresh Fruits section page indeed.

retype your username and password. offering you to manage your stores.com/ at your browser again. and the manager page will be loaded. If needed. click Regular in order to load Regular Interface. In the Edit part.yahoo. Click onto rasp store.Starting Regular Interface      In order to use Regular Interface. Your personal page should be loaded. Page Number: 60/268 Made by: Ifact . type URL http://store.

from Regular to Advanced and back via red arrow Page Number: 61/268 Made by: Ifact . the same triangle will exist. everything is the same as it was at the Simple Interface. our interface will be upgraded to Advanced.  Notice a small triangle at the end of the menu bar.  From Simple to Regular/Advanced by new login.Menu Bar of the Regular Interface  At first glance. but it will be turned to the left. and will be used to downgrade to Regular Interface. except that menu bar carries much more options.  At the Advanced interface. By clicking at this triangle.

Overriding a Variable

Now, we can step to our Fresh Fruits sections. When the page is loaded, click onto Edit button on the menu bar.  Page with options for this page will be shown, and among other things, there will be a button reading Override Variable.  After clicking at this button, a simple form will be loaded, allowing us to select the variable which we want to override.  All Variable values are the same, except where we override the Variable, locally (for one page only)
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Overriding a Variable

Variable overriding is a powerful option, which allows us to change one variable for one page only, and leave its old value for all the other pages. For instance, we may select Background-color variable in the list offered at the Fresh Fruits page, in order to change the background color for this page only. Click onto the Update button to select Background-color variable for overriding. When you click to the Update button, the variable is only set for override; the actual value does not get changed The actual value gets changed by clicking to Edit button, on the specific page of interest; the Variable will be shown, and you can change it, by clicking where appropriate

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Overriding a Variable

Now the Background-color variable will be shown at the bottom of the Edit page, and it will be possible to change its value separately.  Once changed, the new color will be applied only to the Fresh Fruits page, and all other pages will keep the pink background.  Figure shows the bottom of the Edit page containing the orange background color: only the Fresh Fruits section page now has the orange background.

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Overriding a Variable: Undoing

If you change your mind and wish to discard overriding for some variable, you may step to the Edit page again, and click onto the Undo Override button.  Then select variable you wish to discard overriding, and click onto the Update button: the selected variable will be cleared from the list of overridden variables.

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Setting an Item to Be Special
   

There may happen that you want to set some item as a special offer. For instance, fresh raspberries might be considered as a representative product of our company. Yahoo! Store offers one simple option that helps to emphasize some item or section. At the Regular Interface, at the page you want to emphasize, there is an option reading Special. Click onto this option, and a link to current page will be added to the front page.

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we may set fresh raspberries to be “special”. and the item will not be special any more.Setting Item to Be Special  For instance. Page Number: 67/268 Made by: Ifact . In that case.  If you change your mind later. front page will look as shown on the figure. Click on the option. you can easily put the item off the front page  Special option on the menu bar now reads Not Special.  Figure shows the front page look after Fresh Raspberries (in crate) are set as special item.

just as you would do for a regular item. In order to add accessory. if you are selling raspberries in plastic plates. this can be a useful option. fill the form with variables describing the accessory. it is good to offer some accessories along with some offered item. In many cases. without jumping around the store. you may offer spare plastic spoons along with it. Page Number: 68/268 Made by: Ifact . In some cases. For instance. click onto New Accessory option at the menu bar on the item page of interest. because a user can order a product and the appropriate accessory at the same page. After that.Concept of Accessories       There is another option somewhat similar to the previous one.

as well. and wish to clear the accessory from the page. we may add offer of plastic spoons onto the Fresh Raspberries page. After confirming the deletion.Adding an Accessory  As an example. just click onto it.  Click onto the New Accessory option. and fill information about our spoons. an appropriate image should be uploaded. and then select Delete. accessory (the entire bottom part) will be removed. Page Number: 69/268 Made by: Ifact .  If you change your mind later.

 Suppose you wish to move or to copy some contents (item or section. If you cut an item. original object is left intact – Cut . but also deletes the original object – Paste . manually (painful!)  There are three possible actions when working with clipboard: – Copy .  Without this option. and then do not paste it on some other place. Internal clipboard can be used for that purpose.Copies the object from the clipboard to the current position  Content of the clipboard is being cleared each time you log off from Yahoo! Store. the only options for move) from one page to another.Internal Clipboard  Another useful concept of Yahoo! Store is internal clipboard (a place where the deleted pages are kept). one would have to delete the contents and then to create a new one (identical) elsewhere.Copies the page onto clipboard. Page Number: 70/268 Made by: Ifact . it will be irretrievably lost after you log off.Copies the page onto clipboard.

in the right-hand field (left-hand: the paste command)  For instance. if we click Copy when being on Raspberries (crate) page.  In order to paste the object.Using Internal Clipboard  Contents of the clipboard is visible underneath the menu bar (only if it is not empty). Page Number: 71/268 Made by: Ifact . in order to paste the item there. the complete page will be put on the clipboard. We can later step to the Frozen Fruits page. just click onto its name in the clipboard section at the bottom of the page.

yahoo. and then select Publish option at the menu bar.  Our updated store will be immediately visible at the address http://store.Publishing the Store  At the end. In order to avoid this.  Click on this link. you should turn your temporal account into real account: at the introductory page for our store (at the page where you had selected the interface type). go to the front page by clicking on the Home button on any page. there is at the bottom of the page a link reading Open your account.com/rasp/.  Remember that your store will be automatically deleted ten days after it is created (not published). To publish the store. we should publish it. Page Number: 72/268 Made by: Ifact . when our store is finished. and Yahoo! will lead you through the rest of the registering process.

With up to 50 items. it costs $100 per month – Medium store .With up to 1000 items. it costs $300 per month for first 1000 items. it costs $300 per month – Large store . and additional $100 per month for each next 1000 items. i.e. the number of items offered. for instance. Stores are valued by its size. and you may be quite disappointed if you get into position to create the complete store all over again!  One of important topics of Yahoo! Store is its price. There are three categories: – Small store . Page Number: 73/268 Made by: Ifact . Web services are not reliable enough yet.Final Notes  One advice: Do not wait until the tenth day to create your account.With more than 1000 items. a store with 2300 items would cost $500 per month.

ecBuilder .

ecBuilder    Product Name: ecBuilder Manufacturer: MultiActive Software inc.ecbuilder.0 or Netscape 4. System requirements: Desktop PC with Microsoft Windows operating system and Microsoft IE 4.0 Product URL: http://www.com Page Number: 75/268 Made by: Ifact .

and it has no additional hardware or software demands Page Number: 76/268 Made by: Ifact . that is designated for step by step creation of fully functional E-business sites from scratch It is designed to provide E-business solutions for small and medium businesses It is intuitive and has a quick learning curve It hides most of the hard work from you.Why ecBuilder?      ecBuilder is a software package by MultiActive Software.2000. Inc.).1. so you need not bother thinking how it is realized or how does it work The price of this package = 495$ (1..

com for further information on acquiring and registering it) Webspace account with your local ISP In order to accept credit cards online you must already have a merchant status account with the credit card company and/or your bank You will also need to be able to process these credit card transactions You must choose a third-party payment processor to process credit card payment requests You should obtain a digital signature certificate Page Number: 77/268 Made by: Ifact .ecbuilder.What you need to start using ecBuilder?       Registered version of ecBuilder (look at http://www.

which is one of the two options of SSCE) With user .easier to develop. subtotal calculating. and similar features are realized through embedded JavaScript (no direct access to user memory or hard disks) and Cookie technologies (to memorize a data structure on the user‟s hard disk) All shopping basket related data are stored with the user (not at the server.it is designed for small to medium sized businesses Requires only basic HTML and Web design knowledge Provides all the necessary elements every E-business site must have.Introduction to ecBuilder       As said before . Shopping basket.more reliable! Page Number: 78/268 Made by: Ifact . with server .

Page Number: 79/268 Made by: Ifact .Introduction to ecBuilder      Credit Card payment Bought goods reports Most important: Security issues are provided via a special ecBuilder's server (ecPlace) ecPlace server is independent from your site and your ISP. and it is maintained by MultiActive company You don't have to worry about installing it and providing maintenance for it.

Payment processing

ecBuilder provides full support for online credit card processing  Credit card paying process is security sensitive  The merchant (you) takes care of delivering the bought goods  ecPlace takes care of CC payment processing

(3) Customer enters Credit card number

(4) Payment request submitted via secure connection


(1) Makes Shopping List

(2) Shopping List encrypted with Public Key Technology

Your Site

ecPlace Server
(5) Transaction result

Payment Processor

(6) Encrypted eMail with results (7) eMail with results

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Inside ecBuilder

ecBuilder providesa built-in wizard for generating boiler-plate HTML (the HTML skeleton) and JavaScript code for your E-business site  There are dozens of built-in templates for you to choose from  ecOrderDesk is an accompanying software that is used for processing orders, bookkeeping, and as a POS terminal  When published, URL to Your E-business site will appear on ecPlace`s index of business Web sites, under appropriate industry category (http://www.ecPlace.com)

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ecBuilder Wizard

ecBuilder`s Wizard is the only way to create your E-business site using ecBuilder  Before beginning to work with Wizard, you must first make one of the four choices concerning your site  The choices are:
• • • Create a new ecBuilder file Look for an existing ecBuilder file Open an example ecBuilder file

Open my last ecBuilder file

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ecBuilder Wizard

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ecBuilder First step : Site Structure

 

ecBuilder will generate several HTML pages, and will correctly hyperlink them In this step you should choose which additional pages your site will contain The choices are:

• • •

Content Pages
Your Products or Services Catalog Feedback Form Contact Information Page

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you should include all of these pages. check the 'Display your address and phone number on Your site' checkbox at the bottom of the screen Page Number: 85/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder First step : Site Structure  Basically. as they are required on any serious eBusiness site  Depending on the pages you checked to be generated. the number of steps the wizard guides you through may vary  Choose a title for any of the pages you checked above  If you want to show your address and phone number on the site.

ecBuilder First step: Site Structure Page Number: 86/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Second step .Company Address  In this step you are asked to enter more detailed information on your company  Fields marked with an asterisk ("*") are required fields. and will appear on appropriate places in it Page Number: 87/268 Made by: Ifact . and you must enter them in order to proceed to the next step  This information is used by ecBuilder to create your eBusiness site.

ecBuilder Second step .Company Address Page Number: 88/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Third step . will use this information to send all the info regarding new upgrades.)  MultiActive Software inc. options. etc. Page Number: 89/268 Made by: Ifact .Site Builder Profile  The person building your site may not be the one you want to receive orders and inquires generated from your site  This profile is the profile of the person that is responsible for MAINTAINING your site (it is not necessarily the person responsible for handling orders. and similar.

ecBuilder Third step .Site Builder Profile Page Number: 90/268 Made by: Ifact .

check the 'Same as Builder's Profile' checkbox. check the appropriate checkbox at the bottom of the screen Page Number: 91/268 Made by: Ifact .  If you want the name and the position of this person to appear on the Contact Page.Contact Person Profile  This is the profile of the person that is responsible for HANDLING ORDERS and inquiries  If this person is the same as the person that is building your site.ecBuilder Fourth step .

ecBuilder Fourth step .Contact Person Profile Page Number: 92/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Fifth step .Business Classification  This step asks You to choose categories that best describe your business  Also enter manually up to 30 keywords to describe it in more details  The categories are used to place Your eBusiness site under the right industry in the ecPlace`s eBusiness sites list  Keywords are used when your site is submitted to search engines Page Number: 93/268 Made by: Ifact .

Business Classification Page Number: 94/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Fifth step .

and Brief Description  Company Logo is a .ecBuilder Sixth step .GIF picture that will appear throughout your site  Company Slogan is a tag line that will appear on the top of the first page on Your E-business site  It should be one of the first things that visitors to your site (and potential customers) see Page Number: 95/268 Made by: Ifact .Company Identity  In this step you are prompted to enter your company‟s Logo.JPG or . Slogan.

Company Identity  It should convince the customer to stay and browse through your site  Brief Company Description is a summary that is used when your site is submitted to the search engines  It will appear as a short description of your site when its URL is shown by the respective Search Engine Page Number: 96/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Sixth step .

ecBuilder Sixth step .Company Identity Page Number: 97/268 Made by: Ifact .

you caused ecBuilder to generate a page with the default title 'background'  A link to that page can be found on the main page of the site  This 'background' page contains up to 100 links to other pages of your choice and content.ecBuilder Seventh step . Page Number: 98/268 Made by: Ifact .Web Site Content  By checking the 'Content Pages' checkbox in Step One. which are also generated by ecBuilder  You may use this option to add anything you find relevant to your eBusiness. or the site in general.

modify.ecBuilder Seventh step . or delete the content pages that will show up on 'Background‟ as well as their headlines and content. Headline is the name of the link which will appear on the link list of the 'Background' page Content is the text that will appear when Customer chooses one of the Headline links on the 'Background' page Page Number: 99/268 Made by: Ifact .Web Site Content      Visitors may browse through these pages by choosing the 'Background' link 'Background' is the default title which can be changed Button controls on the Seventh Step splash screen allow you to add.

ecBuilder Seventh step .Web Site Content Page Number: 100/268 Made by: Ifact .

as well as the names of the cards you accept  You may also specify other payment methods (money order.Payment Methods  This is the step where you specify whether you accept the credit card payment. check.)  You also specify the currency in which the prices on your site are specified  In order to accept credit cards online. you must already have a merchant account with a credit card company and/or your bank Page Number: 101/268 Made by: Ifact . etc.ecBuilder Eighth step .

ecBuilder Eighth step .Payment Methods Page Number: 102/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Ninth step . you do not have to create your own one inside the Merchant Site  Private Gateway = SSL or VPN or anything else to provide security Page Number: 103/268 Made by: Ifact .Online Processing Other Merchant Sites Bank Consumer Internet Consumer Consumer Merchant Site ecPlace Online Transaction Server Bank Bank Bank issuing and acquiring banks Other Merchant Sites Private Gateway  The ecBuilder adds one more stage into the generalized e-Business pipeline: The ecPlace  It is a ready-to-use interface to OTP.

Online Processing      Here you must select the third party online transaction processing (OTP) company you intend to use As of this moment.ecBuilder Ninth step . the ecPlace is nothing else but software to interact with the OTP After you have obtained a merchant account. ecBuilder supports E-xact and InternetSecure transaction processing companies. you must obtain a separate account with one of the supported OTP companies Go to http://www.com/client/merchantaccount for more info on obtaining an account with an online transaction processing company Remember: OTP = TGP (transaction gateway provider) Page Number: 104/268 Made by: Ifact .ecbuilder.

ecBuilder Ninth step .. by selecting the settings button and by following the instructions  If you haven`t applied to any transaction processing companies. password. (depending on the company). leaving you the possibility to return to this step later and to finish the process of supplying your site with the online payment option. you will have to enter into the ecPlace (via the Wizard step 9) the info that OTP sent to you (so ecPlace can work in your name): ID. choose [NONE] in the transaction processing companies drop-down box  That will allow you to go on with creating your site. Page Number: 105/268 Made by: Ifact .Online Processing  After applying to one of these transaction processing companies. but you want to create a beta version of the site. etc.

Online Processing Page Number: 106/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Ninth step .

ecBuilder Tenth step .Catalog      Here you will make the catalogue of the items/services/goods you are offering for sale on your E-business site On the left side of the splash screen (screen w/ Wizard questions) there is a box with Catalog Sections On the right side is the box with the corresponding section's items Sections will appear as links on the 'Catalog' page. which is generated automatically if you've selected 'Your Products or Services Catalog‟ checkbox in the First Step Items will appear as links on the corresponding section page. Page Number: 107/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Tenth step .Catalog Page Number: 108/268 Made by: Ifact .

etc. the Catalog Section dialog box will appear. Page Number: 109/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Tenth step . depending on the choices you make in this step  If you select one section in the Catalog Sections box.Catalog  Each items page may contain all the info about the item you want  It will also contain customer interface that allows the Customer – to add the item to his/her Shopping Basket – to buy that item right away – to make inquiries about it. and press the 'Modify' button.

ecBuilder Tenth step .Catalog Page Number: 110/268 Made by: Ifact .

which will be used for your catalog  Depending on the template you selected. or enter your own title  This title will appear as a link to respective catalogue section page on the main catalogue page Page Number: 111/268 Made by: Ifact . the layout of the Web page may change.ecBuilder Tenth step . you must choose Business Template.Catalog  In this dialog box. as well as the choices you may make in the next steps and in the dialog boxes  You must also select one Catalog Section Title out of the available ones.

Catalog  You may choose that all of the items/services in this section are on a discount.ecBuilder Tenth step . and enter appropriate Description for that Discount  Finally. as well as the Catalog section image (which will appear left of the section title)  You may choose to show the preview images of your items on the Catalog index page Page Number: 112/268 Made by: Ifact . you may enter Description for a Catalog section (which will appear below title of the section).

Catalog  If you select one item in the Catalog Items.ecBuilder Tenth step . etc. Page Number: 113/268 Made by: Ifact . Item's image.  You may also enter two bulleted lists with up to 20 bullets that describe features of your item. the Item dialog box will appear  This box allows you to customize the way in which the item is presented to the customer on your site  You may enter Item/Service name. etc. and press the 'Modify' button. its model. description.

Catalog Page Number: 114/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Tenth step .

Page Number: 115/268 Made by: Ifact .Catalog  Item dialog box also allows you to enter detailed data on every item. like: – – – – – its weight dimensions available sizes keywords for search engines etc.ecBuilder Tenth step .

) – Whether this item can be purchased online – and similar Page Number: 116/268 Made by: Ifact . etc. per liter.Catalog  Pricing options are also available here: – – – – Regular price item Promotional Item No Price Item (Inquiry) In which units the price is applied (per item.ecBuilder Tenth step .

depending on the means of the shipping.ecBuilder Tenth step .Catalog  Finally. etc. you may configure taxes that are applied to this item. Page Number: 117/268 Made by: Ifact . residence of the Customer.

Advertising & Statistics  This Step gives you three options to select: – Top Page Banner – Bottom Page Banner – Hit Counter  Banners are used primarily for link exchange between sites of similar interest in order to boost up hit ratios. which can be useful when planning your future market strategy Page Number: 118/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Eleventh step .g. and for some additional cash source (pay per clickthrough banners. 1cent/click  Hit counters are used for tracking visitor statistics for your site. for example): e..

This will happen if you enlist with some banner exchange service. by yourself – You may cut and paste the already generated HTML code. which will provide you with the HTML code that you should install on your site  LinkExchange at http://www.ecBuilder Eleventh step .linkexchange.com is one example of banner exchange services (bringing business to each other).Advertising & Statistics  Banners (Top and Bottom) can be placed on your site in one of the two ways: – You may choose the banner image and the URL link it points to. Page Number: 119/268 Made by: Ifact .

or it may be your ISP's default counter code.com is one of the providers that offers you the tracking services for “free” Page Number: 120/268 Made by: Ifact .Advertising & Statistics  Hit counter is installed by pasting appropriate code into the text box  Counter code may be generated for you by some of the free counter services.thecounter.ecBuilder Eleventh step . which you should obtain from your ISP's support service  TheCounter at http://www.

Advertising & Statistics Page Number: 121/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Eleventh step .

Order & Inquiry Fields  Order and Inquiry Fields are supplemental information you may want to hear from your customers. for example: – how often do you buy on-line? – How did you hear about us? – etc. which in turn should be used to improve the way your site and business work Page Number: 122/268 Made by: Ifact .  These pieces of information are usually intended for market surveys and market analysis.ecBuilder Twelfth step .

Order & Inquiry Fields Page Number: 123/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Twelfth step .

Site Design & Preview      In this Step you must choose one of the presented templates and color schemes. Page Number: 124/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Thirteenth step . and choose a different template. like Netscape or MSIE for showing preview version) You can always return back to this step. from which ecBuilder will generate your E-business site These are the last ones of the necessary pieces of information ecBuilder needs to make a fully functional site You may check how your site looks like by pressing the 'Preview' button Your site will be generated. and shown via the ecBuilder's browser (you may choose another browser.

ecBuilder Thirteenth step .Site Design & Preview Page Number: 125/268 Made by: Ifact .

Site Design & Preview Page Number: 126/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Thirteenth step .

check the "Use digital-based security" check-box. to use it for SSL transfers related to your site. and follow instructions Basically.Security Options      This Step is used to obtain and set up a digital certificate (if you didn't have one by now) You are required to have a digital certificate if you choose to use any of the payment gateway options Digital certificate can be obtained by pressing the 'Security Configuration' button.ecBuilder Fourteenth step . and then by pressing the "Get a New Digital ID" button When the certificate is obtained. Page Number: 127/268 Made by: Ifact . you just get it and then you pass it to your ISP.

Security Options Page Number: 128/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Fourteenth step .

ecBuilder Fourteenth step .Description Page Number: 129/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Fifteenth step . to make sure your E-business site is easy to be found  The data and keywords you entered in previous steps will be used in the submit process  You may visit an independent Submit-It service provider at: http://www.com  For a small fee they will submit your site to hundreds of search engines Page Number: 130/268 Made by: Ifact .submit-it.Search Engines  ecBuilder can submit your new site to eight (as of „this‟ moment) search engines.

ecBuilder Fifteenth step .Search Engines Page Number: 131/268 Made by: Ifact .

or to save it on your hard disk  If you choose to FTP your site from ecBuilder. you must FTP it manually to your ISP by using any FTP client Page Number: 132/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Sixteenth step . press the 'Submit' button. which offers you to upload your site to your Webspace. choose the 'FTP to your existing ISP' radio button. and follow the instructions  If you choose to save your site on the local disk.Upload Your Site  This is the final Step.

Upload Your Site Page Number: 133/268 Made by: Ifact .ecBuilder Sixteenth step .

ecBuilder Sixteenth step .Upload Your Site Page Number: 134/268 Made by: Ifact .

CSV (Comma Separated Values) file (offered items separated by commas) This is a very useful option if you plan to sell hundreds of types of items Entering these items manually is a painstaking job. which must produce lots of errors Page Number: 135/268 Made by: Ifact . Help Most of the options in the File menu are standard File menu options. or shortcuts for the options of ecBuilder`s wizard The only option that deserves further explanations here is 'Catalog Import and Export' The 'Catalog Import and Export' option allows you to import the item list directly from the .ecBuilder Menu bar commands (1)        ecBuilder also has a large number of Menu bar commands There are 4 basic menus: File. Go. Edit.

CSV file from which you are importing a list of items. $4. type. $5. when you choose the .CSV file should be an easy task  The easiest way should be importing your database to Excell. yellow oranges. red  In ecBuilder. and then exporting it from Excell to the .ecBuilder Menu bar commands (2)  If you have many items you want to sell. and the section (in the catalogue) you are importing it into Page Number: 136/268 Made by: Ifact .g.CSV format: apples. price. as specified above) that best-matches the data model in your external file. you probably have them in some kind of a database  Exporting this database to a . you will be prompted to choose the Business Type (e. description..

and the option to specify the purpose of each column in that file Typically.CSV file. you will be presented with the datasheet view of the selected . items will be automatically added into the correct sections Page Number: 137/268 Made by: Ifact . and then you fine-tune it manually. When you're done with mapping. you select the most suitable Business Type option. you will be prompted whether you want to create new sections You will also be asked whether you want to save the mapping scheme for future importing of the item list of the same format When you click finish.ecBuilder Menu bar commands (3)      After selecting whether you are appending the existing list or updating the existing list (substitute of old with new).

ecBuilder Menu bar commands (4)  Selecting the best-matching Business Type template Page Number: 138/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Menu bar commands (5)  Eliminating the non-needed columns from the selected Business Type template Page Number: 139/268 Made by: Ifact .

ecBuilder Menu bar commands (6)  Presenting the results in the “Datasheet View” form Page Number: 140/268 Made by: Ifact .

next…”)  The Help Menu gives you help on ecBuilder`s user interface and functionality  Page Number: 141/268 Made by: Ifact . Save.Catalog')  The Go Menu lists all 16 Steps. etc…)  The Edit Menu provides you with two important options: to set up Tax Types and Shipping Methods (these options are in fact shortcuts to the same options in 'Step Ten . allowing you to jump directly to any step you want (you do not have to click “next.ecBuilder Menu bar commands (7) The File Menu is “business as usual” (New. next. Open. Close.

is encrypted. credit card numbers. and sent to you as e-mail attachments Page Number: 142/268 Made by: Ifact . and so on. such as name. or to order something from you  The data from this form.ecOrderDesk  The ecOrderDesk application allows you to track and manage the orders you receive from your ecBuilder Web site  Visitors to your Web site can complete an online form to inquire about your products and services. encoded. address. compressed.


When you receive these orders or inquiries, you can decode and work with them using ecOrderDesk  You can use this same application to enter and manage orders and inquiries that come to you by telephone, mail, or other methods  ecOrderDesk allows you to track the status of your inquiries and orders— whether your customers have received a response or had their order been shipped, etc...

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It also lets you mark specific orders or inquiries as urgent, ignore inquiries without deleting them, and track shipping and payment status for your orders  ecOrderDesk lets you export order and inquiry data for use with your company‟s accounting, report-creation, order fulfillment, or contact management programs  ecOrderDesk supports three types of records:
– orders – item inquiries – general inquiries

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The “Datasheet View” of the purchasing workflow

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– An actual purchase request by a shopper from your Web site – An order may include one or more catalog items

Item Inquiries
– A request for information about a specific catalogue item by a shopper from your web site – An Item Inquiry is not a purchase request – It is possible to convert an Item Inquiry to an Order

General Inquiry
– A request for general information about your company or anything else – General Inquiry is not linked to a specific catalog item

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The email attachment specifying the contents of a shopping cart is an encrypted file  Importing that file into ecOrderDesk is done using one of these two methods (decryption done automaticaly):
– Double-click on the attachment file in the e-mail message to open it in ecOrderDesk (the attachment file will be in Multiactive ecOrderDesk (MEC) format); or – Save the attachment file onto your hard drive; if ecBuilder is not installed on the computer where you receive your e-mail, save the MEC attachment file to a diskette and copy it onto the computer where ecBuilder is installed – Open ecOrderDesk, and choose „File > Import‟. Then browse to the MEC file on your hard drive

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ecOrderDesk       All three types of records (O.mec (ecOrderDesk format) – .. A selective report for printing also exists Records can be exported to three file types: – . deleted.II. filtered. and to restore them if necessary Page Number: 148/268 Made by: Ifact . Lotus 1-2-3)  It is possible to archive records.csv (comma separated file . sorted. or GI) can be inserted and modified manually Records are rich with details about order or inquiry Sorting records is possible by any column Records could be edited..mel (Multiactive Maximizer format) – .Excell.

ecOrderDesk  Yes. the order/inquiry form is rich in details Page Number: 149/268 Made by: Ifact .

with very few drawbacks  Having in mind all this. etc.ecBuilder Conclusion  ecBuilder is a powerful and a very cost-effective tool  The amount of time and other resources you must invest in mastering the more advanced technologies (such as Microsoft Site Server. ecBuilder is probably the best choice for medium businesses (all except the smallest and the biggest eBusiness companies) Page Number: 150/268 Made by: Ifact . as well as the relative small price of this package.) greatly surpasses the time and resources needed to learn and use ecBuilder  ecBuilder also provides basically all the functionality you need for and from an eBusiness site.

SSL (Secure Socket Layer) .

transaction should be as secured as in the real world.SSL Basics  Protection of critical data during transfer from customer‟s browser to the merchant server  Most sensitive information are credit card numbers and any other payment related information  Ideally. where customer and merchant interact directly without the possibility of third person involvement Page Number: 152/268 Made by: Ifact .

when customer types in his/hers credit card number and initiates a payment procedure. customer‟s browser sends an HTTP POST message which is then broken into TCP/IP packets before sending across the network  If someone could intercept these packets and read them he/she would be able to obtain confidential data Page Number: 153/268 Made by: Ifact . to get to the merchant server  Actually. data have to propagate through the net.Jeopardy of Critical Information  On the Internet.

only that server should have the key needed to decrypt the data Page Number: 154/268 Made by: Ifact . in order to be able to communicate securely  This new layer encrypts data in such a manner that it can only be decrypted by the SSL layer on the machine data is meant for  That means.The SSL Idea  SSL is a network software layer that resides between HTTP (application) and TCP (transport) layers  Both server and client must have the SSL layer installed. if client sends encrypted data to the server.

The SSL Architecture  SSL consists of at least 2 levels: – SSL Handshake Protocol – SSL Record Layer  During the connection establishing between client and server. SSL handshake protocol ensures a negotiation of secret data needed for calculation of encryption/decryption keys (master secret data) and MACs (Message Authentication Code)  SSL record layer uses the agreed secret data to actually calculate keys and MACs and uses them for secure transmission of information across the network Page Number: 155/268 Made by: Ifact .

is then added to the data packet  So. an attacker can intercept the data packet. replace it with its own data of the same format. if attacker makes changes to a data packet. Page Number: 156/268 Made by: Ifact . calculated this way. and the receiver would NOT notice the difference. MAC of the new message will be different from the MAC contained in the message. and calculation of the new MAC is not possible without possession of the secret data  If no MACs included.The MAC Mechanism  Authentication of both client and server messages is performed through the use of the MAC mechanism  MAC is a peace of data used to authenticate packets of data to ensure that they arrive at the destination unchanged  MACs are calculated with special algorithm applied to the: – contents of data packets – size of data packets – secret data mention earlier  The MAC.

Asymmetric by the handshake protocol In steady state. server obtains both the public and the secret keys during the certification (inside the certificate obtained from the trusted source) Page Number: 157/268 Made by: Ifact . using one secret key (symmetric). handshake protocol implements the initial passing of the public key from the server to the client (asymmetric). record layer is responsible for online encryption/decryption.Symmetric by the record layer . as well as a number of related activities At the very beginning (before all above). which is the same both on the client and the server sides Before that.Encryption Algorithms: Bird‟s View      Two types of algorithms: Symmetric and Asymmetric Both algorithms used in SSL: .

Symmetric Algorithms  Actual encryption is performed through the use of symmetric encryption algorithms  The most widely used symmetric algorithm is DES (Data Encryption Standard)  Symmetric means that both encryption and decryption are performed with the same key  How to make the Symmetric Secret Key known to both the server and the client? By an asymmetric algorithm! SSL Encrypts DATA with SymmetricSecretKey SSL Decrypts DATA with SymmetricSecretKey Encrypted DATA DATA Sender S S L Sender Ports S S L Receiver Ports Receiver DATA Made by: Ifact Socket Page Number: 158/268 .

g.. secure sending of data includes the following steps: – receiver obtains the public key and the corresponding secret key. MIT)  Asymmetric algorithms are based on the concept of secret key and the corresponding public key  In general. and keeps the secret key hidden – sender obtains the receiver‟s public key and encrypts data with it (the receiver‟s public key) – sender transmits data over the network – receiver uses his/her secret key to decrypt data  Intercepted data cannot be decrypted without the secret key even if attacker knows the public key Page Number: 159/268 Made by: Ifact . SSL handshake protocol uses an asymmetric protocol like RSA (Rivest + Shamir + Adleman.Asymmetric Algorithms  In order to hide the encryption/decryption key from possible attackers and still make it known to both server and client. the longer the better! – receiver publishes the public key (e. via the Internet).

each and every server is supposed to be certified  This means that merchant has obtained a certificate from a well known and reliable institution  Incorporated in the certificate is a set of RSA keys (used in asymmetric algorithms).Server Certification  In the e-commerce field.  This set of keys shall be used during the SSL handshake phase with the client (initial exchange) Page Number: 160/268 Made by: Ifact .

this is why „simplified‟  Picture explains communication between server and client during the handshake agreement  Client generates data to be used for the later-on generation of the symmetric secret key. using the asymmetric algorithm (using the asymmetric public key obtained from the server) clientHello serverHello certificate serverKeyExchange clientKeyExchage finished finished Page Number: 161/268 Made by: Ifact .Simplified SSL Handshake Protocol  We assume that only the server is certified (has obtained a set of RSA public keys). and passes it to the server.

ClientHello  With this message.. client actually announces its existence!  Client sends ClientHello message which contains (among other things) randomly chosen 28 bytes  Message also contains the list of supported algorithms (by client) for encryption and optional compression of data. it announces that it supports DES with a 128-bit symmetric secret key) Page Number: 162/268 Made by: Ifact . List is sorted with more secure algorithms placed near the top of the list (e.g.

ServerHello  Server as an answer sends ServerHello message that contains independently generated random data (similar to ClientHello)  These random data add one more security level into the system  Also. from the top of the list. this message is to negotiate the symmetric algorithm to be used Page Number: 163/268 Made by: Ifact . message contains a response to the client with the server‟s selection of algorithms from the client‟s lists. Server chooses the first algorithm. that he/she supports (the first one is the most reliable)  As already indicated.

there exist certificates that are used only as signatures (with „additional data‟ specified above) and do not contain RSA keys. the server‟s public key is sent. physical address. client knows the server‟s public key that shall be used in subsequent messages  Generally speaking. incorporated in the message. contact address. assurances from the trusted party (that the certificate is not fake)  After the reception of this message. Page Number: 164/268 Made by: Ifact .Certificate  Server sends its certificate to the client (certificate=PublicKeyEtc).  Additional data exchanged are the company name.

ServerKeyExchange  If the previous message did not contain the set of RSA keys. of course. but. it is not sent over the network) Page Number: 165/268 Made by: Ifact . then this message has to be sent  Server sends the ServerKeyExchange message with a temporary public key generated ad hoc (the secret key is generated at the same time.

but not in its direct form. this message is exchanged always (essential for the handshake)  Client randomly generates a 40 bytes long data called PreMasterSecret (that will turn later into the symmetric secret key)  Note that it is the Client who generates the symmetric key.ClientKeyExchange (1)  Unlike the ServerKeyExchange. in conjunction with the initially transferred random data. to form the symmetric encryption/decription key (using the predefined algorithm) Page Number: 166/268 Made by: Ifact . instead in the form of PreMasterSecret.  This PreMasterSecret is used on both sides (Server and Client).

client encrypts PreMasterSecret and sends it as the EncryptedPreMasterSecret incorporated into ClienKeyExchange message  Server accepts the message and decrypts PreMasterSecret with its secret key  When both server and client have obtained PreMasterSecret.ClientKeyExchange (2)  Using the public key. they calculate a 40B MasterSecret (using PreMasterSecret and previously exchanged random data)  That is in fact the final goal of the SSL handshake protocol (passing the secret key from client to server) Page Number: 167/268 Made by: Ifact .

the resulting checksum is encrypted.Finished Messages      Both client and server now send finished messages containing parameters derived from the contents of all previous handshake massages and MasterSecret (the last derivative on the way to symmetric key) This is a protection against attacks (in the procedure so far) performed by altering handshake messages If attacker tampers with handshake messages. a CRC is applied to all messages exchanged in the handshaking process. then these parameters (contained in the message and derived from sent messages) will differ from the same parameters computed by the receiver (derived from received messages) There is no way for attacker to fake finished messages without knowing the agreed MasterSecret In essence. Page Number: 168/268 Made by: Ifact .

Simplified Handshake: Revisited Client Client generates SecretSymmKey PublicAsymmKey is transmitted to Client Server Server generates PublicAsymmKey Client crypts SecretSymmKey using PubAsymKey Crypted SecretSymmKey is transmitted to Server Server decrypts SecretSymmKey using SecretAssymKey Client generates master cheksum Cheksums are exchanged and validated Server generates master cheksum Client encrypts/decrypts DATA with SecretSymmKey Encrypted connection established Server encrypts/decrypts DATA with SecretSymmKey Page Number: 169/268 Made by: Ifact .

MACs are to detect abuse Record layer first optionally compresses every packet that needs to be transmitted. MAC is attached to it. and makes sure that it is identical to the one calculated earlier If everything is OK. receiver first decrypts data.keys are to prevent abuse . which effectively ends secure transmission. receiver decompresses data (if that is needed). client and server independently compute MACs and encryption/decryption keys Now everything is ready for a safe transmission: . and then the record layer encrypts it all together After reception. separates MAC.SSL Record Layer      After the handshake protocol is successfully completed. Page Number: 170/268 Made by: Ifact . after that.

Microsoft Site Server Commerce Edition A Technological Survey .

Basic Concepts and Tools       SSCE enables merchants to build their storefronts with much more flexibility than with previous tools. SSCE comes with the means for integration with existing information systems and tools for virtually any part of store development and use Based on the ASP technology which enables the execution of script language programs on a Web server. The SSCE is a methodology to connect the existing IS with the newly generated storefront SSCE is a kind of ASP extension! Page Number: 172/268 Made by: Ifact . the ASP files include HTML tags and script code The script code is able to dynamically create the HTML pages for storefront implementation purposes (and wider).

Included are cross-sell systems that enable merchants to dynamically generate offer pages based on customer‟s purchasing history and current contents of his/her shopping basket  Order processing pipeline (OPP) is a concept that takes care about background tasks like gathering information about products catalog. calculation of prices.Mentioned tools include:  Site Builder Wizard is a simple step by step wizard that simplifies HTML and database connection writing. It comes with several completed sites as examples  Dynamic Merchandising is a way for real-time catalog administration with WWW interface. OPP is the fundamental concept behind the e-commerce business to consumer (B2C) sites Page Number: 173/268 Made by: Ifact . taxes calculation…  It can be integrated with the existing information systems and its capabilities can be extended by inserting new components.

 Integration with Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS).A simple tool for personalized TDEM (Target Directed E-mail Marketing) campaigns based on customers profiles and their affiliations Page Number: 174/268 Made by: Ifact . Commerce Interchange Pipeline (CIP) is a concept intended for business to business (B2B) applications. B2B includes implementation of infrastructure for businesses to exchange documents and forms of business transactions through an existing EDI (Electronic data interchange) system. MTS is a sw package that ensures integrity of database operations by introducing a transaction based interface for database access  SSCE is based upon the ASP server side script technology  SSCE also includes Direct Mailer . outside the scope of this tutorial.

and OPP  Pages on a SSCE-created Web site are ASP pages with a server side script that manipulates a set of COM objects. Script uses these objects to gather information from consumers. and to process needed tasks through OPP (ADO = ActiveX Data Objects) Page Number: 175/268 Made by: Ifact .Basics  Technically. COM (Component Object Model) objects. to find or save info with a ODBC/ADO query. usually those coming within the SSCE package. any SSCE-built store is based on three key technologies: ASP.

This is implemented through use of the OrderForm object OrderForm object is a COM object that contains info about: consumer. OPP pipelines also consist of discrete parts called stages that are executed in a precisely determined sequence Each stage contains COM objects that actually do the job the stage is supposed to perform It is clear that information needs to be passed from one pipeline stage to another to perform meaningful processing. and additional expenses Page Number: 176/268 Made by: Ifact . prices.OPP Concept       OPP imitates interaction between customer and merchant in a typical real-world store OPP is actually a name for a set of three pipelines and each one will be described in full extent As any other pipelines. shopping basket details.

Adds info about customer (one that is currently visiting the site) to the OrderForm Order Initialization .Adds info about merchant to OrderForm Shopper Information .Checks whether OrderForm contains needed information.Short Description of OPP Stages        This is about a stage.Sets initial order data to OrderForm and makes sure that OrderForm contains a unique ID of this particular order Order Check . No case when a stage can exist in all three pipes (rule. others in two pipelines. is there at least one product that is put into the order Item Price . no matter what pipe it belongs to! Some of the stages may exist in one.Determines initial price of the order without any discounts and additional expenses Page Number: 177/268 Made by: Ifact .Gathers data about products offered to consumers Merchant Information . for example. so far) Product Info .

shipment and handling expenses are considered Shipping .For product price adjustment based on possible discounts Order Adjust Price .Calculates taxes for each item in the order and the total tax amount for the entire order Page Number: 178/268 Made by: Ifact .Calculates price of order before any tax.      Item Adjust Price .This stage calculates amount of shipping expenses for the order Handling .Discounts based on total amount of order Order Subtotal .This stage calculates the amount of handling expenses for the order Tax .

     Order Total .Actually performs financial transaction Accept .Calculates final prices based on previous stages Inventory .Checks customer‟s cc and address information Payment .Makes sure that there are enough ordered products on the stocks Purchase Check .Finalizing the purchase process Page Number: 179/268 Made by: Ifact .

Files That Describe Pipelines  SSCE organizes data about pipelines in files with . These files can be created with SSCE Pipeline Editor  In .pcf files SSCE keeps info about stages and objects corresponding to these stages  SSCE comes with the three templates for .pcf extensions. Template files come with the .pct extension Page Number: 180/268 Made by: Ifact .pcf files.

The Three Pipeline Types  Three Pipeline types included in the SSCE package are: – Product pipeline with 5 predefined stages – Plan pipeline with 14 predefined stages – Payment pipeline with 3 predefined stages  Some pipeline stages include COM objects responsible for execution of the stage-related functions  These COM objects are represented graphically as valves Page Number: 181/268 Made by: Ifact .

asp page to obtain general information and the price for each offered product  Stages in the product pipeline usually include: Product Info. Usually application uses this pipeline on product.Product Template  This is the template for the first of the three pipelines  Product. Item Price. and Inventory Page Number: 182/268 Made by: Ifact . Shopper Info.pct .this template is used for price and discount calculation for individual products. Item Adjust Price.

and Inventory Page Number: 183/268 Made by: Ifact . Order Total. Item Price. Order Check. Item Adjust Price. Order Adjust Price. Order Subtotal. Shipping. Usually.This template is for pipeline which is supposed to calculate the final price of the order. pipeline is used to create the final report for the customer with the facility to finalize the payment process or to drop from the purchase all together  Stages in the plan pipeline usually include: Product Info. Shopper Info. Merchant Info. Order Initialization.Plan Template  Plan. Tax.pct .

Purchase Template  Purchase.This template is for pipelines that check payment information. Actually. and Accept Page Number: 184/268 Made by: Ifact . perform financial transaction. and save order information into the database  This type of pipeline usually receives OrderForm that has already propagated through the plan pipeline.pct . this pipeline only completes the payment process initiated in the plan pipeline  This type of pipeline usually consists of the following stages: Purchase Check. Payment.

user can create or remove stages from the pipeline. Also.pcf). Pipeline is graphically presented as a vertical pipe broken into sections representing stages  Every horizontal section (valve) represents an OPP COM object in the corresponding stage  This software enables user to add and configure OPP objects. Page Number: 185/268 Made by: Ifact .Pipeline Editor  Pipeline Editor is a visual tool for creating pipeline files (.

pcf file gets loaded. the desired . merchant runs the Purchase pipeline with the MtsTxPipeline object  After instancing one of the above object.MTS and OPP  OPP supports full Microsoft Transaction Server integration. ensuring data integrity. Those are MtsPipeline and MtsTxPipeline objects.  The only difference is that MtsTxPipeline runs in cooperation with MTS. Usually. and the Execute method starts the pipeline execution Page Number: 186/268 Made by: Ifact . Actually there are two versions of objects that encapsulate pipeline during execution. by calling the LoadPipe method.

then the above call will be considered to be a normal reference and a value will be assigned to the existing property Page Number: 187/268 Made by: Ifact . except that they can be dynamically added with a simple assignment command like: Object.OrderForm as a Dictionary Object  OrderForm is a so-called dictionary object. a new property (name/value pair) will be created and a value will be assigned to it.name_of_name/value_pair = value_of_name/value_pair  If an object does not contain a property with this name. If it does exist. This type of objects are unique by the fact that users can dynamically add properties (name/value pairs) to them  Name/value pairs have references and values just like any other object property.

this is an object that propagates through all 3 pipelines! This object maintains the context of the order processing Generally it consists of data needed for payment and shipment. along with the collection of objects representing items that customer wishes to buy. that a customer chooses on the merchant‟s site Usually. in this terminology. a set of products of the same type. Item is. customer chooses a product and then specifies the desired quantity he/she wishes to buy Also OrderForm contains two object collections („sub-objects‟) used by pipelines to report errors encountered during order processing Page Number: 188/268 Made by: Ifact .OrderForm:       This object should contain all information necessary for order completion This is NOT an object that helps implement functionality of a stage.

Properties Every „item‟ object has fields for calculating the price and the additional expenses tied to that „item‟  The „items‟ is an object implemented as a collection of „item‟ objects  Each „item‟ includes no methods (only data)  Page Number: 189/268 Made by: Ifact .

Page Number: 190/268 Made by: Ifact . COM object in this stage creates a new property (field. name-value) in the OrderForm object.Item[1]. Many of these properties are predefined (like _product_name for example). For every column of the query result.Adding New Info to OrderForm       This „adding‟ is related to an on-going purchase During pipeline processing. like _product_columnName and stores the value obtained from the query in it. new name-value pairs) is usually added to the OrderForm object A typical example is the Product Info Pipeline stage that gathers product information usually by database query Example: SELECT * FROM products WHERE SKU=OrderForm.SKU Description: This SQL query (in the PI pipeline stage) is executed for each item (specified with a different product code/identifier SKU). Those that are not. additional information (new fields. are automatically created.

a SSCE pipeline is a series of COM objects executed in a predefined order  These objects are grouped in pipeline stages.Pipeline Types and Stage Functions  As already mentioned. is actually performed  This is done before execution control is transferred to the next pipeline stage Page Number: 191/268 Made by: Ifact . Every stage is a logical macro step and is meant for certain function. a stage has an ability to check (at the end of its execution) whether the function. Usually. stage is meant for.


Branching does not exist directly; only indirectly, using the „null data field‟ mechanism  Pipeline stages and components in those stages are executed sequentially according to the predefined order specified in pipeline editor. One form of branching simulation can be achieved by the following mechanism  The idea is to write components (many built-in ones are of this type) that first checks to see if fields they are supposed to set are null. If they are not, components perform their function, otherwise they do nothing. This enables, for instance, to calculate different shipping fees for different shipping methods and destinations

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Product Pipeline

Aim of this type of pipeline is to gather information about products, and shows it on the product.asp page  This page shows info on the products offered for sale  This stage, among other things, is used for a preliminary single item price determination

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Product Info Stage (#1)

Minimal requirements for this stage is that it must, for each Item in Items collection, copy info from the product database to the required fields  Additional components in this stage should be used for retrieval and/or calculation of non predefined data such as product weight needed as a basis for shipment cost calculation  At the end of stage execution, a check is performed to see if required data are retrieved for all Items

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Shopper Information (#2)

This stage writes information (to OrderForm) about the customer; if the related field already exists - just fill in; if no - create!  This is useful if a customer database is to be built  This is usually done to enable creation of special discounts for particular groups of customers  This stage is not required and no checking is performed at the end

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Item Price (#3)

Goal of this stage is to determine the regular price (without any discounts and additional expenses) for every Item, and to put it into the OrderForm object.  This value is written to the field called _iadjust_regularprice  At the end of this stage, checking is performed to see if all _iadjust_regularprice fields are set

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stage checks if all _iadjust_currentprice values are set Page Number: 197/268 Made by: Ifact .Item Adjust Price (#4)  This stage calculates all possible discounts and comes up with a new price value when all these discounts are applied to the price obtained in the previous stage  Result is written to _iadjust_currentprice for each item  At the end.

component sets _inventory_backorder for that Item  No checking is performed at the end of this stage Page Number: 198/268 Made by: Ifact .Inventory (#5)  This is the last stage in the product pipeline and it is used to check if the required amount of products is present on stocks (in the inventory)  If not enough products are present for a particular Item.

Plan Pipeline  Plan pipeline is a superset of the Product pipeline  It is used for complete price calculation based on various parameters  What follows is only the NEW stages. not mentioned before. in the product pipeline Page Number: 199/268 Made by: Ifact .

Merchant Information  Used for setting data about merchant in OrderForm  This is an optional stage and no checking is performed at the end Page Number: 200/268 Made by: Ifact .

if it is not already set.Order Initialization  This stage initializes order information while checking that correct product quantity is set for each item (Item[n]. a built-in checking system sets the order ID.Quantity)  At the end of the stage. creates _oadjust_adjustedprice for each item as well as deletes some fields that need to be reset when the pipeline execution commences Page Number: 201/268 Made by: Ifact .

Order Check  Verifies that the order can be processed. This means that stage adds error message to OrderForm if the order does not contain at least one item  Any additional component in this stage should check order validity based on possible specific criteria and maybe make some corrections that will allow further pipeline processing Page Number: 202/268 Made by: Ifact .

Order Adjust Price  This stage calculates additional discount based on the order as a whole  This enables. pay 5. for instance. discounts for orders that are above some predefined amount  This is for „buy 6. scenarios‟ Page Number: 203/268 Made by: Ifact .

Order Subtotal  Final order price before any shipping. this value is presented as a final price on a page where contents of customer‟s basket is shown because shipping address is not yet known. handling. and tax expenses should be set here  This is done by summing up all _oadjust_adjustedprice values and storing result in _oadjust_subtotal  Reason for this calculation is that this value is needed for additional calculation in the next stages that are based on the total price of the order and not on the price of a particular items  Additionally. so shipping and taxes fees cannot be calculated yet Page Number: 204/268 Made by: Ifact .

Shipping  Calculates shipping fees that should be incorporated in the final price  This value should be written in _shipping_total field which is checked at the end of the stage execution Page Number: 205/268 Made by: Ifact .

Handling  Similarly calculates the handling fee and stores it in the _handling_total field Page Number: 206/268 Made by: Ifact .

components should set tax fee value for each item in order to simplify later book-keeping process Page Number: 207/268 Made by: Ifact .Tax  Last stage before final price calculation  Components in this stage should always set _tax_total field and _tax_included field which denounces part of the previously calculated prices as the already included tax  Although this is not checked at the end of the stage execution.

Shipping. Handling.Order Total  Calculates FINAL price by summing values calculated in Tax. This field is checked at the end of this stage execution Page Number: 208/268 Made by: Ifact ._total_total. and Order Subtotal stages  Final price is stored in OrderForm.

performs the cc authorization and completes the purchase Page Number: 209/268 Made by: Ifact . among other things.Purchase Pipeline  This type of pipeline accepts the OrderForm object already processed through the Plan pipeline and completes the order processing by performing financial transaction  This pipeline.

Purchase Check  This stage is often used for verification if OrderForm is ready for order completion. OrderForm must have _total_total value set along with the all necessary payment processing information  No checks are performed at the end of this stage Page Number: 210/268 Made by: Ifact .

Payment  This stage should perform the actual financial transactions  The goal is to accept or reject the purchase by performing cc authorization. as well as an indication that the transaction has been completed successfully Page Number: 211/268 Made by: Ifact .  This stage must set _payment_auth_code which represents ID of the particular transaction.

Accept  This last stage in the purchase pipeline performs activities like updating inventory information. etc.  This is an optional stage without any checking at the end  SSCE provides components for automatic OrderForm database storing Page Number: 212/268 Made by: Ifact . sending e-mail confirmation to customers (electronic bill). storing order data.

The OPP COM Components Included in SSCE („Valves‟) .

there are virtually no limitations for use of scriptor component Page Number: 214/268 Made by: Ifact ...)  Since programmer can use any additional functionality in the script by instancing ActiveX objects.Scriptor Component  This is the only built-in component that is not meant for particular stage  Scriptor component allows SSCE users to implement virtually any function without writing new COM OPP objects in Visual C++ or VB  This component works by executing script associated with it. Any Windows Scripting Host script language can be used (VBScript. JavaScript.

This object is usually instanced in global. so that is visible for all parts of the application.QueryProdInfoADO  QueryProdInfoADO is the only component that comes with the SSCE that is meant to work in Product Information stage  This component queries product database for each Item  Query is specified either as a value of a field “Query” or as a part QueryMap object that encapsulates collection of all queries used in application. Page Number: 215/268 Made by: Ifact .asa file.

QueryProdInfoADO Also there is a “Connection String” field that contains specification of ODBC accessed database and field “Parameter List” that specifies parameters used for each Item in the Query  Component executes query for each item like this:  – SELECT * from Product where SKU=„?‟ and name like „%?%‟ – with parameter list like this: Item.Name  For each Item question marks will be replaced with the value from the parameter list for that item.SKU Item. Every column from the resulting recordset will be stored in OrderForm Page Number: 216/268 Made by: Ifact .

DefaultShopperInfo  This component is used in ShopperInformation stage  It is copying data from Shopper object to OrderForm  Shopper object is another predefined dictionary object that application uses to store customer data. This data is usually obtained through customer registration on the site  ShopperInformation creates fields in OrderForm like: OrderForm._shopper_* where * represents names of shopper object‟s properties Page Number: 217/268 Made by: Ifact .

RequiredOrderInit  The only component in SSCE for Order Initialization stage is RequiredOrderInit. _oadjust_subtotal. _tax_included i _payment_auth_code Page Number: 218/268 Made by: Ifact . _handling_total.order_ID = null. _oadjust_adjustedprice. Instance of this component is automatically created and placed as a part of checking logic at the end of this stage  This component (among other things) does the following: – if OrderForm. _tax_total. creates new unique order ID – sets following values to null: _total_total. _shipping_total.

component adds error message in the _purchase_errors collection of the OrderForm object  This error stops the pipeline execution Page Number: 219/268 Made by: Ifact .RequiredOrderCheck  This component similarly to previous is part of checking logic and is always present  It simply checks if there is at least one item in Items collection. If there are no items.

_iadjust_regularprice for each item  Fields _product_list_price must be present for each item. on some different way. This means that product database must have _list_price column where product prices are stored  Offcourse.DefaultItemPrice  This component simply copies values from Item._product_list_price to Item. These values were set in Product Information stage by QueryProdInfoADO component. and stores them in the _iadjust_regularprice fields Page Number: 220/268 Made by: Ifact . this can be bypassed with custom scriptor component that obtains prices.

_product_sale_end fields and if product is on sale copies Item._product_sale_price to Item._iadjust_currentprice  This means that as is the case with previous component QueryProdinfoADO component must provide mentioned fields from product database Page Number: 221/268 Made by: Ifact .SaleAdjust  SaleAdjust component for Item Adjust Price stage checks whether items (products) are on sale and adjusts prices accordingly  This component compares current date with dates set in the Item._product_sale_start and Item.

but from component properties  Component first checks if current date is between values mentioned in the “Start Date” and “End Date” properties. If this is the case. if we want to apply discount only to product with SKU = 123 then we set properties as follows: – Condition Order Key: SKU – Condition Operator: = – Condition Value: 123 Page Number: 222/268 Made by: Ifact . For example.”condition operator” and “condition value” are component fields that should contain values that help determine which products are on sale.ItemPromo  This is a more complex version of the previous component. the following must be also true for discount to be applied: [condition order key][condition operator][condition value]  “condition order key” . Needed information is not obtained from the database.

DBOrderPromoADO  This component for Order Adjust stage should obtain information about additional discounts on the order level from database  These pieces of information include the discount applying conditions Page Number: 223/268 Made by: Ifact .

it is not needed to add any more additional components in this stage Page Number: 224/268 Made by: Ifact ._oadjust_subtotal field  Usually.DefaultOrderSubTotal  This component for Order Subtotal stage simply sums up all item._oadjust_adjustedprice values and results stores to OrderForm.

Typical example is selling downloadable software Page Number: 225/268 Made by: Ifact . Some of them will be presented here  Simplest is DefaultShipping component simply stores zero in OrderForm.DefaultShipping  SSCE comes with a number of components that can be used for shipping fee calculation._shipping_total field  This component is used when no shipping fee is needed.

shipping_method is not null.cost as the order shipping cost.FixedShipping  When customer buys the goods he/she must notify merchant about preferred shipping method.shipping_method field  FixedShipping component has “Apply when” property that defines when to apply value of the field FixedShipping. Software must set this value to OrderForm. If value is “Has any value” the shipping cost is set if the OrderForm. If “Apply when” has value “Always” then shipping fee is set without regards to whether OrderForm.Cost in OrderForm._shipping_total Page Number: 226/268 Made by: Ifact . And finally if value is “Equal to method” cost is set only if OrderForm.shipping_method is set.shipping_method is equal to FixedShipping.method field value  Fee is calculated simply by copying FixedShipping.

TableShippingADO  This component calculates shipping fees based on information obtained form a database  Idea is to have a table that specifies. cost int NOT NULL. for example.min_weight.shipping_costs ( shipping_method varchar (20) NOT NULL .max_weight )  And will process the following query with actual parameters: – SELECT cost FROM healthy_shipping_costs WHERE min_weight <= ? AND max_weight > ? AND shipping_method = ? Page Number: 227/268 Made by: Ifact . max_weight float NOT NULL . that for certain type of transport and for a range of order weight specified amount of money must be charged  Table should look like this (SQL script of MSSQL server): – CREATE TABLE dbo. PRIMARY KEY (shipping_method. min_weight float NOT NULL .

so that a more detailed description is not needed Page Number: 228/268 Made by: Ifact .Handling Components  Components in this stage are very similar to components in the previous stage. TableHandlingADO and others  Handling fee is connected with activities such as packing. so there are DefaultHandling. and so on  Components are analogous to their shipping counterparts. FixedHandling. gift wrapping.

merchant does not charge any tax fees to customers abroad._tax_total  As an example SimpleVATTax component for EU VAT tax calculation will be presented Page Number: 229/268 Made by: Ifact . Due to the fact that laws were not written for this type of commercial activity. merchant is based in.Components for Tax Stage  Tax calculation is a relatively difficult task and components provided will in most cases be inadequate  Built-in components calculate taxes according to American. new components must be written. partially Canadian laws. as well as laws of European Union. For tax calculation in other countries. Taxes are only calculated for customers from the same country. DefaultTax component is provided to facilitate this simply by writing zero to OrderForm. Japanese.

ship_to_country which is used to determine if this component should be used._tax_total  Sometimes._tax_total and OrderForm. This is usually solved by introducing new value for Country field (EU)  Component calculates and sets item. “Has any value” and Equal to country” possible values  Tax is calculated independently for each item and is based on tax rate provided by item. set usually in Product Information stage. Problem with this component is that some EU countries charge VAT even when merchant is selling goods to customers to other EU countries. Principle is the same as for FixedShipping component with “Apply when” field with “Always”.RateItemKey.SimpleVATTax  Prerequisite for use of this component is setting field OrderForm. In these cases new components must be written because those built in are inadequate Page Number: 230/268 Made by: Ifact . it is necessary to calculate tax on shipping and handling charges._tax_vat_item field and optionally item.

_total_total Page Number: 231/268 Made by: Ifact .DefaultTotal  This component simply sumps up values calculated in subtotal. handling and tax stages and writes result in OrderForm. shipping.

_inventory_backorder and the pipeline is optionally stopped so that customer could be informed that he/she must wait longer for order delivery Page Number: 232/268 Made by: Ifact . difference is written to item.LocalInventory  This component is meant to be used in the Inventory stage to check if there are enough products on the stocks to meet the order  Component compares Quantity for each item with item. This field is usually generated in the Product Information stage  If the ordered quantity is bigger than that present in the inventory._product_local_inventory that should contain information about the remaining number of products of that type on stocks.

_Purchase_errors collection Page Number: 233/268 Made by: Ifact .ValidateCCNumber  This component is the only component provided for the Purchase Check stage  First component checks cc expiration date to see if cc is still valid. Secondly. it runs an algorithm that checks if number typed by customer can be cc number. Actual existence of that cc is verified through authorization in the next stage  If check returns false on any of these two steps ValidateCCNumber stops pipeline and reports error in OrderForm.

Authorization of credit cards requires services of TGPs that usually provide their software for this stage  For instance. If cc payment is not performed online but manually._payment_auth_code. E-xact COM objects described in this tutorial can be used as part of the customary built Scriptor component  End of stage logic checks to see if OrderForm. this stage should contain DefaultPayment component that simply writes “FAITH” in OrderForm._payment_auth_code is set. This is offcourse not recommended Page Number: 234/268 Made by: Ifact .Components for Payment Stage  There are really no built-in components for payment stage.

operations like inventory data update. storing completed order data. and even sending requests to other companies (suppliers) are processed  There are many built in components for this stage and as an example SQLItemADO for inventory update and SaveReceipt for saving order data shall be described Page Number: 235/268 Made by: Ifact .Components for Accept Stage  In this last stage.

SKU Page Number: 236/268 Made by: Ifact .Quantity Item.? WHERE SKU =? – With parameter list: Item.SQLItemADO  This component works simply by executing query for each item with specified parameters  Typical example would be: – UPDATE prod_table SET inventory_field = inventory_field .

The only field of SaveReceipt component . For example.SaveReceipt  Saving order data from OrderForm object into the database can be done after pipeline execution in application ASP script. Alternative for this approach would be the use of the SaveReceipt component  This component uses ReceiptStorage global object that specifies all needed info about database where data for OrderForm needs to be stored. if value is _CC_ then no sensitive credit card info shall be stored Page Number: 237/268 Made by: Ifact .“No save key prefix” determines prefix for those fields of OrderForm that should not be saved to database.

E-Xact Online Payment System .

E-Xact COM Object  E-Xact is one of the TGP service providers!  Of all technologies that can be used for e-commerce site creation ASP (Active Server Pages) is probably the most popular one  One of the ways to enable automatic credit card payment in ASP applications is implementation of ActiveX COM object provided by the E-Xact company Page Number: 239/268 Made by: Ifact .

Transaction Process  In order to make possible automatic credit card transactions several parties must be involved in the process – – – – Customer with his/her credit card Merchant that owns the e-commerce site Transaction Gateway Provider Financial organization (merchant must have an account with permission to accept CC payments) – Credit card issuing company Page Number: 240/268 Made by: Ifact .

merchant relays data to the TGP server which (usually by simulating standard POS terminal) performs authorization and capture of credit card transaction Page Number: 241/268 Made by: Ifact . and payment information – Mentioned data is then securely transmitted over the net to the merchant‟s server. shipping. information about goods customer wants to buy is held in some form of shopping cart) and then goes to a secured page (SSL) where he/she enters personal.Insides of the Transaction Process  Usual e-commerce transaction is performed like this: – Customer chooses whatever he desires to buy (usually. usually obtained from a TGP company. By use of software.

this means Microsoft Internet Information Server and ASP (other choices are also possible. the OCX file has to be registered on the Web server.exact. Considering the nature of this object.com) Before it can be used. but not probable) Page Number: 242/268 Made by: Ifact .About the Object      E-Xact provides the COM Object that encapsulates and hides from merchant the entire process of TGP communication and the rest of the transaction processing Responsibility for the CC abuse is now away from the merchant! Object (as OCX file) can be downloaded from the company site (www. Of course. it can only be used on servers and with server-side technologies that support the use of COM objects.

ocx  The above registration is done with the following program: regsrv32.Component Server Registration  Name of the file with the COM ActiveX object is ExactAX1.ocx  To perform component server registration – Copy ExactAX1.exe ships with ExactAX1.ocx to local_drive:\<% winnt_folder %>\system32\inetsrv\components – Execute (in command prompt) regsrv32 ExactAX1.ocx Page Number: 243/268 Made by: Ifact .

CreatObject Page Number: 244/268 Made by: Ifact . the component has to be instantiated in the standard ASP (VBScript) way  Example (a line of this kind has to exist in the ASP code): exactAuth = Server.preauthorization98x and store it into the variable exactAuth using the ASP command Server.CreateObject(“ExactAX1.Instantiation  Of course.preauthorization98x”)  This means that we will create an instance of the class ExactAX1. before usage.

along with examples of its practical use  Page Number: 245/268 Made by: Ifact .Functioning ASP application has to set object‟s properties to desired values and then to call the method that initiates the transaction  There is a lot of properties of the ExactAX1 object. so we shall describe the most important ones of them.

FieldReference=Value OO scripting languages of interest here are VBScript. and even Perl Field amount: This property should contain the amount of the transaction in US dollars Field ccnum: Customer‟s credit card number (VISA. ObjectReference. and American Express are supported) Field cardholder: Name of the customer written on credit card Field expiry: Credit card expiry date Page Number: 246/268 Made by: Ifact . JavaScript.$ Amount and CC Properties       The fields are set by standard object data assignment command of the used OO scripting language. Master Card.

For test purposes. Default value is 2609.terminal = “66001047” Page Number: 247/268 Made by: Ifact . Currently.239. the port should be set to 2610  terminal: An 8 digit number that identifies the merchant.214.212 and it should not be changed (the IP address of the „uhrsprung‟)  ddmhport: Port on the above mentioned server. the following number should be used: – exactAuth. isn‟t it). Full functionality is obtained after registration at the E-Xact transactions LTD. the field ddmhip default value is 204. Credit card authorization will be performed. but no financial transfer shall be done (test port. This is a test port that can be used to test E-Xact functionality.Server Properties  Server related properties also have to be set!  ddmhip: IP address of the E-Xact (TGP) server that component needs to communicate to. After registration.

Merchant Properties       merchant: 13 digit number that identifies the merchant account with the cc payment acceptance permission merchantAddress: Physical. real-world address of the merchant merchantCity: City in which merchant resides merchantEmail: E-mail address by which merchant can be contacted merchantPostal: ZIP code merchantProvince: State or province Page Number: 248/268 Made by: Ifact .

– When customer receives merchandise (or when merchant sends it) new transaction. field exactAuth.autnum contains ID of the performed transaction. transferred to merchant‟s account. Page Number: 249/268 Made by: Ifact . Also.Types of Transactions  E-Xact system recognizes four types of transactions: – Purchase represents a standard transaction where money is. must be performed in order to complete the money transfer. immediately after authorization. the merchant must specify which transaction needs to be completed by setting the autnum field with previously obtained ID. – Refund is a transfer of money from merchant‟s to customer‟s account. This type of transaction is usually utilized when no shipment is needed (customer just needs to download software or pays for services) – PreAuthorisationPurchase puts a temporary hold on the money in the customer‟s account. When this is completed. This type of authorization is usually performed when goods have to be shipped to the customer. PreAuthorisationPurchaseCompletion. but does not transfer funds to merchant‟s account (not yet).

after all fields are set. Page Number: 250/268 Made by: Ifact .  In other words. we call the SendToServer method to authorize the payment.Commencing a Transaction  After setting all the required fields.sendToServer method that initiates the authorization process. merchant‟s software calls the exactAuth.

E-commerce in Yugoslavia The E-Bank Online Payment System .

General Info  E-bank is currently the only company in YU that acts as a TGP (transaction gateway provider) for online credit card payment  E-Bank system currently accepts only BKB and Visa electron cards of “Beobanka” Page Number: 252/268 Made by: Ifact .

This enables following: • Merchant on his store now has link “I pay with cc” that leads to the e-bank SSL server that accepts payment information and performs authorization.Requirements  In order to be able to accept cc payment merchant must fulfill the following steps: – Sign a contract with e-bank. • Store identification number • Password for access to database with info about performed authorizations – Sign a contract with the card issuing bank (“Beogradska Banka” for Visa elektron credit card) Page Number: 253/268 Made by: Ifact .

existence of software that controls the process of buying and leads to the final bill . Unique number is the key for connecting together: – Merchant store‟s info about merchandise that needs to be delivered to the customer – Payment information at e-bank databases Page Number: 254/268 Made by: Ifact . that merchant and e-bank use for consistently storing information about one transaction should be added to the transaction. a unique number. transaction identifier.Software  Use of e-bank system requires.  Along with the final price. as any other e-commerce payment system.HTML with calculated final price.

merchant gets e-mail confirmation concerning the successfully completed transaction Page Number: 255/268 Made by: Ifact .Payment Process    To initiate payment process customer presses the button that sends his browser to SSL protected payment page on the e-bank server After authorization completion. customer‟s browser is redirected to the page specified by the merchant Optionally.

 If the browser is compliant with the USA export laws encryption will only be performed with 40 bit encryption keys. without regards to the fact that server supports 128 encryption  Page Number: 256/268 Made by: Ifact .Security This type of payment processing doesn‟t require any additional security measures from the merchant‟s store  Confidential data are only issued on the 128-bit key SSL-protected e-bank site  It is important to mention that the level of encryption also depends on the customer‟s browser.

e. the store must contain the following): – – – – – – – – Complete description of merchandise Retail prices Conditions of warranty Tax.. email. transport and other additional expenses Currency in which prices are shown Export restrictions Contact information: Tel. Fax.Good Behavior  Merchant is obligated to build his store in an acceptable e-commerce manner (i. address Country where merchant is physically located Page Number: 257/268 Made by: Ifact .

is not pre arranged  The only required thing is that page must contain data that are going to be sent to the e-bank server so that the payment could be properly initiated  This info is usually kept in hidden form fields so that they doesn‟t influence appearance of the page and can be easily sent to E-bank server using a POST HTTP message Page Number: 258/268 Made by: Ifact .Connecting to e-bank  Design of the final page. where the final price and contents of shopping basket are shown to the customer along with the mechanism to initiate payment.

Example on an EUnet YU site Page Number: 259/268 Made by: Ifact .

Form  Click on the button “Uplata karticom” initiates POST message that sends info contained in the following form to the SSL e-bank server: – <form name="PAYMENT" action="https://ssl.yu/online/cc_ok.ebank.eunet.html"> <input type="hidden" name="id" value="2335"> <input type="hidden" name="amount" value="72.yu/online/cc_bad.yu/sz_secure/payment" method="POST"> <input type="hidden" name="service" value="EUnet"> <input type="hidden" name="nextURL" value="http://www.eunet."> </form> Page Number: 260/268 Made by: Ifact .html"> <input type="hidden" name="errorURL" value="http://www.00"> <input type="hidden" name="cardType" value="BKB"> <input type="hidden" name="fc" value="1"> <input type="button" value=" Uplata karticom " onClick="javascript:sendPaymentForm().co.

it relays message to “payment” Java Servlet that uses it to create a page for accepting the payment information  Data is sent as hidden form fields: – Service: merchant ID – NextUrl and errorUrl specify where e-bank server should redirect customer‟s browser in the case of successful and unsuccessful authorization. – ID: transaction identifier – Amount: final price in Yugoslav dinars – CardType: specify which cc is customer using Page Number: 261/268 Made by: Ifact .Hidden Form Fields  When e-bank server gets the POST message.

Page Where Customer Types Payment Info Page Number: 262/268 Made by: Ifact .

customer is required to type in an E-Pin password.E-Pin  E-bank system employs one nonstandard fraud prevention mechanism. System is password based  Besides cc number and expiration date system.  E-Pin is calculated from standard cc info and credit card magnetic signature and is not present on cc in a readable form. even in the case of the stolen cc. the perpetrator still can not easily perform a fraud purchase Page Number: 263/268 Made by: Ifact . Customer obtains it from his cc issuing bank  So.

merchant will be able to sell goods to customers from abroad  In Yugoslavia. as we speak. there are about 15 000 BKB and VISA electron credit cards but only around 30% is active and in regular use Page Number: 264/268 Made by: Ifact . merchant can accept payment only from customers from Yugoslavia  After E-bank is integrated into the global VISA authorization system. by using E-bank system.Conclusion  Currently.

Issues in Modern Management and Business Administration .

The Three Approaches to Business  Common Sense  Fast Knowledge  Formal MBA Page Number: 266/268 Made by: Ifact .

Experiences From the MIT Sloan School of Management        Growth versus organization (case: NCR) Competition on the same levels of hierarchy (case: GreedyAlgo) Distributed decision making (case: Fert) Filters for partners (case: ChangesAfterContract) Filters for staff (case: EthSocAca) Mapping of jobs to staff (case: ImpedMatch) The MBA/MSM game (case: ElectronicExperience) Page Number: 267/268 Made by: Ifact .

The MBA Issues of Importance  Form  Essence  Morale of the Story Page Number: 268/268 Made by: Ifact .

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